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more surprised that, knowing how nearly we are related to him, they have refused to receive either our knights or our herald, or to permit any one from us to present our letters to my lord the king, my lady the queen, my lord of Aquitaine, or to the good town of Paris. And although we came before the walls of Paris without committing any hostile act whatever, by the command aforesaid, in order to treat of matters touching the peace and welfare of the kingdom, our men have been killed and wounded, without listening to any proposals which they might have made. The count d'Armagnac even told our king-at-arms, that if he should return again, his head would be struck off,—which is an insult hard to be borne, when we have come hither with our company, paying for all our expenses, as the near relation and neighbour of my lord the king and my lord of Aquitaine, requiring the aid of all good and loyal subjects against those who have kept in servitude and in peril my said lord of Aquitaine, signifying to them, at the same time, that we should, in proper time and place, charge them with treason against their sovereign. Of this you need not doubt,—for, by the aid of God and our just cause in this quarrel, we will pursue and maintain it, with the utmost of our powers, and with the assistance of very many of the principal towns in the realm, who have attached themselves to us.

"Given at St. Denis, under our privy seal, in the absence of the grand council, the 11th day of February, in the year 1413."

When these letters were found posted in several of the public places of Paris, those who were disaffected to the duke of Burgundy had stronger suspicions of his conduct than before; and they took such precautions in the guard of the town that no inconvenience happened.

During the time the duke of Burgundy remained at St. Denis, the lord de Croy, who had accompanied him, sent twenty of his most expert and determined men-at-arms, well mounted, to cross the Seine near to Conflans; thence they rode as secretly as they could, with lance in hand, to the town of Montlehery, where they lodged themselves in two inns near to each other, pretending to be of the Orleans party. Sir John de Croy, son to the lord de Croy, was prisoner, as has been before said, in the castle of that town, and had received intimation of their coming by a chaplain who had the care of him. lie made a pretence of going to hear mass in the church that was hard by the castle, when these men-atarms, who were ready prepared, and on the watch, mounted their horses, hastened toward sir John, whom they instantly set on a led horse, and thence galloped briskly to Pontoise: they afterward took the road to the ford where they had before crossed the Seine, and made such good haste that they brought sir John safe to his father in St. Denis. This enterprise was highly praised by the duke of Burgundy and the lord de Croy: the principal leaders of it were Lamont de Launoy, Villemont de Meneat, Jenninet de Molliens, Jean Boussel,— the whole amounting to the number aforesaid. They were, however, sharply pursued by the garrison of Montlehery, but they could not overtake them by reason of the variety of roads they took.

The duke of Burgundy again sent Artois, king-at-arms, to Paris, with letters to the king of Sicily and to the dukes of Orleans and Berry, to notify to them the causes of his coming, and to request that they would suffer him, or at least some of his people, to speak with the king and the duke of Aquitaine; that he was come with good intentions, for he was willing punctually to keep all he had promised and sworn to, provided they on their part would do the same; adding, that they must allow the king and the duke of Aquitaine to rule and govern the kingdom, without keeping them in servitude, more especially the duke of Aquitaine, whom they detained to his great displeasure. But when the king-at-arms came to the gate of St. Anthony, he was told that he would not be admitted, nor any letters received from him, and that if he did not hasten away, they would treat him disrespectfully. On hearing this, he considered for a few minutes, and then placing the letters at the top of a cleft stick which he stuck in the ground, made off as fast as he could to St. Denis, when the duke was more discontented than ever. Perceiving that he could no way succeed in his object, he deliberated with his council whether he should return to his own country, and within a few days retreated to Compiegne by the way he had come. In this town, and in that of Soissons, he left strong garrisons of men-at arms and archers. He appointed sir Hugh de Launoy governor of Compiegne, with the lords de Saint Ligier and de Forez, Hector and Philippe de Saveusc, Louvelet de Mazaheghen, and other expert men-at-arms, to the amount of five hundred combatants or thereabout. In Soissons he placed Enguerrand de Bournouville, sir Colart de Phiennes, Lamon de Launoy, Guoit de Boutilliere Normant, sir Pierre de Menault, and many more warriors.

It was resolved by the aforesaid duke and his chivalry, and by the good towns above mentioned, that until the king and the duke of Aquitaine should be at full liberty, and until they should regulate their conduct by the counsel of such good men and true as they themselves should approve, and until the lords aforesaid, who thus kept them under restraint, and the troops in their pay should retire each to his own territory—as he, the duke of Burgundy, and those of his party, offered to return to their estates and countries— they would never change their resolution, and would yield no obedience to the command of the king, as issued by the advice of his present counsellors or their abettors. This resolution the duke was to signify to the principal towns, and to all the well-disposed persons in the kingdom, and even to summon them in the names of the king and the duke of Aquitaine to unite themselves to his party for the more effectually accomplishing so desirable an object; for by so doing each person would acquit himself of his loyalty, and gain renown for life; and the duke promised to aid and support them to the utmost of his power, for the security of which he issued his especial letters.

