« 前へ次へ »
(3) The case is similar, though stronger, in relation to the absolute imperative, as seen in the examples,
Let there be order,
And God said, Let there be light. Here, as there is simply the enunciation of a sovereign volition, or fiat, no subject is possible, either grammatical or logical. Hence, the proper diagram is,
Eighthly. There are two cases in which adjunct forms may be made to symbolize both the nature and relations of the modifying terms more accurately.
(1) Adjectives used independently as logical adjuncts, instead of being drawn in complete figures, which misrepresent them, as substantives, should retain the distinct adjunct figure, as in the following:
(2). SUBSTANTIVE ADVERBS. (2) There is an important class of adverbs which, with their adjunct office, combine a substantive nature, not usually represented in the diagrams, but which should be properly distinguished in figure as well as connection. Take the examples,
He went yesterday, arrived there to-day, and will return to-morrow.
He went home last week, and has written three times since.
In these examples, the words yesterday, to-day, to-morrow, home, week, and times, either from absorbing the preposition or altogether rejecting it, come, although substantives, to be used as adverbs. In the diagram, then, they should retain the substantive figure, thus,
RELATIVE AND ADJUNCTIVE.
Ninthly. Auxiliary elements, while clearly enough set forth in the general rules, are not adequately illustrated in the diagrams. The following will, in part, meet the principal want.
An example of a pure adjunctive auxiliary, will be found in the first diagram, page 66; see first (and) third.
(1) The following exhibits a mixed auxiliary, partly adjunctive and partly relative ; as but
(2) In the next, the auxiliary is mixed, partly adjunctive and partly predicative; as, than,
(3) The auxiliary auxiliary will be seen below; as and,
X.- Double Connection. Tenthly. The diagrams in the Grammar pass over in silence the not unfrequent case of double connection. An
illustration of its occurrence, in the case of a disjunctive participial phrase abbreviated from a sentence, appears in the subjective clause in the following diagram.
The following exemplify its occurrence in the case of sentences.
XI.--Complex Elements with Double Offices.
Eleventhly. There are some peculiar forms of combination for which advanced diagrams are greatly needed. (1) The conjunctive adverb often requires a peculiar treatment. Take the sentence,
Whither thou goest I will go, and whither must be represented as in the following diagram,
(2) In the sentence,
Each soldier's eye shall brightly turn,
To (where) thy meteor-glories burn, where has a three-fold office, substantive, conjunctive, and adverbial, and appears in diagram thus,
XII.-Compound Sentences, Parts Common. Twelfthly. Compound sentences, having some or all of their principal parts common, as in the sentence, Ho and I study and recite grammar and arithmetic, cannot be adequately represented by the following diagram taken from the Grammar.
This symbolizes a connected, but not a common relation throughout. What is needed is rather the following: