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to break the ranks of the enemy on their flanks and rear. The grand battalion of the French was on foot,—which being observed by the duke of Bedford, he ordered his army to be formed in the same manner, without any vanguard, and not having any party on horseback. The archers were posted in front, each having a sharp-pointed stake stuck in the ground before him; and the stoutest of these men were placed at the two ends of the battalion, by way of wings. Behind the men-at-arms were the pages, the horses, and such as were unfit for the combat. The archers tied the horses together by their collar pieces and tails, that the enemy might not surprise and carry them off. The duke of Bedford ordered two thousand archers to guard them and the baggage.
Very many new knights were now created on both sides; and when all was ready, these two powerful armies met in battle, about three o'clock in the afternoon, on the 16th day of August. The English, as usual, set up a grand shout as they advanced, which alarmed the French much; and the conflict raged with the utmost violence for three quarters of an hour; and it was not in the memory of man that such armies had been so long and warmly engaged without victory declaring for either of them. That division of the French which had been ordered to remain mounted to attack the rear of the English, while the combat was going on, came to the horses and baggage of the enemy, but could make no impression from the resistance of the guard of archers: they however seized some of the cavalry and baggage, with which they fled, leaving their army fighting on foot. The archers, then, finding themselves thus disembarrassed from the enemy, were fresh to join their companions in the front, which they did with loud shouts.
The French now began to fail; and the English, with great bravery, broke through their ranks in many places, and, taking advantage of their success, obtained the victory, but not without much effusion of blood on both sides; for it was afterward known by the kings-atarms, heralds, poursuivants, and from other persons worthy of belief, that there were slain of the French, and left on the field of battle, from four to five thousand, great part of whom were Scotsmen, and two hundred made prisoners.
On the part of the English sixteen hundred were killed, as well from England as from Normandy,—the principal persons of whom were two captains of the name of Dudley and Charleton. The following is a list of those of name who fell on the side of the French :— Jean count d'Aumale, the son of the count de Harcourt, the count de Tonnerre, the count de Ventadour, the earl of Douglas *, sir James Douglas his son, the earl of Buchan, at that time constable to king Charles, the earl of Murray, the lord de Graville the elder, the lord de Montenay, sir Anthony Beausault, Hugh de Beausault his brother, the lord de Belloyt and his brother, the lord de Mauny, the lord de Combrest, the lord de Fontenay, the lord de Bruneil, the lord de Tumblet, the lord de Poissy. From Dauphiny, the lord de Mathe, the lord de Rambelle. From Languedoc and Scotland, sir Walter Lindsay, sir Gilles deGamachesJ, Godfrey de Malestroit, James Douglas, sir Charles de Boin, sir John de Vretasse, sir Gilles Martel, the son of Harpedame, sir Brunet d'Auvergne, sir Raoul de la Treille, Guy de Fourchonivere, sir Pochart de Vienne, sir John de Murat, the lord de Vertois, sir Charles de Gerammes, Dragon de la Salle, the lord de Rambouillet, the bastard de Langlan, the viscount de Narbonne, whose body, when found on the field, was quartered, and hung on a gibbet, because he had been an accomplice in the murder of the late duke of Burgundy; the lord de Guictry§, sir Francis de Gangeaux, sir Robert de Laire, sir Louis de Teyr, the lord de Foregny, Moraut de la Mothe, sir Charles d'Anibal and his brother Robinet d'Anibal, Pierre de Courceilles, sir Aymery de Gresille, Andrew de Clermont, sir Tristan Coignon, Colinet de Vicomte, (.! uillaume Remon, sir Louis de Champagne, Peron de Lippes, sir Louis de Bracquemont, the lord de Thionville, the lord de Rochebaron, sir Philip de la Tour, and Anselin de la Tour.
The principal prisoners were, the duke d'Alencon, the bastard d'Alenfon, the lord de la Fayette, the lord de Hormit, sir Pierre Herrison, sir Louis de Vaucourt, Roger Brousset, Huchet de St. Mare, and Yvon du Puys; but there were numbers of others whose names I cannot remember. When the duke of Bedford had gained this important victory at Verneuil, he assembled his princes and captains around him, and with great humility, with uplifted hands and eyes, he returned thanks to the Creator for the great success he had given him. The dead were then stripped, and whatever was valuable taken away.
* Archibald, carl of Douglas, father-in-law to the earl J John de Ronnult, lord of Boismenard, father of
of Buchan. Hade duke of Touraine, and lieutenant- Joachim de Ronault, marshal Gamaches, and son of Giles,
general of France, in order to give him precedence over lord of Boismenard, was killed at this battle, his son-in-law the constable. § Charles de Chaumont en Vcxin, son to William lord
f Peter, lord of Bellay, &c, third son of Hugh VII. de Guictry, before mentionedwho was killed at Azincourt.
