ing on the graves of our young, of our dear, of our beautiful, here in America, we know that after the agony, comes the salvation ; after the crucifixion comes the resurrection; and those eyes that at this moment weep, those hearts that every day break, see above all the storm, above all the blood and turmoil of the war, our country as she was to be, as she is to be,-in her right hand justice, in her left hand, law, and burning forever in her eyes, the light of universal liberty, in which this land and all other lands shall have eternal peace.—Geo. W. Curtis.

235. What visions of glory would have broken upon his mind, could he have known that he had indeed discovered a new continent, equal to the whole of the old world in magnitude, and separated by two vast oceans from all the earth hitherto known by civilized man; and how would this magnanimous spirit have been consoled, amidst the chills of age, and the cares of penury, the neglect of a fickle public, and the injustice of an ungrateful king, could he håve anticipated the splendid empires which were to spread over the beautiful world he had discovered, and the nations and tongues and languages which were to fill its lands with his renown, and to revere and bless his name to the latest posterity.Irving.

236. Now if nature should intermit her course, and leave, altogether, though it were for a while, the observation of her own laws; if those principles and mother elements of the world, whereof all things in this lower world are made, should lose the qualities which now they have ; if the frame of that heavenly arch erected over our heads, should loosen and dissolve itself; if celestial spheres should forget their wonted motions, and by irregular volubility turn themselves any way as it may happen ; if the prince of the lights of heaven, which now as a giant doth run his unwearied course, should, as it were through

a languishing faintness, begin to stand and to rest himself; if the moon should wander from her beaten way, the times and the seasons of the year blend themselves by disordered and confused mixture, the winds breathe out their last gasp, the clouds yield no rain, the earth be defeated of heavenly influence, the fruits of the earth pine away as children at the withered breasts of their mother no longer able to yield them relief ;—what would become of man himself, whom these things do now all serve ?Hooker.

237. History owes to him this attestation ; that, at a time when every thing short of a direct embezzlement of the public money was considered as quite fair in public men, he showed the most scrupulous disinterestedness; that, at a time when it seemed to be taken for granted that government could be upheld only by the basest and most immoral arts, he appealed to the better and nobler parts of human nature : that he made a brave and splendid attempt to do, by means of public opinion, what no other statesman of his day thought it possible to do, except by means of corruption; that he looked for support, not like the Pelhams, to a strong aristocratical connection, not like Bute, to the personal favor of the sovereign ; but to the middle class of Englishmen; that he inspired that class with a firm confidence in his integrity and ability ; that, backed by them, he forced an unwilling court and an unwilling oligarchy to admit him to an ample share of power; and that he used that power in such a manner as clearly proved that he sought it, not for the sake of profit or patronage, but from a wish to establish for himself a great and durable reputation, by means of eminent services rendered to the state.—Macaulay.



ONLY-General Problem-II. CLASSIFIED EXAMPLES—1. Prepositional — 1. Simple - Ordinary-2. Compound - Ordinary Relative-Compact—3. Complex-Simple-Compound-LooseCollective-Distributive-Adversative — Correlative - Indepen, dent—2. Infinitive-1. Simple-Ordinary-Compact-2. Compound-Ordinary-Relative-Compact-3. Complex-SimpleCompound -- Loose-Collective — Distributive - AdversativeCorrelative - Independent --- 3. Participial 1. Simple -- Or, dinary-2. CompoundOrdinary-Relative-3. Complex—Sim. ple-Compound — Loose — Collective-Distributive—Adversa. tive- Independent - 4. Independent - 1. Prepositional-Simple-Complex-2. Infinitive-Simple-Compound-Complex3. Participial-Simple-Compound-Complex Collective Complex-Sentential—III. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.


It has already been seen that, in their most important distinctions, phrases are subject to a classification nearly identical with that of propositions. Many of these distinctions have, of necessity, been incidentally exemplified in the foregoing chapter. What is here, then, absolutely required, is only the proper exhibition of the leading kinds of phrases according to grammatical form ; and of such others as, from their peculiarity, are likely to occasion difficulty

As a guide to their orderly presentation, and as an aid to the pupil in determining their species, the scheme of

classification given in the preceding chapter is here supplemented by a systematic outline of the distinctions peculiar to phrases, as determined by their grammatical form.

The examples for practice present the various kinds of phrases in their natural and almost necessary dependence in sentences or propositions. For the sake of greater brevity and clearness the phrases exemplified, have, as far as was practicable, been stripped of all unimportant adjuncts, and been relieved from any perplexing combination with those of a divergent character. This, of necessity, gives them often a more stiff and formal appearance than attaches to them as actually employed in composition.

1.- Distinctions belonging to Phrases only.
(a) Form.
1. Prepositional.

Compact. (Having a two-fold Relative Term.)
Independent. (Employed without antecedents, as Substan-

tives; or used as Logical Adjuncts or as paren

thetical elements.)
2. Infinitive.

Compact. (Logically involving the Relative in the Subse-

Independent. (Employed without antecedents as Substan-

tives; or used as Logical Adjuncts or as paren

thetical elements.)
3. Participial.

Independent. (Employed, without a logical agent, as Sub-

stantives ; or used as Logical Adjuncts, or as pa

renthetical elements.) 4. Independent. Prepositional. (With a Prepositional Phrase depending on

the Leading Term.) Infinitive. (With an Infinitive Phrase depending on the

Leading Term.)

Participial. (With a Participial Phrase depending on the

Sentential. (With a Proposition depending on the Leader.)


To determine according to the foregoing outline, the classification and composition of the phrases involved in each example, and their proper construction in diagram, according to the analysis involved.

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1. Ordinary. At this moment the leader of the party galloped to the front.

2. He beheld him in the star that sunk in beauty, behind his lonely dwelling.Sprague.

3. (With a double, or compound preposition.) A fisherman's cottage peeped from among the trees.—Scott.

4. No doubt whatever is entertained as to the success of the enterprise.



5. Ordinary. Here the wigwam blaze beamed on the tender and helpless, the council fire beamed on the wise and daring.--Sprague.

6. A soft, sweet twilight of silence and repose now brooded dreamily over both land and sea.

7. Relative or Complex. What he is most pleased with, he looks at most. (Colloquial Form.)

8. Compact. The sun shines on and over all the world.

9. The greatest defects exist in, and even throughout the work ;-"even," an emphatic adjunct, modifying throughout.

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