small river. The duke crossed this bridge, accompanied by his brother Richard, and some knights and esquires of his household, followed at a distance by the rest of his attendants, for he never suspected the mischief that was intended him. When he had passed the bridge, one of the count's attendants who counterfeited being a fool, dismounted and threw the planks of the bridge into the water by way of amusement, which prevented the retinue of the duke that had remained behind from crossing it. The duke, still unsuspecting, laughed heartily at this trick of the fool; but in the mean time, Charles, lord of Avaugour, brother to the count, who had lain in ambush with about forty men-at-arms, sallied out against the duke, who, seeing this, said to the count, “ Fair cousin, what means this? and who are these people ?” “My lord, they are my people, and I arrest you in the name of the dauphin," at the same time laying hands on him. The duke, greatly surprised, said, “ Ah! fair cousin, you act wickedly; for I came hither at your request, not suspecting you had any evil designs.” Some of his people, however, drew their swords in his defence ; but they soon perceived they were too inferior in numbers to do any good. At the same time, those who had been placed in ambuscade advanced on the duke with drawn swords, when one of the duke's gentlemen, called John de Beaumanoir*, had his wrist cut through, and another, named Thibault Buisson, was wounded in the hand. One of the count's household, called Henry l’Allemand, wanted to strike the duke with his sword ; but the count defended him, and ordered his men to cease fighting, for that he should carry the duke prisoner to the dauphin.

The duke's attendants on the other side of the bridge, seeing the situation of their lord, were much distressed that they could not come to his aid, and knew not how to act. Shortly after, the count de Penthievre, his brother, and his men-at-arms, hastily carried off the duke and his brother Richard towards Poitou, to Bressaire, and thence to Lusignan, to Bournouiau, to Châteaumur, and other places. He was thus a prisoner for six or seven months, without being confined in any prison or treated personally ill ; but he was closely watched, and had only one of his domestics to wait on him. His brother Richard was detained a prisoner with him.

You may suppose, that when the knowledge of this arrest of the duke was made known to the duchess and lords of Brittany, they were highly incensed: in particular, the duchess was so grieved that it was with difficulty she could be appeased. The whole of the nobility were speedily assembled, with the duchess, in the town of Nantes, when they solemnly resolved, on oath, to proceed to the deliverance of the duke, and to make war on the count de Penthievre, and on all his friends, allies, and well-wishers. They unanimously chose the lords de Châteaubriant+ and de Rieux | as their commanders, who instantly marched a powerful force against Lamballe, which belonged to the count. It held out for fifteen days, and then surrendered ; and the castle and town, which were strongly fortified, were destroyed, and the walls razed. They thence marched to Castle Andren, and to la Motte d'Ebron, which were treated in the same manner.

They proceeded to lay siege to Chantoceau, in which was the old countess de Penthierre. The governor was the lord de Bressieres, who defended it well. This siege lasted three months, without much being gained by the besiegers; for it was amply supplied with provision and stores, and well garrisoned by good men-at-arms. During this siege a treaty was made between the count and the duke, who promised to restore all his places, as well those that had been taken as those that had been demolished, and that he would not, by himself or his friends, any way molest him for what he had done. When this treaty had been concluded, and hostages given for its performance, the count sent back the duke, escorted by the lord de l'Esgle his brother.

The first act of the duke was to raise the siege of Chantoceau ; but when the barons of

* Afterwards grand-ecuyer to the king of France. He gaugier, by whom he had issue, John, lord of Chalain, his was son of William de Beaumanoir, lord of Landemont, successor, and Guy de Châteaubriant. and obtained the lands of Lavardin by marriage with the I John II., lord of Rieux and Rochefort, marshal of heiress of that barony.

France, died in 1417, leaving John III., viscount of

Donges, his successor, the same here mentioned, besides t Geoffrey de Châteaubriant, lord of Lyon, d'Angers, two other sons,—Peter, afterwards marshal of France, and &c., married to Louisa, daughter of the lord of Mont- Michael, lord of Châteaumont.

Brittany had again possession of their duke, they refused to comply with the treaty he had made, and insisted that the countess of Penthievre should depart from Chantoceau, and that the place should be put into the hands of the duke. A day of conference was appointed between the two parties, to see if any terms could be thought of to put an end to these differences; and the count promised to attend in person, giving his brother William * as an hostage for his keeping his promise : but he did not appear, having had sure information, that if he did come, he would never return. In truth, had he appeared, he would have been executed judicially, for it had been so determined on by the three estates of the duchy ; and they told the duke, that if he meant to keep the treaty made with the count de Penthievre, they would deprive him of the dukedom, and elect his eldest son duke in his stead, so that he was obliged to comply with their wills.

