« 前へ次へ »
The conclusion is, then, irresistible, that almost is strictly a relative adjunct, and should be attached to to alone ; and that not is an auxiliary adjunct, and should be attached only to as, as in the following examples ; see not, only, and not.
This method of attaching this class of adjuncts will be found as wide-spread in its application, as it is beautiful in its philosophy.
V.-Error in Composition.
1. DOUBLE SUBSTANTIVE FIGURES.
Fifthly. In one important case, the composition of a double substantive figure is noticeable as nondescript and absurd. It will be seen in the object in the following diagram :
* This form, it will be seen, does away with the necessity for the general figure represented by the dotted line in the original diagram, the objectionable character of which has been elsewhere shown.
According to the rules for the form and attachment of objective figures, they should be complete ellipses, and should be attached to the right extremity of the predicate or subsequent figure, as the case may be. Clearly, then, the proper diagram for the example in question should be this,
In this the object figure, both conforms to the rules, and indicates the logical identity of the two objects.
2. OF COMPOUND PREDICATE FIGURES.
Secondly. Several irregular instances of erroneous drawing occur, as in the following :
In this the compound nature of the predicate, in its auxiliary section, is not indicated, and the conjunction is not placed between the parts to be connected ; namely, lift and rejoice. The student will, however, be able to correct this for himself, by referring to the predicate figure for waxed deadly and chill; see the example on
SUPPLEMENTARY FORMS AND COMBINATIONS.
Logical analysis of the sentence, in its incipiency-Causes of its
backward condition-Propriety of attempting improvement in
LOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SENTENCE IN ITS INCIPIENCY.
No one who has made the analysis of the English sentence under the logical method a subject of close study, can have failed to discover that the work is yet comparatively in its incipient state, especially, so far as the nature and philosophy of convertible, abbreviated, oblique, and idiomatic forms are concerned.
CAUSES OF ITS BACKWARD CONDITION. While, however, this is much to be regretted, it is neither to be held as an occasion for surprise, nor as a cause for complaint. The field is so extensive, and its facts so varied and intricate, that, to one at all conversant with them, the work of systematically and philosophically investigating that field and unfolding these facts, appears Herculean, if not hopeless. When, now, to this original difficulty in the work itself, you add the facts that its successful prosecution requires at once peculiar linguistic tastes, logical capacity, and scholastic opportunities; and that its path of progress is everywhere beset with difficulties arising from an ignorance, pedantry, and prejudice, without parallel in the direction of any other branch of science, it will readily be seen, that the great result can only be reached by slow and successive advances, and through the steady and co-operative efforts of many minds.
PROPRIETY OF ATTEMPTING IMPROVEMENT IN THE DIAGRAMS.
It is, hence, no disparagement to the works which have come so frequently under our notice in the progress of this discussion, to assume that, in their treatment of the diagrams as the product of applied analysis, they are susceptible of useful and even necessary emendations. These emendations, a careful study of the diagram system, and a somewhat extended experience in its use, have shown to be necessary.
It is proper, then, to call the attention to certain supplementary, or advanced forms and combinations, which more exactly meet the wants of the analysis in some of its peculiar and more difficult applications, and which have quite invariably commended themselves to the judgment of the intelligent learner.
SUPPLEMENTARY OR ADVANCED FORMS.
I.- For the Subject.
SUBJECTS LOGICALLY COMPOUND.
First. In the analysis of the subject, there are two prominent cases for which improved figures are required. (1) In the example,
The saint, the father, and the husband prays, we find a three-fold subject which is logically compound, or which in other words is logically and substantially one subject, although grammatically appearing in a triple phase, or form. But, the diagrams as developed present no figure properly symbolizing these facts. The following, while perfectly in harmony with the general principles of the diagrams, and strictly accordant with a common treatment of the predicate, will be found to meet the existing want.
(2) Provision has been made in the Grammar, for the proper symbolization of a double object, logically identical, although appearing in both a direct and an indirect phase. See the following example :