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which is represented as discharged of the subject matter as contained in the sentence, “He that by usury and unjust gain increaseth his substance, shall gather it for him that will pity the poor.”
THE ABSTRACT REPRESENTATION IN THE DIAGRAM COMPARED
WITH VERBAL DESCRIPTION.
Of the perfection and power of such a means of abstract symbolization, something may be gathered by observing the fact that, with wonderful completeness and compactness, it sets forth all that is verbally embraced in the following formula.
(a) It is, (in abstract,) a compact, complex sentence, consisting of a principal and two subordinate, adjunct propositions, one primary and the other secondary.
(6) The principal proposition is simple, transitive, consisting of principal and adjunct elements; the principal elements being a word subject, predicate, and object; the adjunct elements being,-subjective primary,—the first subordinate proposition, and,-predicative primary,—the phrase involving the second, or secondary subordinate proposition.
(c) The first subordinate proposition is simple, transitive, adjective, specifying, verbal, used to modify the subject, and composed of principal and adjunct elements ; the principal elements being a word subject, predicate, and object; the adjunct elements being,-predicative primary,-a compound, prepositional, phrase adverb, consisting of principal, adjunct, and auxiliary elements ; the principal elements being a word relative, or preposition, and two word substantive subsequents; the adjunct elements being,—subsequentive primary, of the second,a word adjective; the auxiliary element being,—subsequentive,—a word conjunction, connective; and,objective primary,—a word adjective.
(d) The predicative phrase adjunct is complex, consisting of a phrase and the second subordinate proposition ; the phrase being, in itself, simple, prepositional, adverb, consisting of principal and adjunct elements; the principal elements being a word relative, or preposition, and a word subsequent, substantive; the adjuncts being,—subsequentive primary,—the second subordinate proposition.
(e) The second subordinate proposition is simple, transitive, adjective, specifying, verbal, used to modify the subsequent, and composed of principal elements only ; the principal elements being a word subject, predicate, and object.
These, without any departure from actual details, are the facts represented by the abstract, diagram, and they cannot but show its claim to a singular representative power, to be eminently just.
RESULTING ADVANTAGE IN THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STYLE.
Several peculiar advantages result from this capacity for abstract representation in the diagrams.
(a) It bears with great advantage upon their use in the comparative study of style. Inasmuch, as in such comparisons of diverse passages like those cited under a previous head, it is mainly important that the peculiar differences of sentential structure should be readily and comprehensively grasped by the mind, it will at once appear how great is the advantage of being able to discharge the representative symbol, of the various verbal terms, so that only the sentential structure shall stand out before the eye, and appeal to the attention. What this advantage is may be seen by considering how much more favorable would be the opportunity for judging of comparative staple, texture, and finish of different cloths, could they but be discharged of all differences of color or pattern, so that they could be compared under like circumstance, and with an attention undistracted by minor and unimportant accidents.
ADVANTAGE IN TEACHING COMPOSITION. (6) Once more, this capacity of the diagrams fits them to be of great practical service in teaching elementary composition, particularly in the work of assigning exercises. One great obstacle in the way of the adequate performance of this work, is the labor and the length of time, required for the accurate verbal description of the required exercises. The diagrams, however, relieve the teacher of the larger portion of this demand, by the celerity and ease with which, through their use, all the major, indeed, all the necessary characteristics of the required exercise, can be symbolized. For example, how easy to determine the logical formation of the proposed sentences, by diagrams like the following, fixing, at pleasure, any leading verbal element, by its insertion in the proper figure, thus :*
* Something of this the reader will find attempted in “ Clark's First Lessons," only it is there less simple than it might be, from its effort to go beyond the logical into the etymological,
By reverting to page 42, and comparing the symbolization of the sentence in the diagram, with the verbal description in its appended formula, the reader will easily see how vast will be the gain in case the exercise is extended to the construction of long, complex sentences like the following :*
* Several inaccuracies occur in the drawing, which should be
But of this use and advantage of the diagrams in composition, our space only allows a brief and imperfect illustration. We pass, therefore, to other considerations.
avoided in practice. For example, no such right line should compose the right of the predicate figure; the subsequent figure in the phrases is incomplete at the left; and the waved dotted line should have been continuous and firm.