The count de Penthievre, on hearing these things, was much troubled, and not without cause ; for he knew that all his landed property and lordships in Brittany were confiscated and in possession of the duke, and that his brother remained as hostage in the hands of the duke, without a possibility of his deliverance. On the other hand, he was on bad terms with the dauphin, because he would not give up to him the person of the duke of Brittany, -and was not very safe as to himself, for he found few willing to support him. To avoid greater inconveniences, he withdrew into the viscounty of Limoges, and after some consultations with his brothers, departed thence through the country of Auvergne to Lyon, and thence to Geneva and Basil, on his way to his possessions at Avesnes in Hainault. As he was travelling down the Rhine, he was arrested by the marquis of Baden, by way of reprisal for the pillaging of some of his people in Hainault, and was detained a long time prisoner. To obtain his liberty, it cost him full thirty thousand crowns; after which he went to Avesnes in Hainault. While he resided at Avesnes, the Duke of Brittany sent some of his people thither to arrest hini, and put an iron chain round his neck. They were under the conduct of the following Breton gentlemen : sir Roland de Saint Pol, sir John de Lumon, Jacquet de Faulermine, and others; but they managed the matter with so little secrecy that their enterprise was known, and some were imprisoned. The rest saved themselves by flight. The count was forced to surrender the prisoners to the judicial court of Mons, and none were executed.

The count de Penthievre never returned to Brittany, but remained all his days in Hainault, and married the daughter and heiress of the lord de Quievrain, by whom, at his decease, he left several children, who did not, however, live until of competent age, so that his estates descended to his brother, the lord de l'Esgle.



In the month of February, the Dauphinois regained the town of Villeneuve-le-Roi ; but shortly after, the lord de l'Isle-Adam, with others of the Burgundian captains, quartered themselves in all the adjoining villages, by way of blockading it. They, however, only remained a certain time, and then decamped without subjecting the town to their obedience, which caused the country around to suffer much. A treaty was, however, made with the governor to allow provision to be brought unmolested to Paris, on paying certain taxes, of which he was to have his share. At this same time, Château-Thierry, with its castle, was delivered into the hands of the lord de Châtillont, though garrisoned by the Dauphinois, by means of some of the inhabitants, in which La Hire and many of his men were made prisoners, but were set at liberty afterward on ransom.

During this period, the Dauphinois garrisons at Meaux in Brie, at Compiègne, Pierrefons, and on the borders of the Valois, destroyed all the country round by their inroads, more especially the Beauvoisis, the Vermandois, and Santerre. In like manner did those

* Viscount of Limoges, fourth son of John, count of t William, lord of Châtillon, brother of Charles de Penthievre.

Châtillon, lord of Marigny, killed at Azincourt.

quartered in the country of Guise to the inhabitants of Hainault, the Cambresis, and the adjacent parts. While these troubles lasted, from the year 1415 to 1420, the money in France was greatly lowered in value, insomuch that a gold crown from the king's mint was worth twenty-nine sols in the money of the day, although it had been coined for eighteen sols parisis, which very much affected those lords whose rents were payable in money, and caused several law-suits between the parties, on account of the said dimination of the coin, when a horse-load of wheat was worth from seven to eight francs.



In this year, before king Henry left Paris to recross the sea, he caused Charles duke of Touraine and dauphin to be summoned to appear before the parliament at the table of marble, with all the usual ceremonies and solemnities, to answer for himself and his accomplices to the charges made against him and them, respecting the murder of the late John duke of Burgundy. And because he neither appeared himself, nor sent any one, he was by the council and parliament publicly banished the realm, and declared incapable of succeeding to any lands or lordships, at present or in times to come, –and even to the succession of the crown of France, notwithstanding he was the true and lawful heir after the decease of his father king Charles, according to the laws and usages of the realm. From this sentence, he made an appeal to his sword. Numbers of the Parisians were greatly pleased at his banishment, for they much feared him.

