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other hand, the French quartered at Guise made frequent visits to Crotoy and Rue, by which the country was sorely harassed by each party, and justice was nowhere obeyed.
The burghers and commonalty of Tournay had, at this time, great dissentions, and assembled in arms under the banners of the different trades, that is to say, the great against the small. The commonalty admitted the lord de Moy into the town, who was attached to the party of king Charles as well as themselves ; and they elected several men of low degree for their captains, in place of the provost and their rulers. This time, however, the quarrel was appeased without coming to blows ; but similar agitations and changes frequently took place afterward within the town of Tournay. · Two thousand five hundred English were now assembled in Normandy under the command of the lord de la Pole, sir Thomas Berry, and other captains, who marched them through the country of Maine, wasting every part they passed through, to Angers, where they did much damage, and made numbers of prisoners. They returned with them and their plunder to a large town, called Busignes de la Graville, where they halted many days.
While these things were passing, John d'Aumarle, who had received from the country people intelligence of this expedition together with the baron de Colilouvre, the lord de Fontaines in Anjou, and sir Peter le Porc, collected a large body of men-at-arms and common people, and lay wait for the enemy in handsome array not far from La Graville. When the English perceived them, they dismounted, and posted the baggage in their rear. The French were mounted, and began the attack with great vigour, but the English defended themselves with such courage, the conflict was very severe and doubtful; but at length the English were conquered, and left full twelve hundred men on the field. The lord de la Pole was made prisoner, and thirty other gentlemen at least. Of the commonalty on the side of the French, six score persons were killed.
CHAPTER VII.---THE DUKES OF BEDFORD, BURGUNDY, AND BRITTANY, MEET AT AMIENS,
AND FORM A TRIPLE ALLIANCE.
[A. D. 1423.] In the beginning of this year, the dukes of Bedford, Burgundy, and Brittany, met in the town of Amiens, attended each by a large company of knights and esquires. With the duke of Bedford, who styled himself regent of France, came the great council of the young king Henry of England ; and with the duke of Brittany was his brother Arthur count de Richemont. These princes, on their arrival at Amiens, paid each other the utmost respect, and every outward symptom of affection; and the duke of Bedford splendidly and royally entertained them at dinner at the bishop's Palace, where he lodged. When this had been done, they formed a triple alliance, in the form and manner following, signed with their hands and sealed with their seals. ; “ John governor and regent of the kingdom of France, Philip duke of Burgundy, and John duke of Brittany, to all to whom these presents shall come, greeting.
“Know ye, that in consideration of our friendships, and the approaching near connexion about to take place by the marriages concluded between us, John duke of Bedford, regent of France, on the one part, with our very dear and well-beloved companion and cousin Anne of Burgundy on the other part ; and between our very dear and well-beloved brother Arthur count de Richemont, de Montfort and of Ivry, on one part, with our very dear and well-beloved sister and cousin, Margaret of Burgundy, on the other part; and for the general welfare of the king our lord, and of his kingdoms of France and England, for ourselves and for our lordships, lands and vassals, do faithfully swear and promise to each other eternal friendship and love so long as we shall live, as affectionate brothers ought to do; and we will defend the honour of each both publicly and in private, without fraud or any dissimulation, and we will mutually inform each other of whatever may be for the advantage or disadvantage, the glory or disgrace, of ourselves or of our territories and subjects. Should any persons make evil reports to us of either in his absence, we will not put any belief in such reports, but detain all those who shall make such in safe custody, and give immediate notice to him of whom such reports shall have been made.
“Should either of us feel himself bound in honour, or for the safeguard of his inheritances, to make war, each of us binds himself to aid the other, when called upon, with five hundred men-at-arms, or with an equivalent number of archers, according to the will of the person making such demand for aid. He who shall send the succour shall be obliged to pay them for the first month, and the supplicant to pay them for so long as they shall remain with him more than the time of one month. Should a greater number of men be required by either of us, the others shall furnish him therewith to the utmost of their power, without, however, leaving their countries defenceless.
“ Item, we engage to exert ourselves to the very utmost to the relief of the poor of this realm, who have suffered, and are now suffering greatly from poverty, -and to the driving out all foreign bands from the kingdom, so that peace and tranquillity may be restored, that God may be properly served and honoured, and commerce and labour be renewed.
“We, and each of us, do loyally promise, on the word of a prince, to fulfil all the above articles of alliance so long as we shall live, without doing any one thing to the contrary, under pain of forfeiting our honour in this world and our salvation in the next. In testimony of which, we have set our respective seals to these presents, and signed the same with our own hands, in the town of Amiens, this 27th day of April, in the year 1423.”
