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Savoisy quitted France, and lived for some time greatly dispirited in foreign countries, where, however, he conducted himself so temperately and honourably*, that at length, principally through the queen of France and some great lords, he made his peace with the university, and, with their approbation, returned again to the king's household.

Not long after this event, sir William de Tigouville +, provost of Paris, caused two clerks of the university to be executed: the one named Legier de Montthilier, a Norman, and the other Olivier Bourgeois, a Breton, accused of having committed divers felonies. For this reason, notwithstanding they were clerks, they were led to execution, and, although they loudly claimed their privileges, as of the clergy, in hopes of being rescued, they were hung on the gibbet. The university, however, caused the provost to be deprived of his office, and to be sentenced to erect a large and high cross of freestone, near the gibbet on the road leading to Paris, on which the figures of the two clerks were carved. They caused him also to have their bodies taken down from the gibbet, and placed in a cart, covered with black cloth; and thus accompanied by him and his sergeants, with others bearing lighted torches of wax, w-ere they carried to the church of St. Mathurin, and there delivered by the provost to the rector of the university, who had them honourably interred in the cloisters of this church; and an epitaph was placed over them, to their perpetual remembrance.

CHAPTER XIV. TIIE SENF.SCIIAL OF ITAINAULT PERFORMS A DEED OF ARMS WITH" TIIREE

OTHF.RS, IN THE PRESENCE OF TIIE KING OF ARRAGON. TIIE ADMIRAL OF BRITTANY

UNDERTAKES AN EXPEDITION AGAINST ENGLAND.

In this same year, an enterprise of arms was undertaken by the gallant seneschal of Hainault, in the presence of the king of Arragon J.

The combatants were to be four against four, and their arms battle-axes, swords and daggers: the combat was to be for life or death, subject, however, to the will of the judge of the field. The companions of the seneschal were, sir James de Montenay, a knight of Normandy, sir Tanneguy du Chastel, from the duchy of Brittany, and a notable esquire called Jean Carmen§. Their adversaries were from the kingdom of Arragon,—and their chief was named Tollemache de Sainte Coulonne, of the king of Arragon's household, and much beloved by him: the second, sir Pierre de Monstarde ||: the third, Proton de Sainte Coulonne; and the fourth, Bernard de Bucf.

When the appointed day approached, the king had the lists magnificently prepared near to his palace in the town of Valencia. The king came to the seat allotted for him, attended by the duke de CaudieU, and the counts deSardonne** and d'Aviemieff, and a numerous train of his nobility. All round the lists scaffolds were erected, on which were seated the nobles of the country, the ladies and damsels, as well as the principal citizens of both sexes. Forty men at arms, riclily dressed, were ordered by the king to keep the lists clear; and between their barriers was the constable of Arragon, with a large company of men at arms, brilliantly equipped, according to the custom of the country. Within the field of combat were two small pavilions for the champions, who were much adorned with the emblazonry of their arms, to repose in, and shelter themselves from the heat of the sun. On the arrival of the king, he made known to the seneschal, by one of his knights, that he and his companions should advance first into the field, since it had been so ordered, as the Arragonians were the appellants. The seneschal and his companions, on receiving this summons, instantly armed themselves, and mounted their coursers, which were all alike ornamented with crimson silk trappings that swept the gronnd, over which were besprinkled many escutcheons of their arms. Thus nobly equipped, they left their lodgings, and advanced toward the barriers of the lists. The before-named esquire marched first, followed by sir Tanneguy and sir James de Montenay; and last of all, the seneschal, conducted by the seneschal du Chut; when, having entered the lists, they made their reverences on horseback to king Martin of Arragon, who paid them great honour.

* He is said, during his exile, to have signalized himself, crown. The right to the crown, hoth by the general law

like a true knight, in combating the Saracens, of whom he of succession, and by virtue of the marriage-contract, appears

brought back to France so many prisoners, that lie con- to have been in the countess of Foix ; but the states of the

structed his magnificent castle of Seignclay without the aid kingdom here, as in some other instances, seem to have

of other labourers.—Paradin, cited by Morcri, Art. "Sa- assumed a controlling elective power. This authority, pro*

voifly." Itably inherent in the constitution, was more signally exer

•f William de Tignonville. The event here recorded, cised on the death of Martin without issue, iu the year 1410.

happened in 1498. After the bodies were taken down from § Jean Carmen. Q. Cannaing?

the gibltets, he was compelled to kiss them on the mouths. |[ Pierre de Monstarde. Q. Peter de Moncada, the name

—Moreri. of an illustrious family in Arragon?

