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birds

Some

Birds

nests

me

We

4. Some birds sing

sing sweetly.

sweetly 1. Birds build

build nests. 2. Bright boys boys

please please me.

Bright 3. We love good

love

people people.

have

lessons

boys Dull

роог

recite

lessons

good 4. Dull boys have poor lessons.

5. Good boys recite

boys their lessons well.

With a proper development of the simple classes and kinds of elements employed, how much more clearly do the distinctive features of the contrasted sentences stand out before the apprehension of the child, as objectively represented in the diagram, than as verbally presented in the examples. Indeed, both philosophy and experience have satisfied us, that in hardly any direction, is there a finer field open for the application of the Object Method, as enlightening the mind through the use of the observing eye, and as developing the abstract, through the sensible, than is thus made both accessible and practicable through grammatical diagrams.

Good

well

their

THEY MAY FURNISH EMPLOYMENT FOR THE YOUNGER PUPILS.

Lastly. If, to the foregoing, we add the capacity of the diagrams, as connected with such simple exercises in

elementary analysis, to furnish slate or blackboard exercises for ingenious little minds and busy little fingers, exercises far more easy and interesting than printing letters, or drawing geometrical figures or artistic pictures; and, still further, the tendency of practice in the proper drawing of these curvilineal figures, to develop that precise manual skill which is necessary to ultimate excellence in both penmanship and drawing ;—if we take all these into account, it seems hardly possible to deny that the diagrams possess practical excellencies which put the propriety of their free and constant use in the study of gramatical analysis, beyond question,

PART

11.

THE DIAGRAMS EXPOUNDED.

CHAPTER I.

THE LAWS OF THE DIAGRAMS, COMPLETE.

The posibility of improvement—Five points embraced in the dis

cussion — I. General Principles of the Diagram System — 1. General elements in figure, for circumscription-2. General elements in figure, for connection-3. General principle of arrangement for fundamental figures 4. General principle of combination for peculiar figures — II. Specific Laws of the Diagrams ; Etymological Classification—1. Law for substantives and verbs proper—2. Law for modifying terms—3. Law for auxiliary terms-4. Law for circumstantial relatives—5. Law for independent terms not predicative-III. Specific Laros of the Diagrams ; Logical ClassificationTabular schemes Sentence-Phrase—1. Law for principal elements——2. Law for principal elements in common relation-3. Law for adjunct elements—4. Law for auxiliary elements--5. Law for independent elements—6. Law for lines of connection—7. Law for line of separation-8. Law for suppressed elements—9. Law for complex terms having double offices—10. Law for complex substantive elements—11. Law for independent terms used substantively.

It is the object of this treatise, not merely to sustain the practical teacher in the use of the diagrams as he already has them, but beyond that, to perfect his knowledge and use of them, according to what they should be. Hence, it becomes necessary, notwithstanding they have

already been considered in brief, to examine their laws once more, in detail, and, with sole reference to this higher object.

THE POSSIBILITY OF IMPROVEMENT. This examination is based upon the practical assumption that, while in their leading idea and fundamental principles and forms, the diagrams have been ably presented in the works referred to; yet it by no means follows that they are not susceptible of important improvements. A careful study of their nature and capabilities, and an extended experience in their use and application, cannot but have revealed defects to be corrected, and supplementary improvements to be desired.

Neither personal regard, nor reverence for existing discoveries, forbids us to accept here, as well as elsewhere, the entire possibility and propriety of progress.

FIVE POINTS EMBRACED IN THIS DISCUSSION.

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With these facts in view, the general method to be pursued will embrace several specific points ; namely, the clearer exposition of their laws; the correction of existing defects in drawing ; the extension of their forms according to the advanced demands of the analysis ; the development of peculiar forms not clearly indicated by the general laws; and precise directions for graphic practice, designed to secure higher excellence and success in their daily use.

I.-General Principles of the Diagram System.

Proceeding, then, first, to the fuller development and exposition of their laws, we present their general or ground principles as follows :

1. GENERAL ELEMENTS IN FIGURE FOR CIRCUMSCRIPTION.

First. The general elements in figure for the circumscription of the various elements, within their proper field, are the flat ellipse and two of its segments ; disposed either horizontally or vertically ; varied in extension to suit the magnitude of the elements circumscribed ; and employed simply, or in consistent combination.*

2. GENERAL ELEMENTS IN FIGURE FOR CONNECTION. Secondly. The general elements in figure for the connection of the various elements, beyond the natural attachment of the figures just indicated, are the right, vertical line, and the horizontal or oblique waved line (or “line of beauty,” so called); either long or short, extended laterally to the left or right, and used either separately or combined, as the case may demand.

3. GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF ARRANGEMENT FOR FUNDAMENTAL

FIGURES.

Thirdly. The general principle of arrangement for the fundamental figures in either propositions or phrases, is determined by the natural order of the verbal elements in the radical form of both, as spoken or written ; or beyond that, is simply such a variation of the principle as most nearly secures a similar disposition of similars, a proper subordination of subordinates, or disjunction of independent parts.

* These and the following elements have already been exemplified. See Part I., Chapter I., passim.

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