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XIII.-Sentences having Diverse Elements in

Correlation. Thirteenthly. Sentences frequently occur in which some element is common to certain others, but in which those others stand to each other in an individual correlation, as in the sentence,

Business resulted in fatigue, fatigue in disgust, and disgust in change.

Here, resulted, the predicate, is common to the three subjects, Business, fatigue, and disgust, and to the three phrase adjuncts, in fatigue, in disgust, and in change ; but each of these stands in distinct correlation to its own subject. Such an individual correlation no diagram in the grammar can exhibit. Hence, the only resource, is a

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change.

3.

complex and needless threefold repetition of the predicate resulted, which destroys the compact, compound character of the sentence altogether, and makes it a loose, complex sentence. How readily the true character of the sentence, and the proper correlation may be symbolized, may be seen from the preceding diagram, the numbers indicating, at once, what modification of the predicate is to reflect its force upon each particular subject.

With this we leave the subject of supplementary or advanced forms, leaving the thoughtful teacher to judge for himself as to their practical merits, and only adding that even though accepted as superior to those in the Grammar, as advanced forms, it is not to be inferred, that they are to be pressed without caution or discrimination, upon the attention of those who are not advanced students in analysis and the use of diagrams.*

* In the supplementary forms presented in this chapter, several errors in engraving will be noticed, against the occurrence of which it was supposed every precaution had been taken. For example, some of the figures, instead of being strictly elliptical, as they were drawn, are nearly rectangular; and in several cases, the proper substantive figure has been used for adjuncts which required the proper adjunct figure. These errors, and others of the kind, must be carefully avoided by the pupil in his practice.

CHAPTER IV.

PRACTICAL RULES FOR DRAWING.

Excellence in drawing essential--RULES FOR DRAWING—I. Prac

tice must be gradual and progressive — Proneness to undue haste-II. The work to be done must be pre-consideredIII. Exact observance of rules, imperative-IV. A regular order of construction, required—(1) Point of commencement-(2) Proper movement-(3) Completion of figures—V. The crossing of lines or figures, inadmissibleVI. The æsthetic to be constantly regardedGeneral deficiency in this direction–The rules enforced by individual experience.

ASIDE from the general rules already given, for the proper construction of the diagrams according to their symbolical office-work, there are certain specific directions which relate to the mere matter of graphic execution, or drawing, and which, in their just observance, bear more directly upon the pupil's success in the use of the diagrams, than is commonly supposed. Too many, from a natural lack of artistic taste, or from acquired habits of carelessness, fancy that, in the construction of diagrams, as in writing, making figures, mapping, or drawing, if the work is done with sufficient exactness to indicate the required facts in analysis, it is of little importance whether it possesses any artistic excellence whatever.

EXCELLENCE IN DRAWING ESSENTIAL.

And yet, here, as in everything else belonging to graphic art, there is demanded an excellence beyond that

of mere representative consistency. The best culture of the pupil's hand and eye ; his highest interest and pleasure in the work executed; and even the greatest clearness in any extended diagram as a symbol of the analysis, require that it should be characterized by symmetry in arrangement, just proportions or magnitude, precision in form and connection, and neatness and firmness in drawing. Without these, or without growing excellence in their direction, the diagrams will be sure to become, both to the learner and to the observer, not merely defective, but oftentimes positively repulsive. Thus they will come to be disliked or condemned, not for their own fault, but for the failure in execution, of him who pretends to use them.

RULES FOR DRAWING.

Let the pupil, then, be held strictly to the observance of the following practical rules for drawing :

I.-Practice must be Gradual and Progressive.

First. The first practice in drawing diagrams must, like exercise in analysis, begin with the simplest elements, or in other words, with the figures applicable to the simplest sentences only. It is as unreasonable in the drawing of diagrams, as in penmanship, mapping, or linear drawing, to suppose that the pupil can advantageously begin with the more advanced and complicated forms. This practice must be gradual and progressive, advancing from the simpler forms to those more complicated, only as each successive element has been mastered.

PRONENESS TO UNDUE HASTE, A COMMON EVIL.

One of the greatest obstacles to the pupil's success is to

be found in this very direction. Because, in some sort or other, the diagrams can be dashed off with apparent ease, his tendency is to hurry forward to the analysis of sentences involving diagrams for which he is not yet prepared, and in the construction of which, he will become so confused through his own ignorance or inaccuracy, that he will even fail on points, with the right treatment of which he is really acquainted. And this evil is especially characteristic of those who, with little graphic culture, are somewhat ready in analysis. They forget that, as a theoretical knowledge may be acquired, without a corresponding power of expression, so a certain command of the logical side of analysis may be attained, without a corresponding skill on the representative side. Hence they fail to recognise the fact that this art-culture is only to be secured through a patient and progressive artpractice.

II.- The Work to be done must be Pre-considered.

Secondly. Let the character of every element to be drawn in diagram be carefully considered beforehand, so that the position and proportions of the various parts of the diagram may be skillfully adjusted in the light of an intelligent preconception of the entire work to be done. As in the verbal presentation of logical analysis, so in its symbolization in diagrams, let nothing be expressed without such antecedent and comprehensive thought as shall secure a just harmony between every judgment as to particulars, and the general conclusions as to the whole. The analysis represented in the diagrams is not intuitive, it is logical ; it is not an act, but a process ; it is not fragmentary, but continuous. It is, hence, no mere work of glancing at points, jumping at conclusions, or slashing

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