After this, he departed from Compiegne, and returned to Arras. He sent his Burgundians, to the amount of about seven hundred lances, to quarter themselves in the Cambresis, and in Tierache, in contempt of the king of Sicily, whom he did not love, any more than sir Robert de Bar,* who had refused to assist him in this expedition, although he was his liege-man. He issued orders from Arras for the three estates of Artois to meet him the 2d day of May, more particularly the nobles, when a great parliament was holden on the state of his affairs. He there caused to be displayed by the lord d'Ollehaing the three letters the duke of Aquitaine had written to him, which being read, he declared on his faith, in the presence of all the lords, that they were written and signed by the duke of Aquitaine's own hand.

When those present had promised to serve him against all but the king of France and his children, he ordered his ministers to write to many of the principal towns letters of the following import, which were sent to Amiens. He then departed from Arras for his county of Flanders, to do the same.

"Very dear and good friends, being ever desirous that you and all other loyal subjects of my lord the king, the well-wishers of the duke of Aquitaine, dauphin of Vienne, should be advertised of whatever may affect his honour and estate, that of his realm and the public good, that efficient remedies may be provided according to the exigency of the case, we in consequence signify to you the very singular request of my said lord of Aquitaine, duly made to us by three different letters, written and signed by his own hand, containing in substance, that on the pleasure and service we were ever willing to do him, we should incontinently come to him as well and greatly accompanied as possible. We obeyed these his orders, as in duty bound, knowing the bondage and danger he was and still is in, from his confinement in the castle of the Louvre by certain persons, contrary to justice and reason, and to his sore and bitter displeasure. We marched an armed force in consequence, not through any ambition or lust of having any part in the government of the kingdom, nor to break or any way infringe the peace we have so lately promised and sworn to keep, which we are above all things desirous of preserving, but solely in obedience to the good will and pleasure of my lord the king and of my said lord of Aquitaine, and to obtain for him his just freedom. For this cause did we peaceably advance to the town of St. Denis, without molesting or despoiling any person, but paying courteously for all that we had need of; and instantly on our arrival there, we sent by our herald, Artois, king-at- arms, sealed letters, addressed to my lord the king, my lady the queen, my lord of Aquitaine, and to the good town of Paris,—in which we notified our coming, not with any intent of warfare, or to infringe the peace, but by the orders of my lord of Aquitaine, and to obey his good pleasure (as the saying is), requesting at the same time to have audiences of my lord the king and of my lord of Aquitaine, to the performance of our duty, and to the accomplishment of their will and pleasure, to which we are bound.

* Count of Soissons, mentioned abore. .

"Notwithstanding this, the presentation of our said letters was most rigorously prevented by the count d'Armagnac and his adherents, without any reasonable cause, and through contempt and malice to us and our friends. The said count even told our herald, that if he did not instantly depart, or if any of our people should again return on this errand, he would have their heads cut off. In consequence, we marched in person from the town of St. Denis, grandly accompanied by men-at-arms and archers, on the Saturday, the 10th of this month, February, to the walls of Paris, without doing harm to any person, but with the intent of amicably explaining the reasons for our thus appearing in arms, and with the expectation of receiving a more gracious answer than was given to our herald; but when we had arrived before the town, and had sent to the gate of St. Honore, which was the nearest to us, our herald, and after him four of our principal knights, to request a hearing, they were told, that if they did not immediately retire, the guards would shoot at them ; and without hearing or saying any more, some cross-bows were discharged, which was, and not without reason, highly displeasing to us. Although all these disorderly acts were done without the knowledge or consent of the king, or of the duke of Aquitaine, and although several of our officers were made prisoners, we most patiently bore the whole, from our love of peace; and from our affectionate duty to the king and my lord of Aquitaine, we quietly returned to St. Denis, where, during our stay, we permitted all sorts of provision to pass free to Paris, the same as before our arrival there. AVe have nevertheless had information, that through malicious instigations, contrary to the honour and interest of my lord the king, my lord of Aquitaine, and the public welfare, and against their will and intention, very many letters have been unjustly and wickedly issued, by which the king has, as we are told, banished from his kingdom us and all who attended us before the walls of Paris,—notwithstanding that neither we nor they have at present, or at any other time, neglected our duty to him, nor are we of those who formerly besieged him in the town of Paris, and who have, in many parts of his realm, damnably set fire to houses, slain his subjects, forced women, violated maidens, pillaged and destroyed churches, castles, towns and mansions, committing at the same time unheard-of cruelties and mischiefs.