With this treaty, the intended marriages were confirmed, between the duke of Bedford, regent, with Anne sister to the duke of Burgundy,- and Arthur of Brittany with Margaret, sister also to the said duke, who had been before married to the eldest son of the late king Charles, duke of Aquitaine and dauphin of Vienne. In truth, the duke of Burgundy gave with his sister Anne, the county of Artois, with all its dependancies, to the duke of Bedford, to inherit for ever, in case he had by this marriage legal heirs. When all these things had been settled, the dukes of Bedford and Burgundy quitted Amiens, and returned together to Paris. The count de Richemont went to Arras; and the duke of Brittany, having received six thousand crowns to defray the expenses of his journey, by orders from the regent returned home with his Bretons.
During the time these dukes were at Amiens, the duke of Burgundy requested of the regent, that in case the castlewicks of Peronne, Roye and Mondidier were placed under subjection to king Henry, he might have the towns of Amiens, Abbeville, Montrieul, Dourleans, Beauquesne, with all their appurtenances, given to him in exchange. The regent replied, that he would lay the matter before the grand council.
The duke of Bedford, after a short stay in Paris, went to Troyes in Champagne with a very grand attendance of English,—whither was conducted, in a most honourable manner, from Burgundy, Anne sister to duke Philip, magnificently attended by the lady of Rochefort, and the lady of Salins, the lord de St. George, and many other great barons of Burgundy. With them came one John de Quielong, whom the duke had sent to the duchess dowager, to make preparations for this ceremony. The regent espoused the lady Anne on her arrival at Troyes, and the wedding was celebrated solemnly and royally. After some days the ladies who had accompanied the duchess took their leaves, but not without many tears, and returned to Burgundy. The duke and duchess of Bedford journeyed towards Paris ; but on the road he attacked the town of Pont-sur-Seine with such courage that it was taken by storm, and all the French within it cruelly put to the sword. He then continued his journey, and resided a considerable time in the hôtel des Tournelles in Paris, which he had caused to be magnificently fitted up for his reception.
CHAPTER VIII.-POTON DE SAINTRAILLES AND LYONNEL DE WANDONNE PERFORM A COMBAT
AT ARMS AT ARRAS, IN THE PRESENCE OF THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY. In these days, a combat at arms was performed at Arras, in the presence of the duke of Burgundy as judge of the lists, between Poton de Saintrailles and Lyonnel de Wandonne. Poton had demanded of Lyonnel to break six lances with him, and Lyonnel, in return, had required, afterward, a combat with battle-axes so long as they should hold out. When the preparations had been finished, and the day of combat was arrived, Poton entered the lists VOL. I.
first as the appellant, handsomely accompanied by his friends, and having made his reverence to the duke, who was seated as judge, he retired to his pavilion. Soon after, Lyonnel entered the lists, attended by sir John de Luxembourg, who, during the fight, supplied him with lances, and some other lords and friends. He, like Poton, went to make his bow to the duke, and then retired to the end of the lists, when the combat began. Many strokes were given with great vigour, and several lances broken and damaged on both sides. However, towards the end, the helmet of Lyonnel was somewhat fractured by the point of the lance of his adversary, and his head slightly wounded. When the duke saw this, he put an end for this day to any further combat on horseback.
On the morrow, the duke of Burgundy returned to the lists about ten o'clock in the morning, accompanied by the count de Richemont and the lords of his council, to be ready for the champions who were to fight on foot. Shortly after came Lyoanel, attended as before by sir John de Luxembourg, and, having made his obeisance to the duke, withdrew to his pavilion to wait for his opponent. Poton was not long in making his appearance, and, saluting the duke retired to his pavilion also. Upon this, the usual proclamation was made by a herald, for all persons to clear the lists, and to give no hindrance to the champions on pain of death. Lyonnel de Wandonne then, as appellant, issued from his tent, his battle-axe on his wrist, and marched with long strides toward his adversary, who, seeing him approach, advanced to meet him. Lyonnel made a gallant attack, and gave Poton many back-hand strokes with his battle-axe, without drawing breath. Poton coolly received and parried them as well as he could ; but, watching his opportunity, closed with Lyonnel, and struck him such repeated blows with the point of his axe under the vizor of his helmet that he broke it, and the face of his opponent was clearly seen. On finding his danger, Lyonnel grappled and seized the end of the axe under his arm, and Poton, taking hold of the broken part of the helmet, scratched his face with his gauntlet. While the struggle lasted, Lyonnel nearly replaced his visor, but the duke put an end to the contest by causing them both to be conducted to him by those who had charge of the lists, and ordered them henceforth to be good friends, for that they had well performed their combat. On this they returned to their lodgings, where Poton kept up a great expense with his companions.
