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CHAPTER III.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE IN WORDS.

Preliminary remarks — I. OUTLINE OF CLASSIFICATION — 1. Sub

stantive Words—Nouns-Pronouns—Contingent Substantives2. Phenomenal Words- Adjectives — Verbs — Participles — 3. Circumstantial Words-Adverbs—Prepositions-Conjunctions4. Contingent Words - Rhetorical — Representative — II. ExAMPLES FOR PRACTICE-Problem-1. Classified Examples of Complex Words-1. Substantive Words-Nouns—PronounsAdverbial Substantives—2. Phenomenal Words—Adjectives Verbs—Participles—3. Circumstantial Words-Adverbs—Prepositions—Conjunctions—4. Phrase Words—Adverbial—Prepositional—Conjunctive-Miscellaneous Examples2. Classified Examples of Variable Words in alphabetical order—Miscellaneous Examples.

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PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

As in the case of sentences, propositions, and phrases, an outline of classification was needed for the guidance of the learner in his practice in analysis,--so also in the case of words. Hence, a somewhat complete, though necessarily concise outline of the classification of words is here introduced. Inasmuch, however, as the learner's existing knowledge of etymology will render this portion of the field less unfamiliar and perplexing, that outline will be given without particular explanation, and, except in the cases mentioned below, without a classified exemplification of the various distinctions indicated. In most instances, the terms employed are already understood; and in others, their descriptive character will generally indi

cate their proper application with sufficient clearness for all present purposes. For the sake of brevity, the proper abbreviations will be used instead of the full terms, wherever the space demands it, and the meaning is sufficiently evident to prevent misconception.

Two classes of words - complex words and variable words -- are not unfrequently the occasion of much perplexity and dispute among teachers and learners. Especial pains has been taken, therefore, to exemplify these in systematic order, and with considerable minuteness. The miscellaneous examples given under this head are adapted to a careful practice in the more acute, logical analysis of words as such. No distinct notice has, however, been taken of the complex words,—the verbal noun, verbal adjective, verbal adverb, verbal preposition, verbal conjunction, and verbal exclamation,

for the reason that they are so purely logical in their subordinate offices, as to be subject to no peculiarities in grammatical construction, requiring explanation.

Variable words will be found exemplified in alphabetical order, and with such completeness as was practicable in the space allowed. Generally, the more obvious offices have been omitted, particularly the purely technical, substantive office. It will be observed, also, that the miscellaneous examples under this head embrace not only variable words, but also those of a peculiar, oblique, or idiomatic character. These examples are designed to furnish problems in the analysis of words of a most searching and exhaustive character.

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1. Independent Pronouns, or “Per-| 3. Interrogative Pronouns. sonal Pronouns."

4. Adjective Pronouns. 1. Simple.

1. Qualifying, (Positive, Com 2. Compound (Reflexive or Em parative, Superlative.) phatic).

2. Specifying. 2. Dependent Pronouns, or "Rela 1. Pure. tive Pronouns."

2. Pronominal. 1. Simple.

3. Numeral. 2. Compound.

Definite. 3. Complex, or “ Double Rela

Indefinite, &c. tives,” (Expansive or Em 4. Possessive. phatic).

Nominal.

Pronominal, &c. 5. Verbal.

(c)

SUBSTAN

CONTINGENT OR TECHNICAL SUBSTANTIVES, OR

TIVE WORDS.”

1. Verbal.
2. Adverbial.
3. Prepositional.

| 4. Conjunctive.
5. Exclamatory.
6. Euphonic.

PHENOMENAL WORDS (a) ESSENTIAL PHENOMENALS, OR ADJECTIVES." 1. Modifying.

3. Numeral. 1. Qualifying

Definite. 2. Verbal.

Indefinite, &c. 3. Specific Nominal.

4. Possessive, &c. 2. Specifying

(Pronominal. 1. Restrictive, or “Pure Speci Nominal. fying."

5. Specific Nominal. Pure.

3. Adverbial. Pronominal.

4. Compound. 2. Comprehensive.

Distributive.
Collective.

(b) ATTRIBUTIVE PHENOMENALS, OR VERBS."
(Force.)

(Structure.) 1. Intransitive.

1. Simple. 1. Entitive, or “Neuter.” 2. Compound. (Auxiliary and 2. Active.

Principal.) 2.* Transitive.

3. Complex. (Involving a two 1. Reflexive.

fold predication.) 2. Active.

(Form.) 3. Relative.

1. Irregular. 4. Mixed.

1. Complete.
2. Defective.

3. Redundant.
2. Regular.

1. Complete.

(c) COMPLEX ATTRIBUTIVES, OR “ PARTICIPLES. 1. Substantive, or Nominal Verb. (In a Substantive Phrase.) 2. Modifying, or Adjective Verb. (In an Adjective Phrase.)

CIRCUMSTANTIAL WORDS.

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(a) MODIFYING CIRCUMSTANTIVES, OR ADVERBS."
(Office.)

(Form.)
1. Local, or “ Adverbs of Place.” 1. Pure.
2. Temporal, or “Adverbs of 2. Substantive.
Time."

3. Adjective. 3. Qualifying

1. Specifying Intensive. 1. Modal, or “ Adverbs of Man 2. Specifying Distributive. ner.”

3. Specifying Collective. (Proper.

4. Verbal. Positive.

5. Conjunctive. (Negative.

5. Exclamatory. 2. Quantitative, “ Adverbs of

(Structure.) Quantity.” (Positive, Com- 1. Simple.

parative, Superlative.) 2. Compound. 3. Causative.

Compact.
Irregular.

(b) RELATIVE CIRCUMSTANTIVES, OR PREPOSITIONS." (Form.)

(Structure.) 1. Pure.

1. Simple. 2. Verbal.

2. Compound. 3. Adverbial.

Compact. (Irregular, (“ Double Prep."

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