The duke encamped that night round Verneuil, and appointed a strong guard to prevent any surprise from the enemy. On the morrow, the French within the town and castle were summoned to surrender. They were so much terrified by the defeat and carnage of their army that they instantly obeyed, on condition that their lives and fortunes should be spared. The lord de Rambures, governor, was also permitted to depart. After the duke had re-garrisoned Verneuil and its castle, he marched his army into Normandy.
On the very day that this battle took place, a number of knights and esquires from Normandy and the adjacent parts deserted from the duke's army, although they had before sworn loyalty and obedience to him. For this offence, some of them were afterwards severely punished in their bodies by the duke, and all their estates and effects confiscated to the use of king Henry. In the number were, the lord de Choisy and the lord de Longueval.
About this time the lord de Maucour was taken, who had been implicated by the lord de Longueval, and others accused before master Robert le Jeune, bailiff of Amiens; he was beheaded by orders from the council of king Henry, in the town of Amiens, his bodv hun? on a gibbet, and his fortune confiscated to the king. In like manner was afterward taken Pierre de Recourt, implicated likewise with the above, by one named Raoul de Gauconrt, who sent him to sir John de Luxembourg; and sir John sent him to Paris, where his bodv was quartered, and parts of it hung up at the usual places.
Very soon was intelligence of this unfortunate battle carried to king Charles, who was sorely affected at the destruction of his princes and chivalry, and for a long time was mightily grieved, seeing that all his plans were now unsuccessful.
CHAPTER XXI THE INHABITANTS OF TOURNAY REBEL AGAINST THEIR MAGISTRATES.
In the beginning of the month of September, the inhabitants of Tournay rose in rebellion, — the burghers against the magistrates and others of rank,—namely, those of the marketplace, and of the old precincts, against those within the walls. This commotion was caused by a blacksmith having fastened a chain during the night about the slaughter-houses, for which he was banished the town. In consequence of this banishment, those within the old precincts, to a large number, put on as badges an upright cross; while those of the marketplace raised the bridges, and erected many bulwarks against them. They began hostilities with courage; but in the end a truce was agreed on, for the sake of their annual procession, —and at last peace was established, without any great harm being done to either party.
CHAPTER XXII. — THE GARRISON OF GUISE CAPITULATE TO SIR JOHN DE LUXEMBOURG AXD
SIR THOMAS RAMPSTONE.
When sir John de Luxembourg and sir Thomas Rampstone had, with great perseverance, continued their siege of Guise and its castle until the month of September,—the garrison, fmding provisions grow short, and losing all hope of relief, offered to capitulate with the two aforesaid lords, on the following terms.
"To all to whom these presents shall come, we, John de Luxembourg lord de Beaurevoir, and Thomas Rampstone knight, chamberlain to the lord-regent, and governors of this district for the king of France and of England, our sovereign lord, by the appointment of my lords the regent and the duke of Burgundy, send health and greeting.—Know ye, that we have this day signed a treaty in the names of our lords aforesaid, with John de Proisy governor and captain of the town and castle of Guise, and with the churchmen, gentlemen, men-atarms, and the burghers of the said town, according to the terms and articles hereafter to be declared.—First, the governor and the persons aforesaid, residing within the town and castle of Guise, do promise truly and faithfully to surrender the said town and castle to one of us, or to such other person or persons as the king of France and England may depute for that purpose, on the first day of March next ensuing; provided that, on or before that day, they be not relieved by the princes or others of the same party as themselves, by combating us between the town of Sains and the house of Fouquausuins, which spot we have fixed on, in conjunction with the garrison of Guise, for the field of battle. Should those of the party of king Charles be defeated in fair combat, by the forces of the king of France and England, or put to flight, the garrison of Guise shall hold themselves bounden to deliver up the town and castle. In case the contrary should happen, and we of the party of the king of France and of England be beaten, or afraid to appear on the appointed day, we shall be bounden to return without ransom the hostages which shall have been given to us for the due observance of this treaty.
"Item, my lord the regent, and my lord of Burgundy, or those commissioned by them, shall be bound to appear with such force as they may please on the first day of March, to hold the wager of battle, namely, from sunrise of that day until sunset; and if they shall not then be fought with nor defeated, the garrison shall, without fail, or any fraud whatever, surrender the town and castle immediately after sunset, on receiving back the hostages whom they had given.—Item, during the term of this treaty, and within one month afterward, the governor and all others within the said town and castle, of whatever rank they may be, shall have free liberty to depart singly or in companies across the river Seine, to such places as are held by their party, and carry with them, or have carried, their armour, horses, baggage, and all their effects; and, for their greater security, we promise to deliver to them sufficient passports in the name of my lord the regent, if so required, that shall include not more than twenty in a company. Should any of them wish to go out of the kingdom, even to Hainault, they must do so at their peril.
