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subjects, as has been before notified to them, to obey the summons of our said father the duke of Burgundy, either on the pretext stated by him or any other, without his especial order and licence, as may appear in his letters patent, subsequent to the date of these presents.

"Given at Paris the 24th day of January, in the year of Grace, 1413."

Signed by the duke of Aquitaine, and countersigned 'J. de Cloye.'

The duke of Burgundy, however, in spite of these commands from the king and the duke of Aquitaine, would not desist from his enterprise; and the king then issued a summons for men-at-arms to oppose him, and published the following edict:

"Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, health and greeting.

"It has come to our knowledge, that our cousin the duke of Burgundy, in opposition to the articles of the peace concluded by us, between him and others of our blood, and sworn to at Auxerre and at Paris, has raised, and continues to raise, large bodies of men-at-arms, notwithstanding our positive orders to the contrary, as well by letters as by especial ambassadors sent to him for this purpose ; and has already quitted his country, and is on the march, as he declares, to come to Paris, by which the said peace will be destroyed, and would cause numberless evils and irreparable injuries to our realm and subjects, unless a speedy and effectual remedy be provided against it. Having, therefore, deliberately weighed the consequences, and the probable means of opposing the enterprises of the duke of Burgundy, we have determined to exert our whole power against him, and all others who shall in any way attempt to infringe the said peace, and to call for the aid and support of all our loyal subjects. We therefore do command and expressly enjoin you, under pain of incurring our displeasure, to proclaim these presents in a solemn manner, with a loud voice and sound of trumpets, in all towns and other accustomed places within your jurisdiction, commanding all our vassals and liege subjects, on the faith they owe us, to appear in arms on the 5th day of February next, in our town of Mondidier *, ready to follow us to our town of Paris, or wherever else it may please us to lead them. They will find in the town of Mondidier sufficient persons authorised by us to receive them, with orders to allow such pay as shall content them; and at the same time, they will inform them whither they are to direct their march.

"You will make this known to all our said vassals and subjects, and forbid them, under the heaviest penalties of corporal punishment and confiscation of effects, and of being counted as traitors to our crown, to comply with any summons, prayers, or entreaties, of the said duke of Burgundy, or others, whether of our blood or not, under any pretence or colour of aiding us, to bear or assemble in arms, or in any way to obey them without our especial leave and licence, in letters-patent, of a later date than these presents. Should any have joined the duke of Burgundy or others, you will order them instantly to depart home, even supposing they should be of the kindred or vassals liege of the said duke or others, and had, in consequence of their fiefs, been summoned to assemble in arms; for in this instance we do exempt them not only from obeying such commands, but do promise to guarantee and defend them from any ill consequences that may ensue from their disobedience. Should it happen, that after the proclamation of these our commands, any of our vassals within your bailiwick shall set out to join the duke of Bnrgundy in arms, or should those who have joined him not return to their homes, but remain in arms with the said duke, or with any others who may have summoned them, we most strictly order and enjoin, that with the least possible delay, and without any excuse or dissimulation whatever, you do seize, in our name, having had a just and true inventory made, all their moveables and immoveables, estates, houses and all other effects whatever; and that you do put the same underthe management of sufficient persons as may, at a fit time and place, render a good account of them, proceeding at the same time to the extremity of the penalties incurred by such for their disobedience.

"You will also arrest and imprison all persons whom you shall discover within your

bailiwick endeavouring, by lies and false reports, to sow discord among our loyal subjects,

or in any way attempting a breach of the peace; and for this purpose we delegate to you,

by these presents, full power and authority for the punishing of all whom you shall find

• Mondidier, a town in Picardy, nine leagues from Amiens, twenty-three from Paris.

guilty of such disloyal conduct. We likewise command all our other bailiffs, governors of towns, castles and bridges, and all our officers of justice, diligently to assist you in obeying these our commands; and we also enjoin these our aforesaid officers to permit all our loyal subjects to pass free and unmolested with their horses and baggage when travelling to join us, on showing only a certificate from you under the royal seal of your bailiwick, that they are on their march to us, or elsewhere on our service, notwithstanding we may before have ordered them not to suffer any men-at-arms to pass or repass, whatever may have been their rank or condition, without our especial licence contained in letters patent of a prior date to these presents.