"The advisers of this measure, proceeding in their wicked projects from bad to worse, keep my lord the king and my lord of Aquitaine under their subjection and control. On this account, therefore, my very dear and good friends, and because such things are contrary to the articles of the peace concluded at Auxerre, and confirmed at Pontoise, we, who are of so great importance, cannot longer suffer them, more especially when we consider the dangerous state in which the king and my lord of Aquitaine are held. Deputations have been likewise sent from many of the great towns, such as Paris, Rheims, Rouen, Laon, Bcauvais and others, who have solemnly sworn to support and assist all who shall maintain this peace, and strenuously to oppose those who shall infringe it. We affirm these things to you for truth, so that should you hear the contrary you may not give credit to it, but ever remain faithful and loyal subjects to my lord the king and my lord of Aquitaine, such as you have ever been, and aid and assist us in the part we have taken, for we have the utmost confidence in your zeal. In truth, we expect, through the help of God, and other assistance, for the relief of my lord the king and my lord of Aquitaine, that we may obtain for them full and free liberty of government, such as they ought to possess, and that those who now keep them in bondage may be dismissed from their presence, to reside in their own countries, as we are ready to do, for the due observance of the said peace, and the common good of the kingdom, objects of which we are very desirous.

"Should there be any things which you may wish to have done, that are within onr power, know for certain that we will, with God's pleasure, do them with a hearty good-will,— and may he have you in his holy keeping! Written in our town of Arras, and sealed with our privy seal, the 27th day of February, in the year 1413."

There was also written on the margin, "The duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders and Artois; and that you, my very dear and good friends, may be fully assured of the authenticity of the letters from my lord of Aquitaine, mentioned in this paper, we send you with these presents true copies of the originals, under an official seal," and signed "Vignier." This letter was drawn up on sealed paper, and had for its address, " To our very dear and well beloved, the resident burgesses and inhabitants of the town of Amiens."

CHAPTER CXV.—ON THE RETREAT OF THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY FROM SAINT DENIS, THE KING OF FRANCE ISSUES ORDERS THROUGHOUT HIS KINGDOM TO RAISE FORCES TO MARCH AGAINST HIM.

WnEN it was known to the king of France, the duke of Aquitaine, the princes of the blood then in Paris, and to the members of the council, that the duke of Burgundy, on his retreat from St. Denis, had left large garrisons in the towns of Compicgne, Soissons, and other places belonging to the king, or at least under his government, they were greatly surprised, thinking he had no just cause for so doing. To obviate the consequences of this conduct, certain royal edicts were instantly despatched throughout the bailiwicks and seneschalships in the realm, commanding them to raise forces to resist the future proceedings of the duke of Burgundy, which edicts, and particularly that addressed to the bailiff of Amiens, were as follows.

"Charles, by the grace of God king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

"To check the many great and numberless evils that have befallen our kingdom, to the prejudice of ourself and of the public welfare, from the quarrels and wars that have arisen between some of the princes of our blood, and that our subjects may live in tranquillity under our government, and that henceforward they may be ruled with justice, which cannot take place but in times of peace,—we have, after mature deliberation, effected a union between these said princes of our blood, which they have most solemnly promised and sworn in our presence to keep inviolate. Although it be not lawful for any of our subjects, whether of our blood or not, and even contrary to our express orders, to assemble any bodies of menat-arms within our realm, yet it has come to our knowledge that our cousin of Burgundy has complained of certain acts done, as he says, to his prejudice, and contrary to the articles of the said peace,—and for this cause he has occupied, or caused to be occupied, several castles and fortresses belonging to us, and against our will; that he has received in his country, and admitted to his presence, several evil-doers who have been guilty of treason against us. In consequence, we sent able ambassadors to our said cousin of Burgundy, to admonish him to keep the peace, to offer him every legal means of redress, and to cause such reparation to be made him for any infringement of the peace, as the case might require. At the same time we summoned him to surrender the castles to us, as he was bound to do; and we commanded him not to receive any such evil doers in future, enjoining him to send those whom he had admitted to us, that they might undergo such punishments as justice should order.