"Item, should any now resident within Guise be inclined to remain there, or elsewhere, under the dominion of our lord the king, or of our lords the regent and the duke of Burgundy, they shall have full liberty, on taking the oaths of allegiance, and on swearing to preserve the last-made peace between the kingdoms of France and England, with the free enjoyment of all their effects and inheritances that may not before have been disposed of. Should they wish to depart, they shall not carry with them any of their moveables.—Item, the inhabitants of Guise having passports from the conservators of the articles of this treaty, who are bounden to give them, may go to such towns as we have notified, and enter the same with the permission of their captains or governors, namely, St. Quentin, Riblemont, Laon, Bruyeres, Crespy, Marle, Aubenton, Vertus, and the adjacent villages, to procure provision and other necessaries for money, so that the quantities be not more than sufficient for their sustenance, until the capitulation be expired.—Item, the inhabitants of Guise may pursue their lawful and just debts before the said conservators, who will take cognizance thereof, and do justice between the parties, on hearing each side.
"Item, if, during the terms of this treaty, any of the king's party shall take by scalado, or otherwise, the town and castle of Guise, we will exert ourselves to the utmost of our loyal power to force them to evacuate the same, and we will replace them in their former state; for we will neither attempt to take them ourselves, nor suffer others to do so during the said term.—Item, in like manner, those within Guise shall not, during the same term, gain openly or secretly any places dependent on the king or his allies, nor carry on any manner of warfare against his or their vassals.—Item, a general pardon shall take place with regard to all persons indiscriminately within Guise, excepting, however, those who may have been implicated in the murder of the late duke of Burgundy, whose soul may God pardon ! those who have sworn to observe the articles of the last peace concluded between France and England; those guilty of treason on the person of the duke of Brittany; all English and Irish who may be in the said town or castle; all of whom must be delivered tip to justice. For the better knowledge of the aforesaid persons, the governor of Guise shall give to us, in writing, the names and surnames of all men-at-arms now within that town and castle.— Vol. i. u
Item, should any violences be committed, contrary to the above articles, by either party during the said term, this treaty shall not thereby be infringed nor violated; but the conservators shall have full powers to arrest and punish those guilty of any violence, and to make restitution of whatever things may have been unlawfully plundered.
"Item, the garrison of Guise shall not, during the said term, although they have possession of the castle and town, carry on any warfare, nor give aid or support to any of their party that may be so inclined. Should it happen that any persons acting hostilely be pursued by the king's party, and chased visibly into the said town or castle, the governor shall cause them to be delivered up to those who had thus pursued them, to be dealt with like prisoners. — Item, the inhabitants of Guise shall not, during the said term, demolish any part of the fortifications or outworks of the said town and castle; nor shall they in any way add to their strength.—Item, so soon as we shall have withdrawn all our cannon, artillery, stores, and engines of war, to a place of security, we will raise the siege, and depart from before the said town and castle, to go whithersoever we shall please.
"Item, the governor, the gentlemen, and burghers within the said town, to the number of twenty-four persons, shall solemnly swear punctually to observe all the above articles, and promise faithfully not to infringe any one of them in the smallest degree; and those who may have a seal shall seal these articles with their seal. — Item, for the better observance of these articles, eight persons shall be given as hostages, namely, Jean de Begnault, du Hamel, Jean de Cadeville, Jean de Beauvoir, Jean de St. Germain, the elder Wautier, sir Walerant du Mont, and Jean Flangin de Noulles. In case any of the above shall die, or make their escape during the time aforesaid, those of Guise shall be bounden alway to find eight sufficient hostages on demand of the besiegers.—Item, the inhabitants of Guise, in conjunction with us, have unanimously appointed, as conservators of this treaty, sir Daviod de Poix, knight, and Collart de Proisy, or his deputy. To this sir Daviod de Poix, or to his deputy, we have given full powers and authority to grant to the said inhabitants of Guise good and sufficient passports, and to determine all suits at law that may be brought before him from cither party, according to what has been before mentioned.
"Item, we have promised and sworn, and do by these presents promise and swear, to fulfil all things contained in these said articles most loyally and honourably, to the utmost of our powers, and that we will have them faithfully observed and maintained by all subjects and vassals under the obedience of our lord the king, of our lord the regent, and of our lord of Burgundy.—Item, for the greater security of the above, we will have these articles confirmed by our said lord the regent, in manner hereafter to be declared. In testimony of which, we have affixed our seals to these presents. Given at our camp before the town and castle of Guise, the 18th day of September, in the year 1424."
When the treaty had been signed, and the hostages delivered, the siege of Guise was broken up. Sir John de Luxembourg returned to his castle of Beaurevoir, and dismissed his captains; and sir Thomas Rampstonc went with the English to wait on the duke of Bedford at Paris, by whom he was most graciously received.
