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and the duke, who in return gave them other articles such as he would abide by. In short, the negotiations were carried on so effectually that a treaty was agreed on, provided that the king of France and his ministers would consent thereto.

At this time the king and queen of France, with the lady Catherine their daughter, resided at Troyes in Champagne, and were under the guidance of such as had been posted there purposely, who were strongly attached to the party of Burgundy. In consequence of this treaty it was ordered that the men-at-arms of the king of France and of the duke of Burgundy should discontinue their warfare against the English, who were on their part to desist from all offensive operations. The truces were again renewed and confirmed, and it was agreed that the king of England should send ambassadors in company with the duke of Burgundy to the king of France at Troyes in Champagne, who intended going thither soon to put a finishing hand to this treaty of alliance. When theae matters had been arranged and the ambassadors had been greatly feasted and honoured by the duke of Burgundy in Arras, they returned to the king of England at Rouen. While this treaty was going on, sir James de Harcourt showed himself every way strongly attached to the duke of Burgundy. He was the first called to the private councils of the duke, who paid him more attention and greater honour than to any other person of his court, for he loved him most cordially in consequence of his having sworn to serve him on the death of duke John. Sir James, in these days caused the castle of Crotoy, of which he was governor for the king of France, to be strongly repaired and replenished with all sorts of provision and military stores.

CHAPTER CCXVI. SIR JOHN DE LUXEMBOURG ASSEMBLES A LARGE BODY OF MEN-AT-ARMS,

AND LEADS THEM BEFORE ROYE. OTHER OCCURRENCES THAT HAPPENED AT THIS

PERIOD.

In conformity to the treaty with the English, the duke of Burgundy commenced his operations by assembling men-at-arms in Artois, Flanders, and elsewhere, which he sent with different captains to be under the general command of sir John de Luxembourg, near to Peronne, who was to muster them, and lead them to lay siege to the castle of Muyn, which was strongly garrisoned by the Dauphinois, who had sorely oppressed the country round Amiens and Corbie. Several of the nobility joined sir John de Luxembourg, at Peronne, such as, the lord de l'lsle-Adam, marshal of France, the vidame of Amiens, Anthony lord of Croy, le borgne de Fosseux knight, John de Fosseux his brother, the lord de Longueval . Hector and Philip de Saveuses, the lord de Humbercourt, sir John de Luquerque, the lord de Cohen, with many other notable knights and esquires, who marched from Peronne to Lyhons in Santerre, and to the adjacent villages, intending to besiege the castle of Muyn, but their intentions were soon changed. During the time that these men-at-arms were at Lyhons, and on the night of the 10th of December, sir Karados de Quesnes, Charles de Flavy, the bastard de Tournemine, and one called Harbonniers, made a sally from Compiegne, with about five hundred combatants, to the town of Roye in the Vermandois, which they attacked, and, from neglect of the guard, great part of them entered the place. They assembled in the market-place, shouting out, " Town won! Long live the king and dauphin!" The inhabitants were awakened by these shouts; and, seeing they could not make any resistance, the greater part escaped over the walls, and fled.

A detachment of the Dauphinois now advanced to the gate, which they opened to admit the remainder of their forces, and their horses, into the town. Perceval le Grand, governor of the place for the duke of Burgundy, having been awakened like the others, and perceiving that no resistance could be made, escaped as well as he could from the town, leaving behind his wife, children, and great part of his wealth. He hastened to Lyhons, and very dolefully related to his commander, sir John de Luxembourg, the news of the capture of Roye. Sir John instantly ordered his trumpets to sound for the assembling of his men at arms, and led them toward Roye, sending forward a party of scouts to the town, to gain intelligence, who found the scaling-ladders still reared against the walls by which the enemy had entered. They were no sooner observed, than the Dauphinois made preparations for defence, and gave a sharp discharge of cannons, cross-bows, and bows on them, and on some men-at-arms, who had joined the scouts. However, notwithstanding their defence, one of the suburbs was taken, and in the conflict several were wounded on each side. On that of sir John de Luxembourg was a valiant man-at-arms, named Robert de Rebretanges, and who, in consequence of this wound, died shortly after.