J John, king of Arragon, was killed in 1,195, by a fall % Duke de Caudie. Q. Duke of Oandia? Don Al

from his horse while hunting. By Matthca of Amiagnuc, phonso, a prince of the house of Arragon, was honoured with

his queen, he had two daughters, of whom the eldest was that title by Martin on his accession.

married to Matthew, viscount de Cliateaubon and count of ** De Sardonne. Q. Count of Cardona? He was one

Foix, who claimed the crown in right of his wife, and in- of the deputies from the states to don Martin, on tho death

vaded Arragon in support of his pretensions. But the of John.

principal nobility having, iu the mean time, called over "f-f" D'Aviemic. Q. Count of Ampurias? This nobleman

Martin, king of Sicily, brother of John, to be his successor, was another descendant of the house of Arragon. He

a bloody war ensued, which terminated only with the death espoused, at first, the party of Foix, but soon reconciled

of the count de Foix. After that event (which took place himself to Martin. in 13y8), Martin remained in peaceable possession of the

They then retired to their tents, and waited an hour and a half for their opponents, who arrived, like the others, in a body on horseback. Their horses' trappings were of white silk, ornamented with escutcheons of their arms. When they had made their reverences to the king, they retired also to their tents, which were pitched on the right, where they all remained for full five hours thus armed. The cause of this delay was owing to the king and his council wishing to accommodate the matter, and prevent the combat. To effectuate this, many messages were sent from the king to the seneschal, proposing that he should not proceed farther; but he prudently made answer, that this enterprise had been undertaken at the request of Tollemache, and that ho and his companions had come from a far country, and at great trouble and expense, to gratify his wish, which he and his companions were determined upon doing. At length, after much discussion on each side, it was concluded that the combat should take place. The usual proclamations were then made in the king's name; and the king at arms of Arragon, cried out loudly and clearly, that the champions must do their duty. Both parties instantly issued forth of their tents, holding their battle-axes in their hands, and marched proudly towards each other.

The Arragonians had settled among themselves that two of them should fall on the seneschal, in the hope of striking him down: both parties were on foot, and they expected he wonld be at one of the ends of the lists above the others, but he was in the middle part. When they approached, the seneschal stepped forward three or four paces before his companions, and attacked Tollemache, who had that day been made a knight by the king's hand, and gave him so severe a blow with his battle-axe, on the side of his helmet, as made him reel and turn half round. The others made a gallant fight with their opponents; but sir James de Montenay, throwing down his battle-axe, seized sir James * de Monstarde with one of his hands under his legs, and, raising him up with his dagger in the other, was prepared to stab him; but, as the affair on all sides seemed to be carried on in earnest, the king put an end to the combat.

According to appearances, the Arragonians would have had the worst of it had the combat been carried to extremities; for the seneschal and those with hiin were all four very powerful in bodily strength, well experienced in all warlike exercises, and equal to the accomplishment of any enterprise in arms that might be demanded from them.

When the champions were retired to their tents, the king descended from his seat into the lists,'and requested of the seneschal and Tollemache, in a kind manner, that the remaining deeds of arms might be referred to him and his council, and lie would so act that they should all be satisfied. The seneschal, then falling on one knee, humbly entreated the king that he would consent that the challenge should be completed according to the request of Tollemache. The king replied, by again requiring that the completion of the combat should be referred to his judgment; which being granted, he took the seneschal by the hand, and placed him above himself, and Tollemache on the other side. He thus led them out of the lists, when each returned to his hotel and disarmed. The king sent his principal knights to

• rtcfnrr railed Peter.

seek the seneschal and his companions, whom, for three days, he entertained at his palace, and paid them as much honour as if they had been his own brothers. When he had reconciled them with their opponents, he made them fresh presents; and they departed thence on their return to France, and the seneschal to Hainault.

About this time the admiral of Brittany, the lord du Chastel, and many other knights and esquires of Brittany and Normandy, to the amount of twelve hundred or more, embarked on board several vessels at St. Malo, and put to sea, intending to land at Dartmouth. Notwithstanding the admiral and some others were adverse to going ashore there, the lord du Chastel and some others made their landing good, thinking they would be followed by the rest, which was not the case. They attacked the English, who were assembled in a large body; but, though the combat lasted some time, the Bretons and Normans were defeated, and the lord du Chastel slain,—with him two brothers, sir John Martiel, a Norman knight, and many more. About one hundred prisoners were made,—among whom was the lord de Bacqueville, who afterward ransomed himself by dint of money. The admiral and those that had remained with him, or were wounded, returned to their country, afflicted and disconsolate at their loss*.

