iliary, and independent elements. But these very distinctions the diagrams seize upon and illustrate, (as has already been shown,) with a naturalness, clearness, and facility, nowhere else equalled.



So, too, as the analysis of the proposition reveals the existence of a subject, predicate, and object; or that of the phrase presents a relative, subsequent, and object; the diagrams of these two general elements, happily and effectively represent all those principal parts in their true sphere, order, and relation. Indeed, take them all in all, and it may be affirmed that nowhere else do symbols so purely conventional present so precise and beautiful a correspondence between the representative figure and the illustrated fact. Of both of these positions, the following is, though not completely, yet so finely illustrative, that we cannot forego its introduction here.

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4,- They give the clearest possible view of sentences

as wholes. Fourthly. The diagrams, not only, as has already been shown, give a clearer view than is otherwise possible, of the peculiar structure and relations of the various elements in the sentence, but they also present the

whole sentence, in its nature and development, as expressive of a complex thought, in the clearest and most comprehensive view practicable.



To almost any thinking mind, it must be at once apparent, how difficult a work is his, who, taking a long complex sentence, and considering it only under the form of written composition, endeavors to keep all its parts, at the same instant, equally in view, or in view with the same distinct apprehension of all its facts of form, structure, force, relations, and office work. Such an effort would be much like his, who, wishing to grasp a certain field of statistical knowledge, should attempt that work without first systematically tabularizing its facts, so that each shall stand in its own category, and the combined bearing of the whole appear at a glance. But, his table is only a diagram for his statistics; and, precisely what the table does for the statistics, (or far better,) the grammatical diagram does for the sentence. It gives to the practised analyst, a map of his whole field of operations ;—to use a military phrase, it makes him, at a glance, master of the whole chess-table of war,-.“L'échiquier d’un guerre.” This capacity of the diagrams to present a comprehensive view of sentences has already, though only in the case of those more brief and simple, been somewhat clearly exemplified.*

* It is a matter of regret, that no illustration of their utility as thus applied to long, complex sentences, can be given here. It is impracticable for the simple reason that no cuts of the proper diagrams for such sentences, are at hand.



In behalf of the importance of this comprehensive view of the English sentence, several interesting considerations may be urged. At the outset, it must be apparent how necessary it must be to a true scholarship in the science of language. That cannot but be pronounced a onesided and lame learning, which has no other idea of the sentence than that piece-meal affair derived from mere verbal study and construction, or “parsing.” The true thinker is not content with an acquaintanceship with mere parts ; he craves command of wholes : not for him suffices mere individual facts; he demands a comprehensive system.



Still further, the real philosophy of the sentence not unfrequently depends materially upon that just view of it as a whole, which the diagram so felicitously gives. It is true, that the various elements and relations may be in time thought out in the abstract study of the printed form of words ; but simple common sense will suffice to show that, when all these facts both general and particular are made to stand out as a whole before the eye, and in a fixed and compact form, it is far more easy to take the just measure of this or that proposed mode of construction, and far more certain that the proper mode will be demonstrably determined.

5.- They give the best view of comparative struc

ture in style. Fifthly. This graphic means of representing at a single view, the collective character of sentences, is of grave utility in the comparative study of style. Take, for example, such a study of the following characteristic extracts from two modern writers of singular individuality and force in style,-Carlyle and Ruskin.

" And now, if worship of a “With what comparison shall star had some meaning in it, we compare the types of the how much more might that of martyr saints, the St. Stephen of a Hero! Worship of a Hero is Fra Bartolomeo, with his calm transcendant admiration of a forehead crowned by the stony Great Man. I say great men are diadem, or the St. Catharine of still admirable ; I say there is, Raffaelle, looking up to heaven at bottom, nothing else admira in the dawn of the eternal day, ble! No nobler feeling than with her lips parted in the restthis of admiration for one higher ing from her pain ? Or with than himself, dwells in the what the Madonnas of Francia breast of man. is this; and or Pinturicchio, in whom the at all hours, the vivifying in hues of the morning and the sofluence in man's life. Religion, lemnity of eve, the gladness in I find stands upon it; not Pagan accomplished promise, and sorism only, but far higher and row of the sword-pierced heart, truer religions, - all religion are gathered into one human hitherto known. Hero-worship, lamp of ineffable love? Or with heartfelt, prostrate admiration, what the angel choirs of Angelburning, boundless, for a noblest ico, with the flames on their godlike Form of Man,-is not white foreheads waving brighter that the germ of Christianity it as they move, and the sparkles self? The greatest of all Heroes streaming from their purple is One-whom we do not name wings like the glitter of many here. Let sacred silence medi suns upon a sounding sea, listate that sacred matter; you tening in the pauses of alternate will find it the ultimate per- song, for the prolonging of the fection of a principle extant trumpet blast, and the answering throughout man's whole history of psaltery and cymbal, through. on earth.”

out the endless deep, and from all the star shores of heaven ?

Take, we say, contrasted passages like these, and, while you may,

from a careful survey of their character as presented here in the printed form, attain some conception of their distinctive features, it is plain that that conception may be far more readily, clearly, and completely gained through an intelligent inspection of a diagram which causes their distinguishing characteristics to stand out before the eye in sharply defined form ;-as plain as that differences in formations for combat, or lines of battle, can be more readily and satisfactorily gathered from proper plans or diagrams, than from any verbal description.

6.- They supply a means of representing sentential

structure in the abstract. Sixthly. The diagrams are an admirable means of representing the relations of elements, and the structure of phrases, propositions, and sentences in the abstract. Just as in that beautiful phantom in vegetable physiology,—the skeleton leaf, you may discharge the true leaf of all its fleshy portions, and bring out simply its fibrous structure, its fundamental frame-work : just as in the geometrical figure, you may wholly withdraw from material contact with actual bodies, and discuss and determine, in the abstract, the proportions and relations of lines and angles, to pure form or dimension ; just so may you, in these grammatical diagrams, discharge the sentence of its verbal flesh and blood, or withdraw from the immediate consideration of its specific, temporary matter of idea or thought, and investigate its abstract nature, elements, and involved relations, as susceptible of a generalized application to all sentences. An example of this may be found in the following diagram in abstract,

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