After sir John had posted his men in the different suburbs and houses round the town, lie fixed his own quarters at a village about half a league distant. He then sent the lord de Humbercourt, bailiff of Amiens, to that place, and to Corbie, to require that they would send him cross-bowmen, cannons, and other implements of war, to enable him to subdue the Dauphinois in Roye, which request was complied with in the most ample manner. With the same eagerness were the cross-bowmen of Douay, Arras, Peronne, St. Quentin, Mondidier, Noyon, and other places under the dependence of the king, sent to Roye in great numbers. On the arrival of these reinforcements, sir John invested the town on all sides, and made some vigorous assaults: he also had some bombards, and other engines, pointed against the walls and gates, which greatly harassed the besieged. They made, however, a handsome defence, and some sallies; but in these they did not gain much.

At length, the besieged seeing all their efforts vain, and hopeless of succour, concluded a treaty with sir John, by his commissioners, on the 18th day of January, to surrender the place, on condition that they should depart in safety, with their baggage, and with a part of what they had gained in the town. When this treaty was ratified, the Dauphinois marched away under passports from sir John de Luxembourg, who appointed Hector de Saveuses to escort them; and, when out of the town, they took the road to Compiegne, marching with great speed.

Very soon after their departure, about two thousand English came to Roye, under the command of the earl of Huntingdon *, and his father-in-law sir John de Cornwall"f, to assist the Burgundians; for, as I have said, there was a truce between the English and them, expecting that this truce would shortly be (as it happened) turned into a solid peace. The English, hearing of the departure of the Dauphinois, hastily set out in pursuit of them, and overtook them about four leagues from Roye. The moment they came near, without any words, they attacked them lance in hand, although they were few in number; for, having rode so hard, three parts of their men were behind. The English were accompanied by many of the men-at-arms of sir John de Luxembourg, the principal of whom were Butor bastard of Croy, Aubellet de Folleville, the bailiff de Foquesolle, the bastard Dunon and several other gentlemen. The Dauphinois made no great resistance, and were therefore soon routed, very many were killed, taken, or robbed; but a few escaped as well as they could, by flying to the woods and other places. Hector de Saveuses, observing this, made sir Karados de Quesnes his prisoner, in order to save him and restore him to liberty j but sir John de Cornwall took him from him, saying that he had not any right to make him his prisoner, since he had a passport from his captain; and because Hector would not release him at the first word, Cornwall smote him severely on the arm with his gauntlet, which incensed Hector much,—but he could not help himself, as the English were too numerous. Sir Karados, the lord of Flavy, and most part of the men-at-arms, were made prisoners by the English; but those taken by the Picards were put to death by them, for they were afraid to bring them to their quarters on account of the passports that had been granted them. However, Harbonniers, who was prisoner to Aubellet de Folleville, was carried to Noyon, and there beheaded.

The English, after this affair, returned with their prisoners to a village within two leagues of Roye, where they quartered themselves. Hector de Saveuses made what haste he could to sir John de Luxembourg, to relate all that had passed, who was greatly enraged that his passports should have been treated with such contempt, especially by those of his own amiy and under his command. He therefore despatched an angry message to Anthony lord of Croy, to order him to send Butor de Croy, his bastard-brother, and some others of his people, who had infringed his passports, that he might punish them accordingly, lie sent a similar order to the lord de Longueval for the bastard Dunoii, brother to his wife, to bo brought before him; but neither of these lords would obey his commands. Upon this, sir John sent word, that if they did not deliver them up instantly, he would take them by force from their quarters. Longueval replied, that if he attempted it, and was not the strongest, he should not have them; and he would prefer putting them to death to yielding them up to him. These and other expressions created a great animosity between sir John and these two lords, which lasted a considerable time. However, nothing further was done in the matter; for those who were demanded to be delivered up departed secretly, and went whither they pleased.