The next day a tilting took place with lances between Rifflard de Champremy, attached to king Charles, and the bastard de Rosebecque. They broke many lances, but, in the end, Rifflard was pierced through his armour and side but not mortally hurt. The duke then put an end to the business ; and each party retired to his lodgings with his friends. Within a few days after this last combat, Poton, with his companions, went back to the county of Guise.
CHAPTER IX.—THE EARL OF SALISBURY BESIEGES THE CASTLE OF MONT-AQUILON, WHICH
SURRENDERS TO HIM. - OTHER MATTERS. At this period, the earl of Salisbury, by orders from the duke of Bedford, who called himself regent of France, laid siege to the castle of Mont-A quilon in Champagne. Lord Salisbury was then governor of the countries of Champagne and of Brie. The siege, notwithstanding the many attacks that were made, and the warlike engines employed, lasted for six months, or thereabout. The garrison consisted of full six score combatants, under the command of the lords de la Bourbe, de Cotigny, and a man-at-arms named Bourghenon. Very many of these six score left the place, so that toward the end no more than about thirty remained, who were so much distressed that they were forced to eat their horses. At length, the earl of Salisbury accepted their surrender, on condition that they paid twentytwo thousand saluts of gold for their lives being spared ; and for the payment of which, they were to give four of the principal men-at-arms as pledges. The garrison now departed in their bare pourpoints, under safe escorts, excepting those who had sworn to the observance of the last peace between the kings of France and England; and then the castle was demolished and razed to the ground.
About this same time sir Mauriod de St. Leger was arrested in Arras, by command of the duke of Burgundy, many complaints having been made against him to the duke, and particularly for having plundered his town of Auchin. He was carried prisoner to the castle of Chavetignes, where he remained a whole year, and was delivered therefrom by the solicitations of his friends.
The duke of Bedford now caused the strong castle of Orsay, between Paris and Montlehery, to be besieged by his English. It held out for about six weeks, and then was unconditionally surrendered. The garrison were led to Paris bareheaded, in their under doublets, some with cords round their necks, and others with the points of their swords turned to their bosoms. In this manner they were brought before the duke and duchess of Bedford, at the hôtel des Tournelles, when the duke commanded them to be carried instantly to the Châtelet ; but the duchess, moved by pity, pressed the duke so urgently for mercy that they were all set at liberty, without any other punishment, and went whithersover they pleased. Some joined the English, and others returned to their own party.
In the month of May, seven hundred English marched from Rouen and the territory of Caux, under the command of the bailiff of Caux, through Abbeville, to besiege the castle of Noëlle on the sea side, belonging to sir James de Harcourt. Those within the castle being doubtful of succour, after a few days surrendered it, on condition that their lives and fortunes should be spared. Sir James de Harcourt, on hearing this, hastily remanded his men from Rue, and abandoned that town, without any defence, to his enemies. The English lost no time in taking possession of it, and much harassed the poor inhabitants who had remained. They made it a frontier-town, to oppose that of Crotoy, as you will hear.
In this month of May, a severe battle was fought near to Naples, between Alphonso, king of Arragon, and the great captains of Italy, who had revolted from him *. The defeat was so complete that Alphonso was forced to fly with a few attendants, or he would have been slain or made a prisoner by his enemies.
About St. John Baptist's day following, the English besieged Crotoy by sea and land, under the command of sir Raoul le Bouteiller, who having posted his men very advantage ously, had his camp strongly fortified. Sir James de Harcourt prepared for an obstinate defence, and pointed many cannon and other warlike engines to annoy the enemy, and to prevent their nearer approach. The country people round were very much rejoiced at this siege.
CHAPTER X.-KING CHARLES OF FRANCE HAS THE TOWN OF CREVANT BESIEGED BY THE
CONSTABLE OF SCOTLAND AND THE COUNT DE VENTADOUR. In the beginning of the month of July, king Charles ordered a large body of forces to cross the Loire and besiege the town of Crevant, which was of the Burgundian party. The chief of this expedition was the constable of Scotland, who had under him many great lords and expert captains; and they vigorously assaulted the town by their engines of war. As neither the English nor Burgundians seemed to attend to this siege, the duchess-dowager of Burgundy sent in haste to the nobles of that country, to require, in the name of her son the duke, that they would assemble their men and march to the relief of Crevant. The lord de Toulongeon, marshal of Burgundy, in consequence, assembled his men, and, with the united forces of the other lords, advanced to Auxerre to join the earl of Salisbury, the earl of Suffolk, the lord Willoughby, and other English lords, whom the duke of Bedford had sent thither to the amount of four thousand combatants, all picked men and tried in arms. To do these English honour, the count de Joigny, the borgne de Toulongeon, the lord du Vergy, sir John and sir William de Vienne, sir Regnier Pot, the lord de Rochefort t, and many more notable lords, went out of Auxerre, to meet them on their march. On their meeting, very great and mutual respects were shown on both sides ; and they rode together in handsome array into the town, where the earl of Salisbury was lodged in the bishop's palace.