The duke of Exeter, governor of Paris, for certain reasons best known to himself ordered the lord de l'Isle-Adam to be arrested by some of his English, which caused a thousand or more of the commonalty of Paris to rise in order to rescue him from those who were carrying him to the Bastille. But the Duke of Exeter sent six-score combatants, the greater part of whom were archers, to support them; and they by their arrows, and by proclaiming that what they were about was by the king's order, created so great an alarm that the people retired to their houses, and the lord de l'Isle-Adam remained prisoner to the king of England so long as he lived. He would indeed have had him put to death, if the duke of Burgundy had not greatly interested himself in his behalf. •



OF EACH PARTY ARE SLAIN. The duke of Clarence, who had been appointed governor-general of all Normandy on the departure of his brother king Henry for England, marched his army, on Easter-eve, toward the country of Anjou, to combat a large body of the Dauphinois under the command of the earl of Buchan *, constable to the dauphin, the lord de la Fayette, and several others. It happened that on this day the duke heard that his enemies were near him at a town called Baugey in Anjou ; on which, being very renowned in arms, he instantly advanced thither a part of his force, particularly almost all his captains, when a very severe and bloody conflict ensued. The body of his army followed with much difficulty at a distance on account of a dangerous river they had to ford. On the other hand, the Dauphinois, who had been advertised of their approach, fought so manfully, that in the end they obtained the victory over the English. The duke of Clarence, the earl of Kyme, the lord Roos, marshal of England, and in general the flower of his chivalry and esquiredom, were left dead on the

* John Stuart, earl of Buchan, son to the duke of after the battle of Baugé; lord of Aubigny, and earl of Albany, regent of Scotland ; made constable of France Evreux.

field*, with two or three thousand common men. The earls of Somerset t and of Huntingdon, the count du Perche., with two hundred others, were made prisoners s.

The Dauphinois lost from a thousand to eleven hundred men: in the number were a gallant knight called Charles le Bouteiller ||, sir John Yvorin, Garin des Fontaines, sir John de Passavant, sir John de Bulle, sir John Totavant, with other persons of note, amounting in the whole to the number before specified. From that time forward the affair of this day was called the battle of Baugey.

The English were much cast down at this defeat, and particularly lamented the death of the duke of Clarence, who was much beloved by them for his valour and prudence. They, however, under the command of the earl of Salisbury, recovered the body of the duke, which was carried to Rouen, and thence transported to England, where it was buried with great solemnity .


[A. D. 1421.] At the beginning of this year, after the death of the duke of Clarence, the Dauphinois, elated with their victory at Baugey, assembled a large force to besiege Alençon, and in fact lodged themselves very near to the walls, combating the garrison with all their might. The English, notwithstanding their grief at their late loss, detached parties from their different garrisons in Normandy, under the command of the earl of Salisbury, to Alençon to offer battle to the enemy, and force them to raise the siege. But the Dauphinois having had, as before, intelligence of their motions, drew up in battle-array before their quarters, with every appearance of courage. When the English perceived how numerous they were, they retreated to the abbey of Bec, but not without losing, in killed and taken, from two to three hundred men, for they were pursued as far as the abbey. The Dauphinois, however, finding they could not gain Alençon without great loss of men, marched away, leaving everything behind them, and returned to Anjou and Dreux. In these days, a marriage was concluded between the duke of Alençon and the only daughter of the duke of Orleans, a prisoner in England. It was celebrated at the town of Blois, and had been chiefly brought about by the dauphin, to whom she was niece, and the duke of Brittany, uncle to the duke of Alençon **

When news of the death of the duke of Clarence reached king Henry in England, he was greatly troubled thereat, as well as at the loss of his other nobles and men, and hastened his preparations to return with an army to France, to take vengeance on the Dauphinois, who had thus grieved liim at heart.


About this time, sir James de Harcourt, who resided at Crotoy, whence, as has been said, he made war on the English, abstained from having any communication with the duke

* Among the rest, sir John Grey, of Heton, who in This battle took place on Easter-eve 1421. The 6 Henry V. had a grant of the earldom of Tancarville duke of Clarence's remains were recovered by his son and its dependencies in Normandy.

John, bastard of Clarence, and interred in the cathedral t John, second son of John Beaufort, earl of Somerset, church at Canterbury,—the duke having, by his will, and brother to Henry, earl of Somerset, who died 7 Henry dated July 1417, directed that his body should be buried V., without issue. He was also heir to his uncle, Thomas at the feet of that of his father, king Henry IV. Beaufort, duke of Exeter, who died 1424.

The lady Margaret Holland, daughter to Thomas HolI Q. Who is here meant? Thomas Montacute, earl land, earl of Kent, married, first to John Beaufort, earl of Salisbury, was presented with the earldom of Perche, of Somerset, and secondly to Thomas, duke of Clarence, and barony of Longuy, by the king, in 7 Henry V., but had a splendid tomb erected over his body in her lifetime. he was not made prisoner, as is evident from what follows. She died in December 1440.