* John Holland, son of John, earl of Huntingdon and first duke of Exeter, his widow, sister of King Henry IV".,

duke of Exeter, beheaded in 1 Henry IV. He was re- and mother of the earl of Huntingdon here mentioned,

stored to the earldom of Huntingdon in 4 Henry V., and married for her second husband, Sir John de Corncmd,

in 11 Henry VI. was created duke of Exeter, with prrcc- who was afterwards summoned to parliament by the title

dencc over all the nobility except the duke of York. He of Lord Fanhope, 11 Henry VI.

died in 25 Henry VI., and was succeeded by his son f See Dugdale's Baronage. Henry, who died in banishment. After the death of the

On the morrow, sir John de Luxembourg, attended by part of his army, went to visit the lord Huntingdon and sir John de Cornwall at their quarters, and recommended to their attentions sir Karados de Quesnes and the other prisoners, who had been taken under his passports. They nevertheless remained prisoners, and were carried to England, where they were long detained, and did not recover their liberties until they had paid a heavy ransom. When sir John de Luxembourg had passed some time at the English quarters, he returned to his own: the next day he disbanded the greater part of his captains and their men-atarms, and went himself with Hector de Saveuscs to place garrisons in the castles on the river Sere, and on the frontiers of the Laonnois, against the Dauphinois, who were in great force at Crespy and in the Laonnois. Hector was ordered to remain at Nouvion le Comte, as commander-in-chief of these troops. Sir John then returned to his castle of Beaurevoir, to see his wife and children, and to make preparations to accompany the duke of Burgundy on the journey he intended speedily to undertake.

CIIAPTER CCXVII. THE FRENCH AND BURGUNDIANS BEGIN TO FORM ACQUAINTANCE WITH

THE ENGLISH. THE SIEGE OF FONTAINES-LAVAGAM.—OTHER MATTERS.

About this time, those attached to the party of the king of France and the duke of Burgundy began to open an intercourse in trade, and to form acquaintance with the English on the borders of Normandy, for peace was now established between them. At this period also, the earl of Huntingdon and sir John de Cornwall, with three thousand combatants, besieged the castle of Fontaines-Lavagam, which, during the war, had held out for the Orleans party, and had never been conquered. The garrison had, for a long time, grievously oppressed the country of Beauvoisis, the borders of Normandy, and the districts about Amiens. At the end of about three weeks' siege, this castle was surrendered, on condition that the lives and fortunes of the besieged should be spared, and that they should march away in safety. When the place was evacuated, the fortifications were completely destroyed. On the other hand, the castle of Muyn submitted to the obedience of the vidame of Amiens, on the 19th day of January, by means of some intelligence he had with those within it. This, as well as Fontaines-Lavagam, had been of great annoyance to the surrounding countries. A Norman gentleman, called Bigas, was made prisoner there, and also the lady of the place, wife to sir Collart de Calleville, with some others,—and much wealth was found therein.

About this time, the duke of Burgundy prepared to march with his whole power to king Charles at Troyes in Champagne. He issued a strict summons throughout his dominions, for all who had been accustomed to bear arms to make ready to attend him on this journey. From Ghent, where he resided, he came with his lady the duchess to Arras, and appointed master John de Torsy, bishop of Tournay, his chancellor. He there assembled, by virtue of his Bummons, a very large body of men-at-arms; and on the Saturday after the Epiphany, the truces between the kings of France and of England were proclaimed in all the countries under the subjection of the king and the duke of Burgundy, from Paris to Boulogne-sur

VOL. I. F F

mer, and to Troyes in Champagne: they were to last until the middle of March following, or until a final peace should be concluded between the two kings.