About this time, the lord de Montagu, a Bnrgundian, concluded a treaty with Estienne de Vignolles, called La Hire, of the opposite party, that Vitry en Pertois, and other fortresses held by La Hire, should be surrendered to the lord de Montagu on the first Sunday in Lent, in case they were not relieved on or before that time by king Charles. No succour arrived, and in consequence they were yielded up according to the agreement. In these days, sir Manfroy de St. Leger and the bastard de St. Pol assembled from four to five hundred combatants, and led them into Barrois, where they committed infinite mischiefs, and gathered much riches, with which they returned in safety, and without opposition, to their own country.
In the month of October, the duke of Gloucester and Jacqueline of Bavaria, countess of Hainault, of Holland, and of Zealand, (whom the duke of Gloucester had married some time before in England, although duke John of Brabant, her first husband, was still alive,) disembarked at Calais with five thousand English combatants, intending to make a powerful invasion on Hainault, and gain the government thereof, as belonging of right to the said Jacqueline. The earl marshal of England was commander-in-chief of these men-at-arms.
CHAPTER XXIII. THE DIKES OF BEDFORD AND OF BURGUNDY ENDEAVOUR TO MAKE UP
THE QUARREL BETWEEN THE DUKES OF GLOUCESTER AND OF BRABANT.
About the end of October the dukes of Bedford and of Burgundy met at Paris, with their confidential ministers, according to what had been agreed on when they were last at Amiens, to discuss the differences that had arisen between the dukes of Gloucester and of Brabant. The matter was most fully debated during several days before their council, notwithstanding a suit was still pending at the court of Rome. At length, the dukes of Bedford and Burgundy agreed on the terms of a pacification, according to the opinions of their counsellors, and sent them to the dukes of Gloucester and of Brabant. The ambassadors who went to the duke of Gloucester and his lady at Calais were, sir Raoul le Bouteiller and the abbot Fouquans. When they showed their credentials, and the terms that had been agreed on, they had a direct negative from the duke and the lady, who declared they would not abide by them, but would march a powerful army into Hainault to take possession of that country. On receiving this answer, the ambassadors returned to Paris. Those who had been sent to duke John of Brabant were graciously received; and he declared, with the advice of his council, that he was very willing to accept the terms agreed on by the dukes of Bedford and Burgundy, and was well contented therewith.
On these answers being carried to the two dukes in Paris, they were much troubled that the duke of Gloucester would not accept of the terms which they had settled,—more particularly the duke of Burgundy, who plainly told his brother-in-law, the duke of Bedford, that since he found his brother the duke of Gloucester would not listen to any reasonable terms, he should assist his cousin, the duke of Brabant, with all his power, to enable him to preserve his honour and territories against the duke of Gloucester. The duke of Bedford was much angered against his brother at heart, for his obstinacy, and greatly feared that, from this quarrel, all connexions of the English with the duke of Burgundy would be done away, and their power in France destroyed.
The dukes of Bedford and of Burgundy kept each at his hotel in Paris the feast of Allsaints with much solemnity; and some days afterward, the duke of Burgundy had the marriage of sir John de la Trimouille lord de Jonvelles*, with the damsel of Rochebaron, sister to the lord d'Amboise (who at that time resided with the queen of France, widow of the late king, in company with the lady of La Ferte), celebrated at his hotel of Artois, and at his own expense. At this marriage were present, the said queen of France, the duke and duchess of Bedford, sister to the duke of Burgundy, attended by the earl and countess of Salisbury, the earl of Suffolk, the bishop of Therouenne, the lord d'Estable, and many noble knights, esquires, ladies and damsels of high degree, who were all magnificently entertained by the duke of Burgundy and his officers. There was a grand display of every costly viand and wines, followed by dancings, tiltings, and other amusements.
The dukes of Bedford and Burgundy even tilted themselves with other princes and knights. When this feast was over, the duke of Burgundy returned from Paris to his residence in Burgundy, where he united himself in marriage, by an apostolical dispensation, with the widow of his uncle the count de Nevers, who had been slain at the battle of Azincourt. This lady was much renowned for her pious life: she had two children by the count de Nevers, and was sister-german to the count d'Eu, then a prisoner in England, and sister by the half blood to Charles de Bourbon count de Clermont.
At this time died John of Bavaria, formerly bishop of Liege, uncle to the duke of Burgundy, and to Jacqueline of Bavaria; and because he had not had any children by his lady, he declared the duke of Burgundy his heir and successor, thus putting aside Jacqueline of Bavaria his niece.
* Brother of George, lord of la Tremouille, who married the duchess of Berry end countess of Boulogne and Auvergne, as above mentioned.
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