"These commands ho has not obeyed, nor sent any satisfactory answer. Having learnt that after this our said cousin of Burgundy was assembling a large body of men-at-arms, we sent one of the sergeants-at-arms of the parliament with sealed letters to him, to forbid him to raise any forces whatever. Notwithstanding this, in defiance of the treaty of peace and of our positive orders, our cousin of Burgundy continued to assemble men-at-arms and archers, from all parts; and with this army he has marched from his own country, and, by fraudulent and traitorous means, has, against our will, gained possession of our towns of Compiegnb and Soissons, which he still holds, and has placed therein garrisons of men-at-arms. He also attempted to gain by force our town of Senlis, and has refused to surrender our castles and fortresses aforesaid, which he detains contrary to our commands: he admits to his country and to his presence every person guilty toward us, without ever sending them to us, as we had commanded him to do. He has likewise detained by force our sergeant-at-arms of the parliament and other messengers from our dearly-beloved companion the queen, and from our very dear and well-beloved son the duke of Aquitaine, bearing letters from them to forbid him to do any acts contrary to the said peace, and without sending to us or to them any answers whatever.

Vol. i. v

"Our said cousin of Burgundy, in defiance and contempt of these our orders and prohibitions, has marched a numerous army near to Paris, accompanied by all or the greater part of those criminals who have been found guilty of treason against us, and therefore banished our realm. All these said things have been done, committed, and perpetrated by our said cousin of Burgundy, his adherents, and allies, contrary to our royal will and pleasure, in opposition to the articles of the said peace, against the tranquillity of our subjects and the public good of our kingdom. Great inconveniences may therefore arise, unless a speedy remedy be applied to this disloyal conduct. Wishing to obviate these evils, and to reduce to obedience those of our subjects who may have joined our said cousin the duke of Burgundy, whose enterprises we will no longer tolerate, but are determined to repress them with the aid of those of our blood, nnd our other good and faithful subjects, in such wise that it shall be an example to all others.

"We therefore command and strictly enjoin, that on receiving these presents, you do, with a loud voice and with sound of trumpet, in our name, proclaim the arriere-ban*; and that you do repeat this proclamation throughout your bailiwick, so that no one may plead ignorance of it, enforcing obedience to the same from all nobles and others within your jurisdiction who have been used to arms, or in a state to bear arms, and from all who may hold fiefs or arriere-fiefs of the value of twenty livres tournois. You will see that prompt attention be paid to our command by all nobles, citizens, and inhabitants of the towns within your bailiwick, on the faith and homage they owe to us, and under pain of confiscation of estates and goods, should they not join us in all diligence with the greatest possible number of men-at-arms and archers, without any excuse or denial whatever. You will enjoin the inhabitants of your principal towns to send instantly to our good city of Paris men-at-arms and archers, mounted on horseback and sufficiently accompanied,—and we command them thus to do for our service in this matter, and wherever else we may employ them, forbidding them at the same time, under the severest execution of the penalties aforesaid, to obey, in any manner whatever, the summons, orders, or requests of our said cousin of Burgundy, or under pretence of serving us, or under other pretexts, to aid or promote his designs. Should any persons within your jurisdiction have joined him, let them instantly return, and not give him either support or advice. You will arrest all whom you shall know to be favourable to him, or who have joined him, whenever you can lay hands on them. Should you not be able to do this, summon them, under pain of banishment; and take possession, in our name, of all their effects, moveable and immoveable, whatever, which you will administer on our behalf.

"You will also make public proclamation in our name, for all prelates, abbots, priors, chaplains and other churchmen, who are bound to supply us with carts, sumpter-horses, and other services from their fiefs, instantly to perform them and send them to us. You will, in case of their neglecting the same, seize their temporalities, or use such other measures as are customary in such like cases. At the same time, you will strictly forbid in our name under the aforesaid penalties, all labourers, tradespeople, or others, excepting those before mentioned, to assemble in arms, or to collect together in companies, after the manner of the pillagers in former times, but give orders that they do apply to their labour or trades. Should any be found to act contrary, you will imprison them, and inflict on them such punishment as justice may ordain, to serve as examples to others.

"We likewise command and enjoin you to suffer all men-at-arms and archers, whether from our kingdom or elsewhere, that may be on their march to join us, to pass freely through your bailiwick, without any let or hindrance whatever, notwithstanding any letters or orders from us to the contrary, unless of a subsequent date to these presents, and signed by ourself in council; and you will afford to such person or persons every aid, encouragement, and advice, should need be, in any of our towns, castles, bridges or passes, that may tend to obstruct them on their march. This we order to be done without refusal or contradiction, for such is our will and pleasure; and you will certify to our faithful chancellor your proceedings in this

* Arriere-ban," a proclamation, whereby those that troop of those mesne tenants or under-vassals so ss

hold of the king by a mesne tenure are summoned to assem- sembled."

ble and serve him in his wars; different from ban, whereby Colgrave't Diet See " Ban " and " Arriere-ban"

such are called as hold immediately of him ; also the whole

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