$ Among others, lord Fitzwalter, afterwards mentioned. ** John II., surnamed le Beau, duke of Alençon,

|| William le Boutellier de Senlis, lord of St. Charlier, only son of John I., killed at Azincourt, and Mary of died in 1420, leaving two sons,'Charles ; here mentioned, Bretagne. Jane, daughter of Charles duke of Orleans, and William, who survived his brother, and was chamber. and Isabel of France. lain to the duke of Orleans.

of Burgundy, or with those of his party; he even seized in the port of Estaples a vessel laden with corn, that belonged to sir Hemon de Bouberch, who was attached to the duke of Burgundy. Because he refused to restore it, on being summoned, a sudden war broke out between them, very prejudicial to the whole country of Ponthieu and the adjoining parts. Sir Hemon, in revenge, went and made his complaints to sir William Balledo, lieutenant of Calais, who instantly collected soldiers from the county of Guines, and from his garrison, and carried them by sea to Crotoy,—when, having burnt all the vessels and boats in the harbour, he returned to Calais. In return for this enterprise, sir James forced an entrance into many of the towns of sir Hemon, which he completely plundered, and carried away the pillage to his garrisons of Noyelle and Crotoy.

Shortly after, sir Hemon did the same to the towns of sir James de Harcourt, and the war was carried on with such bitterness that the whole of that country suffered greatly; for sir James, to strengthen himself, obtained reinforcements of men-at-arms from Compiègne and elsewhere. He also formed an alliance with many of the nobles of Vimeu and Ponthieu, with the lord de Rambures, Louis de Vaucourt, le bon de Saveuses, Perceval de Houdent, Pierre Quieret, governor of D’Araines, and with many others. Sir James, by this means, gained possession of several towns and castles, such as the town of St. Riquier, the castles of la Ferté and of Drugy, the island and castle of Pont de Remy, the fortresses of D’Araines, Diaucourt, and Moreul : on the side of the country toward St. Valery, Rambures, Gamaches, and some others, into which, by the exertions of sir James, parties of the Dauphinois gained admittance, who began to make open war on the duke of Burgundy and his adherents, to the ruin of the country. The town of St. Riquier, however, did not submit to sir James until king Henry had crossed from England to France, as you shall hear.



WHEN king Henry had settled the government of England during his absence, and when his army was advanced to Canterbury, having received pay for eight months, he came to Dover; and thence, and at the neighbouring ports, he and his army embarked at day-break, on the feast of St. Barbara, and that same day arrived in the harbour of Calais at two o'clock in the afternoon. The king disembarked from his vessel and was lodged in the castle of Calais; the others landed also, and were quartered in the town and the adjacent parts, according to the orders of the king and his harbingers. Shortly after, when the vessels were unladen, they were discharged, and ordered back by the king to England. It was estimated by competent judges that from three to four thousand men-at-arms disembarked that day, and full twenty-four thousand archers. . On the morrow of the feast of St. Barbara, the king sent the earl of Dorset and the lord Clifford * to the assistance of his uncle the duke of Exeter and the Parisians, who were much straitened for provisions by the garrisons of the Dauphinois that surrounded Paris. They had under their command twelve hundred combatants, and, avoiding all the ambushes of the enemy, rode hastily forward to Paris, where they were joyfully received by the inhabitants, by reason of the intelligence they brought of the king of England being at Calais, to whom they had sent several messages before he left England. The dauphin had now a considerable army, which he marched toward Chartres ; and the towns of Bonneval and Galardon, with other castles, surrendered to him, which he regarrisoned, and then fixed his quarters as near to Chartres as possible, and encompassed it on all sides. It was defended by the bastard de Thian and other captains, who had been despatched thither in haste from Paris for that purpose. The dauphin's army was supposed to consist of from six to seven thousand liaving leg-armour, four thousand cross-bows, and six thousand archers, and this

* John lord Clifford, knight of the Garter, killed at the son of Thomas, was surnamed the Butcher, and killed the siege of Meaux. He married Elizabeth, daughter of at the battle of Towton. For the romantic history of Harry Hotspur, and had issue, 1. Thomas lord Clifford, the son of the last-named John, and father of the first killed at the battle of St. Albans. 2. John lord Clifford, earl of Cumberland, sce Dugdale's Baronage, vol. ii.

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