CHAPTER XV.—THE MARSHAL OF FRANCE AND THE MASTER OF THE CROSS-BOWS, BY ORDERS FROM THE KING OF FRANCE, GO TO ENGLAND, TO THE ASSISTANCE OF THE PRINCE OF WALES.

Nearly at this time, the marshal of France and the master of the cross-bows f, by orders from the king of France, and at his expense, collected twelve hundred fighting men. They marched to Brest, in Brittany, to embark them, for the assistance of the Welsh against the English, on board of six score vessels with sails, which were lying there. As the wind was contrary, they there remained fifteen days; but when it became favourable, they steered for the port of Haverfordwest,—which place they took, slaying all the inhabitants but such as had fled. They wasted the country round, and then advanced to the castle of Haverford, wherein was the earl of Arundel, with many other men at arms and soldiers. Having burnt the town and suburbs under the castle, they marched away, destroying the whole country with fire and sword. They came to a town called Tenby, situated eighteen miles ofl', where they found the prince of Wales*, with ten thousand combatants, waiting for them, and thence marched together to Carmarthen, twelve miles from Tenby.

Thence they marched into the country of Linorquie§, went to the Round Table ||, which is a noble abbey, and then took the road to Wercester, where they burnt the suburbs and adjoining country. Three leagues beyond Wercester, they met the king of England, who was marching a large army against them. Each party drew up in order of battle on two eminences, having a valley between them, and each waiting for the attack of its opponent. This contest, who should commence the battle, lasted for eight days; and they were regularly every morning drawn up in battle array, and remained in this state until evening,— during which time there were many skirmishes between the two parties, when upwards of two hundred of either side were slain, and more wounded. On the side of France, three knights were slain, namely, sir Patroullars de Tries, brother to the marshal of France f, the lord de Martelonne, and the lord de la Valle. The French and Welsh were also much oppressed by famine and other inconveniences ; for with great difficulty could they gain any provision, as the English had strongly guarded all the passes.

At length, on the eighth day that these two armies had been looking at each other, the king of England, seeing the enemy were not afraid of him, retreated in the evening to Worcester, but was pursued by some French and Welsh, who seized on eighteen carts laden with provision and other baggage ; uj)on which the French anil Welsh then marched back to Wales. While these things were passing, the French fleet was at sea, having on board some men at arms to defend it, and made for a port which had been pointed out to them, where they were found by their countrymen on their retreat from England. The marshal de Tries and the master of the cross-bows, having embarked with their men on board this fleet, put to sea, and made sail for the coast of France, and arrived at St. Pol de Leon without any accident.

• Of this invasion, Stowe gives the following brief | Round Table. Q. Caerleon near Newport, in Mon

aecount: "The lord of Cassels, in Brytaine, arrived at mouthshirc, one of Arthur's scats?

Blackcpoole, two miles out of Dartmouth, with a great navy, X\ Reguault de Trie, lord of Fontenay, was admiral of

where, of the rustical people, whom he ever despised, he was France on the death of the lord de Vienne, killed at Nico

slaine." polis. He resigned, in 140.5. in favour of Peter de Breban,

-f- John de Hangest, lord de Huqueville. lord of Landreville, surnamed Clugnet, and hereafter men

X Owen Olendwer. J Linorquie. Q. Glamorgan? tioncd, but incorrectly, by the name of Clugnet de Brabant.

However, when they were disembarked, and had visited their men, they found they had lost upwards of sixty men, of whom the three knights before mentioned were the principal. They thence departed, each man to his home, excepting the two commanders, who went to wait on the king and the princes of the blood at Paris, by whom they were received with much joy.

CHAPTER XVI. A POWERFUL INFIDEL, CALLED TAMERLANE, INVADES THE KINGDOM OP

THE KING BAJAZET, WHO MARCHES AGAINST AND FIGHTS WITH HIM.

In this year, a great and powerful prince of the region of Tartary, called Tamerlane, invaded Turkey, belonging to king Bajazet, with two hundred thousand combatants and

[graphic]

I'huu;' or Tamehlank** War Elephants.—Fnmi a ilet-ign by Raphael.

twenty-9ix elephants. Bajazet was very powerful, and had been one of the principal chiefs who had conquered and made prisoner the count de Nevers in Hungary, as is fully described in the chronicles of master John Froissart.

