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These rules will be found to be substantially inclusive of all the great principles governing the construction of the diagrams. A proper mastery of them will enable the thoughtful teacher to determine for himself the practical variations in figure or connection, necessary to meet the demands of specific and peculiar cases.

CHAPTER II.

ERRORS IN THE DIAGRAMS AS DRAWN IN THE BOOKS,

EXAMINED.

Errors no reflection upon the author-I. Errors in figure-1. In

the use of right lines—2. In figures for adjunct elements—3. In subsequent figures—The argument from dependence on relation, invalid—4. General substantive figures—5. Connecting lines-6. Dotted lines of connection-II. Errors in attachment-1. Adjunct words and phrases—2. Attaching connecting lines III. Faulty use of supernumerary lines—IV. Errors involving analysis 1. Line of separation - Proof of the principle as to the line of separation-Tabular analysis of examples—2. Attachment of adjuncts, as to order-Faulty attachment of a general adjunct—3. Attachment, as to grammatical subordination-Proof of the objective relation of the infin. itive—4. Attachment of adjuncts of relative and auxiliary terms — Correction and demonstration — Principle of double offices-Consequent diversity of relation and modification-Application to the elements in question.

The attention of the reader has already been called to the fact that some of the diagrams in the works herein referred to, are incorrectly drawn. These errors, while they by no means detract from the substantial merits of the system, impair its excellence as developed. The consequence is, they not only interfere with the most successful use of the diagrams, but they sometimes even vitiate the analysis itself. Hence, it becomes necessary to notice them, and to provide for their correction in detail.

THESE NO REFLECTION UPON THE AUTHOR OF TEE DIAGRAMS.

In attempting this, however, the writer would caution the reader against the supposition that those errors are not recognized and regretted as such, by the ingenious and able author of the system, himself. A simple inspection of many of the diagrams in question will show the practised analyst, that those errors are, in some part, the simple fault of the engraver, and would, doubtless, have been corrected at once, but for the labor and expense to be incurred in the production of new drawings, and the execution of new cuts. In other cases they are errors, simply as failures to come up to the clearer views and more exact methods, which a closer and more extended study of the analysis, and a full and thorough experience of the wants of the teacher and the pupil, could not but develop

1.- Errors in Figure.

1. IN THE USE OF RIGHT LINES.

First. In examples like the following, it will be observed that right lines are employed, either wholly or in part, in the construction of substantive figures ; see the left extreme of the predicate in the first, the right extreme of the predicate in the second, and all the rectangular forms in the last four diagrams.

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the

fleeting

animated

mansion

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All these rectangular forms mar the simplicity of the system ; are in violation of the general usage of its author himself; impair the utility of the diagrams as a means of graphic culture ; and, if employed generally, would utterly destroy the distinctness of any complicated diagram as representative of the analysis of the sentence.

2. IN THE FIGURES FOR ADJUNCT ELEMENTS.

Secondly. In too many cases, the adjunct figure is drawn as if it were properly a complete ellipse, instead of a mere segment of the same. This error is seen in the following diagrams, in the case of the, parting, some, fond, The, and a.

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the

parting

breast (some fond

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This form is objectionable, inasmuch as it fails to distinguish modifiers from substantives; it does not symbolize at all the necessary incompleteness of the idea expressed by every adjunct when used without the term on which it depends ; it is a departure from the better usage which obtains in other examples ; see all the adjuncts in the following examples :

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and it does not accord with the express teaching of the author; see Grammar, page 46, Y and Z.

3. IN SUBSEQUENT FIGURES.

Thirdly. Quite generally, the subsequent figure in prepositional and infinitive phrases, instead of taking the complete elliptical form, has its upper, and sometimes the lower line also, carried out straight to the left, and attached at a right angle to the relative figure ;* see beginning, bestow, fate, act, and action, be calm.

* On page 43 of the Grammar, the subsequent tell is drawn still worse; but the fault is the work of the engraver, and is too plain to need particular notice.

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