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4. GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF COMBINATION FOR PECULIAR
Fourthly. The proper figures, combinations, or connection for all elements peculiar or erratic, while involving specific modifications of the foregoing principles, must never, in any respect, depart from a substantial harmony with them ;—that is, they may be peculiar, but not contradictory.
II. --Specific Laws of the Diagrams. Etymological
Classification. In accordance with these ground principles, the specific laws* of the diagrams as etymologically classified, or classified in accordance with the nature of the “parts of speech” to be included in the figures, are as follows :
1, LAW FOR SUBSTANTIVES AND VERBS PROPER.
First. Substantive and verbal terms used distinctly as such, either alone or (in the case of the latter) in connection with other terms necessary to their logical integrity or absolute significance, must be enclosed in the complete elliptical figure it or, if they are in any common part compounded, in such combinations of large and small ellipses, as both form complete figures, and repre
* These laws have already been in part presented and exempli. fied. The specific object here entertained, requires their recapitulation and extension in detail.
+ One error of the diagrams in this direction, as drawn in the books, will be elsewhere noticed.
sent the compound nature involved. This rule applies
to nouns, pronouns, and all irregular substantive words, and to verbs in all the modes sentential and phrasal save one, including as one with them, their essential predicate terms. It is exemplified below, in the case of King, Shadows, loves, mark, hand, waxed strong, good, constitutes, duty, I, saw, boy, you, described and whom.
Examples of peculiar compound or complex forms will be seen in the case of the terms, waxed deadly and chill, and what, in the following diagrams.
* Errors occur in other points in these diagrams, which will be noticed elsewhere.
2. LAW FOR MODIFYING TERMS.
Secondly. Modifying terms must be embraced in the lower half-section of the elliptical figure ; or, if essentially substantive, and employed either as grammatical adjuncts or only as logical modifiers, in the complete ellipse. Under this rule, are included adjectives and adverbs used as grammatical adjuncts, and nouns, pronouns, and irregular substantives, employed as logical adjuncts. Examples will be found below, in the words, The, ancient, their, the, storied, animated, Back, the, its, Hermit, and Apostle.
Thirdly. Proper grammatical auxiliary terms, or connectives, employed either to introduce sentences, or to connect words, phrases, or propositions, should be enclosed in the small horizontal ellipse. This rule applies to all conjunctions, whether purely conjunctive or partly
* Errors occur in other points in these diagrams, as well as some others following, which will be noticed elsewhere.
adverbial or pronominal. Examples will be found below, in the words, or, ere, But, and that.
Fourthly. Circumstantial relatives used to introduce phrases, must be enclosed in the lower, larger segment of the vertical ellipse ; or, if logically involved in some verbal term in a phrase mode, in this vertical segment blended into the larger, right section of the horizontal ellipse. Under this rule, are included prepositions, either ordinary or adverbial, or, in the latter case,) as logically included in the participle in its proper phrase office. This rule is exemplified in the words, in, To, in, of, scaling, having arrived, suspecting, of, for, and defending, as given below.
5. LAW FOR INDEPENDENT TERMS NOT IN PREDICATE.
Fifthly. Independent terms, (not employed in predcate or predication,) if substantive, representative, exclamatory, or euphonic, are enclosed within the complete ellipse ; if adjective or adverb proper, within the lower segment of the ellipse, as in the case of modifying terms. This includes nouns, pronouns, and irregular substantives, used as logical modifiers, in direct address, or as mere abstract titles ; sentential representatives, as yes,
rea, no and nay; exclamations and pure euphonic terms. These are partially exemplified below, in the words, Roderic, There, Ah, and Yes.