with all Normandy, appertained to France, and been under the obedience of her kings for 215 years from the time when king Philip, grandfather to St. Louis, acquired it from king John of England, by judgment of the peers of France, in right of confiscation.

King Henry, the day after his entry, had Alain Blanchart, who had been the leader of


Castle And Fortifications Erected By Hfnry V. In Rouen. — From Millin's Antiquitcs NationalTM.

the populace, beheaded: the two others escaped punishment by dint of money. The garrison were ordered to march out by the gate leading toward the Seine, and were escorted by the English as far as the bridge of St. George, where they were searched by commissaries from the king, who took from them all their money, with everything valuable, giving them in return only two sols. Some of the gentlemen were even stripped of their handsome robes, made of martin-skins, or embroidered with gold, and others of less value given them in return.

This conduct was noticed by those of the garrison who were in the rear; and foreseeing the same would be done to them, they quietly, and unobserved, threw into the Seine many purses full of gold, silver, and jewels. Others, to avoid being plundered, had sowed up their money within the waistbands of their breeches. When they had all passed the bridge of St. George, they kept together until they came to Pontoise, where they separated, and went to different parts, excepting the nobles, who joined the king of France and the duke of Burgundy at Provins. Sir Guy le Bouteiller, who had been governor of Rouen, turned to the English, with several of his men, and took the oaths of allegiance to the king of England, deserting his own natural lord the king of France, for which he was much blamed by the French, and even by the English. Sir Guy was a native of Normandy, and not only had his estates restored to him, but was appointed deputy to the duke of Gloucester, the new governor of Rouen.

The surrender of this town spread such an alarm and fear of the king of England throughout the whole of Normandy and the adjacent countries, as far as Pontoise, Beauvais, and Abbeville, that the greater part of the chief towns and castles submitted to him without offering any resistance, or even striking a blow; such as Caudebec, Montivilliers, Dieppe, Fecamp, Arques, Neuf-Ch&tel, Denicourt, Eu, Monchaulx *; and on the other side of the Seine, Vernon, Mantes, Gournay, Honfleur, Pont-Audemer, Chateau Molineaux, le Treict, Tancarville, Abrechierf, Maulevrier, Valmont, Neufville, Bellaucombre, Fontaines le Bourg, Preaulx, Nogondouville|, Logempre§, St. Germain sur Cailly, Baudemont, Bray, Villeterre, Charles-Maisnil, les Boules Guillcncourt, Ferifontaines, le Becq Crepin, Bacqueville, and many more, in which the king of England placed his own garrisons.

From that time the inhabitants of these countries wore a red cross as a badge, and several bore arms for the English; not indeed those of great authority, for it was not then become the custom for gentlemen or nobles to join the English. The inhabitants of Rouen in general took the oath of fidelity before the commissioners, at least all who intended to reside there; and they individually gave security to pay whatever they should be assessed to make up the sum of three hundred and sixty-five golden crowns before mentioned. None were permitted to go out of the town without a billet from the king; and the same was practised in all the other towns under liis obedience. These billets cost four sols each, French money; and by this means large sums were raised, to the advantage of the king and his ministers.



About Candlemas in this same year, Peter de Saint Treille, governor of the castle of Coucy for the duke of Orleans, prisoner in England, was betrayed by some of his servant-?, namely, his tailor and marshal. They had entered into a conspiracy with the Burgundians, numbers of whom were confined in this castle, and had suffered many to escape: they wont with others secretly by night to knock at the window of the governor's apartment in the great tower. A varlet who slept in the apartment arose, and, opening the window, demanded what they wanted: upon this, the tailor replied, that he had within his room a piece of his master's robe, which he had just cut out. On the door being opened, six persons with stout staves burst into the apartment, and murdered the governor and his servant. They went thence to another tower, wherein were confined the lord de Maucourt en Santerre, Lyonnet de Bournouville, and other gentlemen,—from whom having obtained certain promises, they set them at liberty. After this, with one common accord, they seized and killed the watch porters, and all who were not of their party, shouting with a loud voice, " Burgundy for ever!"

A gentleman, named Brutel de Hnmcrculles, was confined with his servant in the great tower; but hearing this cry, they burst open the doors of the dungeon, and got upon the drawbridge. While this was passing, La Hire ||, who was in the town with a body of menat-arms, beiDg told what had happened by some of the garrison who had escaped over the walls, and also by a trumpeter that was posted on the leads of the castle, sounding to arms, marched his men to the bridge, thinking to reconquer it: but Brutel found means to ascend to the leads, and flung down on them stones so fast, and the others who had been prisoners made so vigorous a defence, that La Hire and those with him, seeing their attempt was now fruitless, retired with his men within the town until it should be day. They then armed themselves again, packed up their baggage, and mounted their horses; and after they had cruelly put to death sixty prisoners who were under confinement in the town, they departed for Guise.