During this time the English, in great force, under the command of the earl of Huntingdon and sir John de Cornwall, marched to the castle of Clermont, which they valiantly attacked; but it was as vigorously defended. The English, having had many killed and wounded, set fire to and burnt the village of St. Andrieu, wherein were several handsome mansions and substantial houses. They then overran the whole county of Clermont and gained much plunder, with which they returned to the duchy of Normandy.

CHAPTER CCXVIII. THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY DEPARTS FROM ARRAS, AND MARCHES A

LARGE ARMY TO LAY SIEGE TO THE TOWN OF CRESPY IN THE LAONNOIS, AND
THENCE TO WAIT ON THE KING OF FRANCE AT TROYES IN CHAMPAGNE.

When the duke of Burgundy had celebrated the feast of the Purification in Arras, he departed, leaving his duchess there, for his castle of Bapaumes, and thence he went to Oisy in the Cambresis, to visit his aunt, the countess of Hainault, with whom he had a conference, and proceeded to Peronne. Thither many of his captains and vassals came, and with them he marched to St. Quentin, where he tarried some time to wait the arrival of the whole of his forces. Ambassadors from king Henry there joined him, having with them about five hundred combatants under the command of the earls of Warwick and Kyme, the lord Roos*, marshal of England, and sir Louis de Robesart-)-, a native of Hainault, who accompanied the duke to Troyes. There also came to him, while at St. Quentin, a deputation from the town of Laon, who, with the inhabitants of St. Quentin, earnestly besought the duke of Burgundy that he would besiege the town of Crespy, which held for the dauphin, as that garrison had done very great injuries to the whole country. The duke, incompliance with their remonstrances, consented, and advanced to Cressy-sur-Serre, where he was lodged; he thence sent forward sir John de Luxembourg, with Hector and Philip de Saveuses, and other captains, to quarter themselves in a village near to Crespy, by way of vanguard.

Shortly after the duke, with his whole army, invested Crespy, in which place might be about five hundred Dauphinois men-at-arms, under the command of La Hire, Poton de Saintrailles, Dandonct, and other adventurers, who with great courage defended the town against the besiegers, notwithstanding they had approached very near, and had pointed their artillery against the walls and gates. There were with the duke many captains who had served under duke John his father, namely, sir John de Luxembourg, the lords de l'lsle-Adam and de Chastellus, both marshals of France, sir Robinet de Mailly, great butler of France, le veau de Bar, bailiff of Auxois, the vidame of Amiens, Anthony lord de Croy, sir Philip de Fosseux and his brother John, the lord de Longueval, Hector and Philip de Saveuses, the lord de Humieres, who commanded the men-at-arms of the lord d'Antoing, the lord de Humbercourt, sir Mauroy de St. Leger, the lord de Stenhuse, sovereign bailiff of Flanders, the lords de Comines, de Haluin, the bastard of Harcourt, and all the vassals of his uncle sir James de Harcourt, with numbers of other notable knights and esquires from the different parts of the duke's dominions. His most confidential advisers were sir Actis de Brimeu, knight, the lord de Robais, and the bishop of Tournay, his chancellor. The duke made vast preparations for this siege; but at the end of fifteen days a treaty was concluded for the surrender of the town, on condition that the garrison should depart in safety with their baggage; but because this was his first campaign, a few were excepted, and sent prisoners to some of the towns under the king's obedience.

* John lord Roos, of Hamlake, who for his services who also served king ITcnry, and was rewarded with the

obtained a grant of the lordship of Bacqueville, in Nor- lordship of St. Sauvenr le Vicompte, in Normandy. lie

mandy, from Henry V., but he was never marshal of was heir to the famous canon de Robesart so often mc-n

England. Probably the sentence ought to run thus :— tinned by Froissart. Louis afterwards married Elizabeth,

"the lord Roos, the marshal of England," viz.—John daughter and heir of Bartholomew lord Bourcbier, mivd

lord Mowbray, afterwards carl of Nottingham and Norfolk, was cailed to parliament by that title. He died in 9 Henry