"Given at Paris the 26th day of January, in the year 1413." Signed by the king, on the report of a grand council held by the queen,—present the duke of Aquitaine. Countersigned, "Mauregard."

This ordinance was sent to Amiens, and to other towns of France,—and with it the king inclosed other letters to many towns on the line of march which the duke of Burgundy would probably take, forbidding him, or any of his people, to pass the frontiers of the realm, under pain of incurring his indignation.

CHAPTER CXIV.—THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY MARCHES A LARGE FORCE TOWARD PARIS.

HE FIXES HIS QUARTERS AT ST. DENIS. THE EVENTS THAT HAPPENED DURING THIS

MARCH, AND IN CONSEQUENCE OF IT.

The duke of Burgundy, to accomplish his expedition to Paris, on leaving Arras, made for Peronne, intending to enter France; but the inhabitants, who had before received the king's orders not to let him pass, sent to him the lord de Longueval, their governor, to excuse them for denying him entrance into their town. Although the duke was far from being pleased, he, however, pretended indifference to their conduct, marched his forces beside the town, and crossed the Somme at Esclusieu *, and went to Roye in the Vermandois. He thence sent forward his brother the count de Nevers, who had joined him with a handsome company, to Compiegne.

The count treated so successfully with the townsmen of Compiegne, that, notwithstanding the commands of the king, they consented to permit him to pass. The principal reasons for their assenting were the copies of the correspondence between the duke of Aquitaine and the duke of Burgundy, which were shown to them, and which contained the express wishes of the duke of Aquitaine for the duke of Burgundy to come to his aid.

The tenor of the above and of the certificate were as follows.

"To all who these presents shall see, Jean Clabault, esquire-keeper for the king of the seal of the bailiwick of Vermandois established at Roye, greeting. Know ye, that on the 23d day of February, of the present year 1413, the most puissant and noble prince my lord duke of Burgundy has exhibited to us, and shown three letters sealed and signed by the most excellent and puissant prince the duke of Aquitaine, which we have held, seen, and read, word by word,—the contents of which are as follow. 'Very dear and well beloved father, we order, that on the receipt of this letter, you lay all excuses aside and come to us, well accompanied for your own proper security; and as you fear our anger, do not fail coming. Written with our own hand, at Paris, the 4th day of December.' Signed, ' Louis.' The address was, 'To our very dear and well beloved father the duke of Burgundy.'

"Another letter was in these terms: ' Very dear and well-beloved father, I wrote to you some time since, to desire you would come to me very well accompanied. I therefore entreat and order, that you hasten hither as speedily as may be, but well accompanied, for good reasons: do not fail, for I will bear you through the whole matter, as shall be seen. Written with my own hand, in Paris, the 13th day of December.' Signed by himself, 'Louis." The superscription was, 'To our very dear and well-beloved father the duke of Burgundy.'

"The third letter contained,—' Very dear and well-beloved father, I have twice written to you to come hither, and you have not complied: I, however, write again, to order that * Eaclusieu, a village in Pieardr, near Peronne.

you lay all other considerations aside, and come to me well accompanied for your own security: do not fail to come to me with all possible speed, notwithstanding any other letters you may receive from me to the contrary. We trust that you will instantly obey from the love you bear to us, and from the fear of our displeasure. We have certain causes to desire your company, which affect us in the strongest manner possible. Written with my own hand, this 22d day of December,' and signed by himself, 'Louis.' The superscription was the same as the foregoing.'

"As a testimony that we have seen and read the above letters, we have affixed the seal of this bailiwick (saving the rights of the king and others) to this copy, which we have faithfully collated with the original, in the presence of Jean Billart, esquire-warden for the king in the provostship of Roye, and of the exempted landsof Charmy, and of the jurisdiction of Roye; and in the presence of Pierre de la Beane, comptroller of salt in Roye, of Nicholas d'Ardelchanons, of Roye, Jean Pellehaste, master Guillaume de la Garde, master Godefroy Baudun, Brissart, royal notary, on the day and year aforesaid; and thus signed, Brissart." On the third day, the duke of Burgundy left Roye, and went to Compiegne, where, having prevailed on the principal inhabitants to support his party, he took the road for Senlis, whither he had sent forward the lord de Robaix, to know if the townsmen would admit him. This they positively refused to do, in consequence of the orders from the king,— and the dnke then took the road by Baron* to Dampmartinf, whither the lords of Burgundy had advanced with a powerful force to meet him.