When Bajazet heard that Tamerlane had thus invaded his territory, and was wasting it with fire and sword, he issued a special summons throughout his country, so that within fifteen days he had assembled an army of three hundred thousand fighting men, but had only ten elephants. These elephants of each party had small castles on their backs, in which were many men at arms, who grievously annoyed the enemy. Bajazet marched this force against Tamerlane, and found him encamped on a high mountain to the westward, called Appady, having already destroyed or burnt very many good towns, and the greater part of the country. When the two chiefs were in sight of each other, they drew up their armies in battle array *. The combat soon began, and lasted full six hours; but at last Bajazet and hig army were defeated, and he himself made prisoner. Forty thousand Turks were slain, and ten thousand of their enemies. After this success, Tamerlane sent larger detachments of his army to the principal towns in Turkey,—all of which, or the greater part, surrendered to him,—so that Tamerlane, in one campaign, conquered nearly the whole of Turkey.

CHAPTER XVII. CHARLES KING OF NAVARRE NEGOTIATES WITH THE KING OF FRANCE,

AND OBTAINS THE DUCHY OF NEMOURS. DUKE PHILIP OF BURGUNDY MAKES A

JOURNEY TO BAR-LE-DUC AND TO BRUSSELS.

At this same season, Charlesf king of Navarre came to Paris to wait on the king. He negotiated so successfully with the king and his privy council, that he obtained a gift of the castle of Nemours, with some of its dependent castlewicks, which territory was made a duchy. He instantly did homage for it, and at the same time surrendered to the king the castle of Cherbourg, the county of EvreuxJ, and all other lordships he possessed within the kingdom of France, renouncing all claim or profit in them to the king and his successors, on consideration, that with this duchy of Nemours the king of France engaged to pay him two hundred thousand gold crowns of the coin of the king our lord. When this was done, duke Philip of Burgundy left Paris to go to Bar-le-Duc, to attend the funeral of his sister the duchess of Bar§, who had died there. After this ceremony, he went to his town of Arras, where the duchess was, and there celebrated the feast of Easter. He then went to Brussels in Brabant, to the duchess's, grandmother || to his wife, who had sent for him, to resign into his hands the government of the country; but he was there seized with an alarming illness, and caused himself to be carried to Halle, as will be moro fully shown hereafter.

CHAPTER XVIII. THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY DIES IN THE TOWN OF HALLE, IN HAINAULT.

HIS BODY IS CARRIED TO THE CARTHUSIAN CONVENT AT DIJON, IN BURGUNDY.

[A. D. 1404 ]

At the beginning of this year, the good duke of Burgundy, Philip, son to king John, and brother to Charles the Rich, caused himself to be carried in a litter from the town of Brussels, in Brabant, to Halle, in Hainault. That the horses which carried him might travel more safely, and he be less shaken, labourers advanced before the litter, with spades and pick-axes, to repair and smooth the roads.

When at Halle, he fixed his lodgings near to the church of our Lady, at an hotel bearing the sign of the Stag; and, finding his disorder increase, he sent for his three sons, namely, John count de Nevers, Anthony and Philip. On their arrival, he entreated and commanded them to be loyal and obedient, during their lives, to king Charles of France and to his successors, and made them promise obedience on their love to him. This engagement the three

* This famous battle was fought at Angora, in Galatia. || Rather aunt. John III. duke of Brabant, dying in

T Charles III. succeeded his father, Charles the Bad, in the year 1335, without male issue, left his dominions to

1386. his eldest daughter Joan, who married Wcnceslaus duke of

X This county descended to him from his great-grand- Luxembourg, and survived her husband many years, dving, father Louis, count of Evrcux, son to Philip the Bold, at a very advanced age, in the year 1406. She is the prinking of France. Philip, son of Louis, became king of cess here mentioned. Margaret, youngest daughter of John Navarre, in right of his wife Jane, daughter of Louis Hutin. III., married Louis de Male, earl of Flanders; and her only He was father of Charles the Bad. daughter Margaret (consequently niece of Joan, duchess of

§ Mary of France, daughter of king John, married Ro- Brabant) brought the inheritance of Flanders to Philip,

bert duke of Bar, by whom she had issue, Edward duke of duke of Burgundy.
Bar, and Louis cardinal, hereafter mentioned, besides other
children.

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