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eye, the various facts of strueture and relation, involved in sentences or their organic parts, as developed and distinguished by their logical analysis. They involve the simple circumscription of the different organic elements in the sentence or its parts, according to their logical restriction, in figures like the following, or consistent variations of the same, and their natural adjustment and connection according to their logical functions, as seen in the following
General Examples. Simple, intransitive sentence or proposition.
Compound, transitive sentences or propositions, with word or phrase adjuncts and auxiliaries attached.
Compound, mixed sentences or propositions, with word or phrase adjuncts and auxiliaries attached.
Complex sentences of various kinds, with their word, phrase, or sentence adjuncts and auxiliaries attached or connected.
Sentences or propositions, with independent elements, either words, phrases, or propositions, attendant.
These examples, while representing only the more brief and leading kinds, will suffice to illustrate the definition.
General Laws. The laws, in accordance with which these diagrams are constructed, presented in a simple running statement, and without detail, are as follows :
FIRST LAW. SIMPLE PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS. Figures which are symbolical of principal elements, and single, are drawn upon the same horizontal line, in the natural order of the radical form of the sentence or phrase, and attached, as follows:
or (gaining time
SECOND LAW. PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS IN COMMON RELATION. Several principal elements having a common relation to another, are placed in the same horizontal order, but upon parallel lines, and so arranged and attached as to have a common connection and dependence, thus : see the predicates “reaches” and “may reach,” as follows :
or may reach
THIRD LAW. COMPLEX PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS. Complex principal elements used as simple ones, are first constructed in diagram according to the general rule, and are then enclosed within a general figure drawn and attached like those of simple elements, as may be seen in the object proposition in the following sentence :
FOURTH LAW. ADJUNCT ELEMENTS. Adjunct elements, whether words, phrases, or propositions, taking their appropriate figures or diagrams as already indicated, are placed below the elements they modify, as in the following :
In the first of these, word adjuncts are exemplified ; in the second, participial phrase adjuncts chiefly; in the third, both word and sentence adjuncts; and in the fourth, word adjuncts, a prepositional phrase adjunct, and a sentence adjunct.
FIFTH Law. AUXILIARY ELEMENTS.* Auxiliary elements, that is words (those termed conjunctions) which introduce sentences, or connect words, phrases, or propositions, taking their assigned figure, are placed above the element they introduce, connected; or between those they connect, either attached or connected as the case allows. Thus :
* These are treated as attendant elements by Prof. Clark; but neither consistently with his diagrams, nor with sound analysis.