"and sir Louis de Robesart." VI. He was a knight of the Garter.

t Sir I.ouis de Robesart was son of John de Robesart,

On the ratification of this treaty the garrison marched away, under passports from the duke; but notwithstanding this, many were plundered, to the great indignation of the duke and his ministers, who caused restitution to be made to all who came to complain. The Dauphinois marched to Soissons, a town belonging to their party, and Crespy was despoiled of everything that was portable. At the request of the inhabitants of Laon, the fortifications were demolished,—that is to say, its gates and walls, to the great sorrow of the townsmen, and not without cause, for before the war it was abundantly filled with all sorts of merchandise as in a place of safety. It must not be forgotten, that there was in the company of the duke, during this campaign, the valiant captain Tabary and his hand of robbers, of whom mention has been made in another place,—but who only partook of half of the expedition, and continued his former pursuits, as shall be hereafter noticed.

CHAPTER CCXIX. THE CONDUCT OF THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY ON HIS MARCH TO TROYES,

AND WHEN THERE.— THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE ENGLISH AMBASSADORS WHO ACCOM-
PANIED HIM THITHER.

After the surrender of the town of Crespy in the Laonnois, the duke of Burgundy advanced to Laon, where he was most honourably received by the magistrates and inhabitants. He thence continued his march by Rheims to Chalons, in Champagne, always accompanied by the English ambassadors, and his escort of about one thousand combatants. From Chalons he advanced in grand array toward Troyes, and encamped near to Vitry, in Pertois, which place and some of the adjacent forts were in possession of the Dauphinois. Sir John de Luxembourg, who had the command of the vanguard, passed through the town, and continued his march toward the plains, in which were many deep and boggy springs. Sir Robinet de Mailly, grand butler of France, riding by his side, fell into one of these bogs; and his horse plunged so deep that, not having any mane for the knight to hold by, the latter could not save himself, but died a miserable death, whilst his horse escaped. The duke of Burgundy and several other lords, particularly sir Robinet's three brothers, who were with the duke, were sorely grieved at his loss. These last, namely, master John de Mailly, afterward bishop of Noyon, Collard, and Ferry de Mailly*, lamented it very bitterly. His body was dragged out of the bog and buried hard by.

As the duke approached Troyes, very many of the French and Burgundian nobility came out to meet him, with several of the principal citizens, and showed him every honour and respect. In company with them he made his entry into Troyes, the 21st day of March, and was escorted to his hotel. Wherever he passed, there were great multitudes of people assembled, who sang carols on his arrival. He shortly after waited on the king and queen of France and the lady Catherine, who received him kindly and showed him all manner of affection. Some days afterward, several councils were held in the presence of the king, qneen, and duke of Burgundy, to consider on establishing a final peace, and on the alliance which the king of England was desirous of forming with the king of France, and had sent his ambassadors with full powers to confirm the peace.

At length, after many conferences with these ambassadors, it was concluded, by favour of the duke of Burgundy and his party, that Charles, king of France, should give to Henry, king of England, his youngest daughter Catherine in marriage, and, in consequence of this alliance, should make him and his heirs successors to the crown of France after his decease; thus disinheriting his own son and heir, Charles duke of Touraine and dauphin, and annulling that principle of the constitution which had been, with great deliberation, resolved on by former kings and peers of France, namely, that the noble kingdom of France should never be governed or inherited by a female, or by any one descended from the female line. The king of France also agreed, that should king Henry have no issue by this marriage, he and

• These four brothers were the sons of John Maillet Vermandois; fourth, Ferry de Mailly, frequently mende Mailly, lord of St. Huyn; first, Robert de Mailly, tioned among the Burgundians of this period. This family called Robinet, grand-butler, killed as here described; was a branch of the stock of the lords de Mailly, killed second, John de Mailly, master of requests, &e. &e.; at Azincourt. third, Colin de Mailly, lord of Blangy, seneorhal of the

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