* Under the command of Sforza. The queen im- -1. Charles, lord of Rochefort, chamberlain of Bur. mediately afterwards declared for Louis of Anjou, and gundy, d. s. p. 1438 ; 2. John, master of artillery to Alphonso retired into Spain. See Giannone, lib. 25, c. the duke of Burgundy, d. s. p. 1442 ; 3. James, lord of 4, 5.
Rochefort, who continued the line. † James, lord of Rochefort, bailiff of Auxois. Issue
When they had somewhat refreshed themselves with meat and drink, the English and Burgundians assembled in the cathedral, and there entered into such resolutions as you shall hear.
This united force began their march toward Crevant; and when within a long quarter of a league from the town they dismounted. It was at the time very sultry; and they suffered much thus marching on foot, by the weight of their armour and from the extreme heat of the sun. This day were knighted, William de Vienne *, son to the lord de St. George, Jolin lord of Auxi, Philip lord de Trenont, and Coppin de la Viefville.
The regulations that had been made by the chiefs of the English and Burgundians, when in the cathedral of Auxerre, were as follow :- First, that on the morrow, Friday, they would march away at ten o'clock in the morning, to fix their quarters near to Crevant. Secondly, two marshals were to be appointed to overlook and inspect the army, namely, the lord du Vergy for the Burgundians, and sir Gilbert de Hallesalt for the English.
Thirdly, it was to be proclaimed that the Burgundians and English should live in good harmony with each other, without quarrels or strife, on pain of being severely punished by their commanders. Fourthly, that the whole should form one army; and that there should be six score men-at-arms, namely, sixty English and sixty Burgundians, with as many archers, sent forward as scouts to gain intelligence. Fifthly, it was ordered that when the army should arrive near any spot where a battle was likely to take place, proclamation should be instantly made for every one to dismount, —and those who refused should be put to death : the horses were to be led half a league in the rear; and all that should be found nearer the army should be seized and confiscated.
It was also ordered, that every archer should provide himself with a stake with two sharp points, to plant before him should it be found necessary.--Item, that no person, whatever might be his rank, should dare attempt making any prisoners on the day of battle until the field should be fairly won. Should any such be made, the prisoner was to be instantly put to death, and with him the person who had taken him, should he refuse to obey. Item, that every man should provide himself with provision for two days; and that the town of Auxerre should send after the army as much provision as could possibly be collected, for which they were to be well and truly paid. Item, it was then also ordered that no one should precede or remain behind their captains, but that every man should keep the station that had been assigned him, under pain of corporal punishment.
All these regulations and orders were proclaimed by sound of trumpet throughout Auxerre ; and on the ensuing day, after having heard mass with great devotion, and drank a cup, they departed from Auxerre in much brother-like affection, and fixed their quarters within a short league of their enemies.
On the following Saturday, they decamped at ten o'clock in the morning, and advanced in handsome array toward the French, whom they saw posted on a mountain in front of the town of Crevant, and where they had remained the preceding night waiting the arrival of more men.
Upon the English and Burgundians crossing to the other side of the river Yonne, near to Coulogne les Vimeus or Vigneuses, the French descended the mountain, and marched toward the enemy with great appearance of courage; and each party formed their order of battle, in which they remained without doing anything more for three hours, as the river Yonne was between them. The English and Burgundians, however, made an advance, and gained possession of a bridge, whence they annoyed the French greatly, those in Crevant, at the same time, making a sally, and attacking them briskly in their rear. The battle now began in earnest on both sides, and, finally, the English and Burgundians won the day and the field; the greater part of the Scots, amounting to three thousand, who were in the front ranks, were either killed or taken. The constable of Scotland surrendered himself prisoner to the lord de Châtellux, but with the loss of an eye. In like manner, the lord de Ventadour surrendered to the lord de Gamaches, and he also had lost an eye. Stephen and John de Farsmerest, Scots knights, with several gentlemen of note, to the number of four hundred,
* William, lord of Bussy, eldest son of William IV. my friend, Dr. Robert Anderson, at Edinburgh. He de Vienne, lord of St. George.
thinks, that “ Stephen and John de Farsmeres may perhaps it Called in Hall's Chronicle, sir Gilbert Halsell. mean Ferrier, or Ferrieres, which are Scottish names. I
To clear up, if possible, these misnomers, I consulted may be Farmer, or Farnihurst, or Fernihurst, the ancient