News was daily carried to Paris, to the duke of Aquitaine and the other princes of the blood, of the duke of Burgundy's march and approach to the capital. When the last intelligence came, the duke of Aquitaine was dining with a canon in the cloisters of NotreDame in Paris: and the moment it was known, the king of Sicily, the duke of Orleans, the counts de Vertus, de Richemont, d'Eu, d'Armagnac, with many other great lords, attended by a numerous body of men-at-arms, assembled in the cloisters, where the duke of Aquitaine mounted his horse. This force was divided into three battalions, the van, centre, and rear, —which done, they advanced to the front of the church of Notre-Dame, and thence marched to the town-house, where they halted. The van was commanded by three counts, namely, those of Vertus, of Eu, and of Richemont, who rode together in front, followed close by their attendants, and at a little distance by the battalion. In the centre division were the king of Sicily and the dukes of Aquitaine and of Orleans, followed by a very considerable body of men-at-arms. The rear battalion was commanded by the count d'Armagnac, Louis Bourdon and the lord de Gaule, who, like the other commanders, rode all three in front of their men. The whole was estimated at eleven thousand horse. On their coming to the town-house, a trumpet was sounded, when the chancellor of Aquitaine made his appearance, and, by orders of the duke, told the people of Paris, who were following them, that he, the eldest son and heir to the king and kingdom of France, thanked tbem for their loyalty and affection, which they had now shown to him, and that he hoped they would exert themselves to the utmost of their power to oppose the duke of Burgundy in his wicked projects, who, in defiance of the king's positive commands, and in violation of the peace, had marched an armed force into the heart of the realm; that he affirmed and assured them, that he had never sent for him, nor written to him to come to Paris, notwithstanding he had declared he had received letters from him to the above purport.

The chancellor then asked the duke if he would vouch for what he had said, who replied,that he would vouch for it, as he had spoken nothing but the truth. After this had been said, they marched away in the same order as before, to the Place du Croix du Tiroir, where they again halted, when the chancellor from horseback, in front of the duke of Aquitaine, repeated to the numerous populace there assembled what he had before said in the Place de Greve,—which speech was again avowed by the duke of Aquitaine, after which he retired to the Louvre. The duke of Orleans went to the priory of St. Martin-des-Champs, the king of Sicily to the bastile of St. Anthony, the count of Armagnac and Louis Bourdon to the hotel d'Artois, and the others elsewhere. Shortly after, the duke of Berry came from his hotel de Neelle to visit the duke of Aquitaine in the Louvre, and thence retired to the" Temple, where he and his men had their quarters. The different lords went diligently ahout the streets of Paris to check any tumults that might arise,—and they had all the gates closed excepting those of St. Anthony and of St. James. Notwithstanding they were so numerous in men-at-arms, they were very fearful of the populace rising against them, in favour of the duke of Burgundy, more especially those who lived in the quartier des Halles. The duke of Burgundy advanced from Dampmartin to St. Denis, which was open to

* Baron, a town in Ficarc! v, diocese of Sent. t Dammartin, a town in the Isle or France, nine

leagues from Paris.

[graphic]

St. Denis.—From an original drawing.

him, for the inhabitants had fled. He there quartered his whole army, and lodged himself at the hotel of the Sword. His force might consist of full two thousand helmets, knights and esquires, from Artois, Picardy, Flanders, Rethel and Burgundy, with from two to three thousand combatants, archers, cross-bows and armed varlets. He was accompanied by sir John de Luxembourg, with all the vassals of his uncle the count de St. Pol. On the third day after the duke of Burgundy's arrival at St. Denis, he sent his king-at-arms, Artois, to Paris, bearing letters to the king, the queen, the duke of Aquitaine, and the commonalty of the town,—in which he requested that they would permit him to wait on them, to explain the cause of his thus coming to St. Denis, which, he said, was only with good intentions, no way to make war, nor to demand redress from any person, but solely in obedience to the commands of the duke of Aquitaine, whom he was bound to serve and obey.