This very much rejoiced those who had won the castle, and they instantly examined into its strength and the great wealth it contained. They despatched messengers to sir John de Luxembourg to come to their aid, who, without delay, collected as many men-at-arms as he could, and set out for Coucy. In the mean time, those who had sent for him resolved, nevertheless, not to let him enter the castle until he should promise that all the riches it contained should belong to them; and for this purpose, they sent the lord de Maucourt to meet him anil declare their intentions, but who, in good truth, was afraid of telling him their resolution. On the arrival of sir John de Luxembourg before the castle, to his great surprise, it was not instantly opened to him, for the reasons above-mentioned; and he was so displeased that he caused the lord de Maucourt to be arrested, reproaching him with a design of betraying him,—and if an executioner had been present, or any one who would have done the office, he would have had him immediately beheaded. Shortly after, however, through fear of him and his men, those within the castle opened its gates, and admitted him, excusing themselves for the delay the best way they could. He directly new-garrisoned it; and with regard to its wealth, he seized the greater part, and those who had conquered it were not much enriched thereby.

* Q. Chaumont? f Q. Evrcnx? || Stephen Vignolc, called La Hire, a distinguished

% Q. Nonancoiirt? § Q. J.ouviers? ] artisan of the danphin, and a soldier of fortune.

At this time, the frontiers of Normandy, as far as Pontoise, Clermont, Beauvais, Mondidier, Breteuil, Amiens, Abbeville and St. Valery, were overrun by the English, and wasted by fire and sword: sometimes, in their excursions, they carried off prisoners and considerable booties. The Normans now generally wore the red cross, which served them as a passport to go whither they pleased in security; and the Dauphinois also adopted the same badge. The party of the king and the duke of Burgundy were not idle; and thus the noble realm of France was, in divers places, torn in pieces by three different factions. The clergy and poor people were left defenceless, and had no other resource than to offer up their prayers lamentably to God their Creator, and patiently to wait his benign grace and pity.


While the king of France and the duke of Burgundy resided at Provins, an embassy, consisting of the earls of Warwick and Kent, was sent to them by the king of England. They were escorted by a party of Burgundians, but, on the road, were attacked, close to Chammes in Brie, by Tanneguy du Chatel and the Dauphinois,—who at first succeeded in gaining some of the horses and baggage of the ambassadors, but in the end were defeated, leaving upwards of forty men-at-arms dead on the field. The remainder, with Tanneguy, retreated to Meaux. After the English had conferred with the duke of Burgundy and the king's ministers at Provins, they returned to the king of England at Rouen.

To afford satisfaction to the Parisians, Philip count de St. Pol, nephew to the duke of Burgundy, and about fifteen years of age, was sent thither, and appointed king's lieutenant thereof: he was accompanied by master Eustace de Lactre, chancellor of France, who was to reside in Paris, and direct every measure as well respecting justice as war. Le veau de Bar, bailiff of Auxois, was deprived of the provostship of Paris, and sir Giles de Clamessy nominated in his room.

At this period, Hector de Saveuses collected a great body of men-at-arms at Pont de Remy, whom he marched against the castle of Monchaulx, in the county of Eu, held by the English. On their approach, the garrison made a vigorous sally, and a severe skirmish ensued, in which the governor made Hector prisoner, and carried him off some distance; but he was rescued by his men, who killed about a dozen of the English, and took a gentleman of arms called Jovancherum. After this, they all returned to Pont do Remy. In like manner, sir Louis Burnel, his brother Guichard, Guavain and Jean de Hersellames, with several other gentlemen who were in the town of Gamaches, kept up a sharp warfare against the English, often killing them, or making prisoners, and plundering all they met. They also sorely harassed the towns and peasants who had turned to the enemy.

On the other hand, sir John de Luxembourg was hard pressed on the frontiers to resist the enterprises that were daily made on him by La Hire, Poton de Santrailles, and other captains of the dauphin's party. He was also charged with the defence of the fortresses toward Roye and Mondidier, against those of Compiegne, which obliged him to keep up a very large force of men-at-arms in those countries.




The dauphin, on gaining Tours, made that place his residence, and carried on from thence a vigorous war on Chartres and other places under the subjection of the duke of Burgundy. The town of Bonneval surrendered to his arms, as did several more in the country of the Chartrain. During these unfortunate times, Lyonnet de Bournouville, brother-in-law to the lord de l'lsle-Adam, marshal of France, and Daviod de Gouy, both very expert in arms, had posted themselves in Gisors, near to the frontier of the English, to whom they did much mischief. They had information that about eight hundred of the Irish were quartered in Ferrifontaine, together with about two hundred English. They formed a plan to attack their quarters during the night; and when they executed it, found them all disarmed, fast asleep, and without any guard. Their attack was so sudden, that very many were instantly killed; but the others, hearing their cries, harricadoed and defended their houses the best way they could, when their enemies set them on fire. In short, what with killed and burnt, there remained four hundred dead on the spot, and one hundred were made prisoners, the rest saved themselves as they could in the adjacent woods. With their prisoners and plunder, the Burgundians returned to Gisors in great joy for their victory.