When the king-at-arms arrived at the gates of Paris, he was led to an hotel,—when shortly after, a man came to him, whom he did not know, and told him to make haste to quit the town, or his person would be rudely treated. Perceiving that he should not be heard, nor allowed to deliver his letters, he was mounting his horse, when the count d'Armagnac advanced and said to him, that should he or any others come again to Paris from the duke of Burgundy, he would have their heads cut off. Upon this, he returned to his the lord duke of Burgundy, at St. Denis, and related to him all that had passed, and how rudely he had been dealt with, which so much displeased the duke that he resolved, by the advice of his council, to march thither in person with his whole force.

On the morrow morning, therefore, the army was drawn up in the fields in battle-array as if they were about to engage an enemy, and thus marched to the gate of St. Eustachc, which was closed; and there they remained in battle-array for a considerable space, which was a handsome sight. The duke again sent his king-at-arms to the gate of St. Honore, which was also closed, to demand from those stationed over the gate that four of his most confidential knights, who were near at hand to the king-at-arms, might be admitted with him, to explain the causes of his coming, which tended to nothing but a solid peace. He was answered by those above the gate, that if he did not speedily withdraw, they would discharge bolts and arrows at him,—adding, that they would have nothing to say to the duke of Burgundy nor to his knights. Upon this, they retired to the army. During this time, Enguerrand de Bournouville, with about four hundred combatants, had dismounted, and, with the standard of the duke, had advanced to the gate of St. Honore, to see if he could do anything; for they had great hopes that the populace would rise in sufficient force to give them entrance through one of the gates, which, however, did not happen. Enguerrand, nevertheless, said a few words to Bourdon, who was over the gate, but who made him no reply; and, finding nothing was to be done, he retreated to the main body. In his retreat, some cross-bows were discharged at him, and one of his men was wounded, although neither himself nor any of his companions had shown the least offensive intentions, by arrows or otherwise, against those of Paris,—for it had been forbidden them by the duke out of respect to the king and the duke of Aquitaine.

The duke, seeing the matter hopeless, marched his army back to St. Denis, and caused letters to be written, which, during the night, some of his partisans affixed to the doors of the church of Notre Dame, of the palace, and elsewhere in Paris. He sent copies also to the principal towns in France, the tenor of which was as follows.

"We John duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders and Artois, palatine of Burgundy, lord of Salines and Mechlin, make known to all, that by virtue of several letters written and signed by the duke of Aquitaine himself, we came toward Paris, to employ ourselves for the welfare of the king, by command of my lord of Aquitaine, and withal to aid and deliver him from the servitude in which he is held at this moment; in which cause we shall cheerfully exert every power and influence which God may have granted to us in this world; and we signify to all the well-wishers of the king and of my lord of Aquitaine, that they shall be set (if we be able) at full liberty to exercise their free will and pleasure,—and those who have thus confined them shall be banished, that it may be known to all that we do not come hither on any ambitious schemes to seize the government of the kingdom, and that we have no desire to hurt or destroy the good town of Paris, but are ready to fulfil and maintain every article which we had sworn to observe in the king's edict. We are also willing to return to any of our territories, provided others who have sworn to the same ordinance do so likewise,—but they act contrary to it: and we will, that God and all the world know, that nntil we shall be sensible that my lord the king and my lord of Aquitaine enjoy their full liberty, and that those who now manage public affairs have retired to their several countries, and rny said lord the king is provided with honest, able, and notable counsellors and knights, as well as my lord of Aquitaine, we will never desist from our enterprise, nor quit the kingdom of France; for we had much rather die than witness my lord tho king and my lord of Aquitaine in such subjection.

"We cannot help being astonished that the citizens and loyal subjects of his majesty can be so hard of heart as to suffer him to remain in this disgraceful slavery; and we are the

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