About Palm-Sunday, the king and queen of France and the duke of Burgundy, with their households, went to reside at Troyes in Champagne, where they were most honourably received by the inhabitants, and celebrated the feast of Easter there in company with a large retinue of nobles.



[a. D. 1419.]

In the beginning of this year, sir John de Luxembourg, accompanied by Hector de Saveuses and about six hundred combatants, marched through the Verm;xndois, Laonnois and Rhcimois, to meet his brother, the count de Conversan, in the county of Brienne. On their junction, they made a severe war on the Dauphinois, who, a little before, had wasted that country, and burnt the suburbs of Vitry. They also overran great part of the Barrois, toward Grand Pre. When this had been finished, sir John de Luxembourg departed, leaving the greater number of his men together with his banner, under the command of Hector de Saveuses. Fifteen days after this, Hector, with the consent of the count de Conversan, set out with about three hundred combatants, and the banner, on his return to Artois; but, on passing through Champagne, he was surprised by the Dauphinois, who had posted themselves in Montagu. Notwithstanding the Dauphinois were inferior in numbers, they conquered Hector and won the banner: many were killed and one hundred taken, with a quantity of baggage, all of which they carried back with them to Montagu j but the menat-arms saved themselves by the goodness of their horses, with their commander Hector, who retreated very melancholy at his ill success toward the Artois. The Dauphinois brought only about forty prisoners to Montagu, who within a month perished in prison, not without suspicion of being poisoned, excepting a few who had been set at liberty, to seek for their ransoms.




About the middle of April, the English ambassadors, who had been lately at Provins, returned to the king of France and the duke of Burgundy at Troyes, in Champagne,—when a treaty was negotiated so far that a truce was agreed on between the two kings, to last for a certain space of time, in the expectation that more conclusive measures would be adopted; and a day was fixed on for the negotiation to be continued on both sides, near to the town of Meulan. When this had been settled, the ambassadors went back to their king at Rouen; and within a short time afterward the king and queen of France, with their daughter, the princess Catherine, and the duke of Burgundy, escorted by a powerful body of men-at-arms, came to Pontoise. On their arrival, accordmg to the measures that had been agreed on with the said ambassadors, they ordered a large enclosure to be made with planks, within which the conferences were to be carried on; it was also surrounded with a deep ditch, having one side on the banks of the Seine. There were several entrances, well secured by three barriers; and tents and pavilions were pitched within for the lords to repose themselves in. They then had proper arrangements made in the adjacent villages for the lodging of the attendants and equipages of the ambassadors. At this time the king of England had advanced from Rouen to Mantes.

When the day appointed for the conference was come, notwithstanding the king of France was much indisposed as to his health, the queen, the princess Catherine, the duke of Burgundy, and the count de St. Pol, with the members of the council, escorted by a thousand combatants, went to the place of conference near to Meulan, and entered the tents that were without the enclosure. Soon after, the king of England arrived, attended by his brothers the dukes of Clarence and Gloucester, and a thousand men-at-arms. He entered the tent that had been pitched for him, as the others had done; and when they were about to commence the conference, the queen on the right hand, followed by the lady Catherine, the duke of Burgundy, and the count de St. Pol, entered the enclosure. In like manner did the king of England, with his brothers and council, by another opening, and, with a most respectful obeisance, saluted the queen, and then kissed her and the lady Catherine. After this the duke of Burgundy saluted the king, bending his knee a little and inclining his head ; but the king took him by the hand, embraced him, and showed him great respect. They then entered the tent appointed for the conference, the king leading the queen, where they staid a very considerable time. Their men-at-arms were drawn up without the paling; but a sufficient number of guards were withinside to prevent any improper persons, or such as were not especially ordered, from entering it.

After they had remained in conference a long time they separated, taking most respectful leaves of each other; and one party returned to Pontoise and the other to Mantes. On the morrow three weeks they again met there, and remained together for several days in the same state, and with the same number of persons as before, with the exception of the lady Catherine, who had been brought the first time that the king of England might see her, and who was not now present. King Henry was very desirous to marry her, and not without cause, for she was very handsome, of high birth, and of the most engaging manners.

During their meetings, several matters were brought forward in the hope of concluding a solid peace. It frequently happened that one party was more grandly attended than the other, and at other times less; and although the English and French were quartered close together, there was never the smallest riot or quarrel between them,—and they exchanged provision with each other. This conference, however, ended in nothing, from the demands of the king of England, in regard to the portion of the lady Catherine, being as exorbitant as before. The dauphin, during the holding of this conference, with the intent of seducing the duke of Burgundy, sent Tanneguy du Chatel to propose a treaty of peace with him, although the duke had before made repeated offers of the same. When the conference was

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