This Grame dwelt within five miles of Carlisle. He had a pretty house, and close by it a strong tower, for his own defence in time of need.—About two o'clock in the morning, I took horse in Carlisle, and not above twenty-five in my company, thinking to surprise the house on a sudden. Before I could surround the house, the two Scots were gotten in the strong tower, and 1 eould see a boy riding from the house as fast as his horse could carry him; I little suspecting what it meant. But Thomas Carleton came to me presently, and told me, that if I did not presently prevent it, both myself and all my company would be either slain or taken prisoners. It was strange to me to hear this language. He then said to me, “Do you see that boy that rideth away so fast 2 He will be in Scotland within this half hour; and he is gone to let them know that you are here, and to what end you are come, and the small number you have with you ; and that if they will make haste, on a sudden they may surprise us, and do with us what they please.” Hereupon we took advice what was best to be done. We sent notice presently to all parts to raise the country, and to coine to us with all the speed they could ; and withall we sent to Carlisle to raise the townsmen; for without the foot we could do no good against the tower. There we staid some hours, expecting more company; and within short time after the country came in on all sides, so that we were quickly between three and four hundred horse; and, after some longer stay, the foot of Carlisle came to us, to the number of three or four hundred men: whom we presently set to work, to get up to the top of the tower, and to uncover the roof; and then some twenty of them to fall down together, and by that means to win the tower.—The Scotts, seeing their present danger, offered to parley, and yielded themselves to my mercy. They had no sooner opened the iron gate, and yielded themselves my prisoners, but we might see 400 horse within a quarter of a mile coming to their rescue, and to surprise me and my small company; but of a sudden they stayed, and o at gaze- Then had Î

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more to do than ever; for all our Borderers caume crying, with full mouths, “Sir, give us leave to set upon them; for these are they that have killed our fathers, our brothers, and uncles, and our cousins; and they are coming, thinking to surprise you, upon weak grass nags, such as they could get on a sudden; and God hath put them into your hands, that we may take revenge of them for much blood that they have spilt of ours.' I desired they would be patient a while, and bethought myself, if I should give them their will, there would be few or none of the Scots that would escape unkilled (there were so many deadly feuds among them;) and therefore I resolved with myself to give them a fair answer, but not to give them their desire. So I told them, that if I were not there myself, they might then do what pleased themselves; but being present, if I should give them leave, the blood that should be spilt that day would lie very hard upon my conscience. And therefore I desired them, for my sake, to forbear, and, if the Scots did not presently make away with all the speed they could, upon my sending to them, they should then have their wills to do what they pleased. They were ill satisfied with my answer, but durst not disobey. I sent with speed to the Scots, and bade them pack away with all the speed they could; for if they stayed the messenger's return, they should few of them return to their own home. They made no stay; but they were turned homewards before the messenger had made an end of his message. Thus, by God's mercy, I escaped a great danger; and, by my means, there were a great many men's lives saved that day.”

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The cairns, or piles of loose stones, which crown the *mmit of most of our Scottish hills, and are found in other remarkable situations, seem usually though not universally, to have been sepulchral monuments. Six flat stones are commonly found in the centre, forming a cavity of greater or smaller dimensions, in which an urn is often placed. The author is possessed of one, discovered beneath an immense cairn at Roughlee, in Liddesdale. It is of the most barbarous construction ; the middle of the substance alone having been subjected to the fire, over which, when hardened, the artist had laid an inner and outer coat of unbaked clay, etch

ed with some very rude ornaments; his skill apparent

ly being inadequate to baking the vase, when completely finished. The contents were bones and ashes, and a

quantity of beads made of coal. This seems to have

been a barbarous imitation of the Roman fashion of sepulture.

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The Wiscount of Dundee, slain in the battle of Rilficrankie.


For pathless marsh, and mountain cell,
The peasant left his lowly shed.—P. 64.

The morasses were the usual refuge of the Border therdsmen, on the approach of an English army.—(Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, Vol. I. p. 49.) Caves, hewed in the most dangerous and inaccessible places, also afforded an occasional retreat. Such caverns may be seen in the precipitous banks of the Teviot at Sunlaws, upon the Ale at Ancram upon the Jed at Hundalee, and in many other places upon the Border. The banks of the Eske, at Gorton, and Hawthornden, are hollowed into similar recesses. But even these dreary dens were not always secure places of concealment. “In the way as we came, not far from this place (Long Niddry.) George Ferres, a gentleman of my Lord Protector's-happened upon a cave in the grounde, the mouth whereof was so worne with the fresh printe of steps, that he seemed to be certayne thear wear sum folke within; and gone doune to trie, he was readily *Yved with a hakebut or two. He left them not yet "he had knowen wheyther thei wold be eontent to weld and come out; which they fondly refusing, he went to my lorde's grace, and upon utterance of the thynge, gat lisence to deale with them as he coulde; and so returned to them, with a skore or two of pioners. Three ventes had their cave, that we wear ware of, whereof he first stopt up on ; anoother he fill'd full of strawe, and set it a syer, whereat they within cast water apace; but it was so wel maynteyned without, that the syer prevayled, and thei within fayn to get them belyke into anoother parler. Then devised we (for I hapt to be with hym) to stop the same up, whereby we should eyther smoother them, or fynd out their ventes, if thei hadde any moe: as this was done at another issue, about xii score of, we moughte see the fume of their smoke to come out; the which continued with so great a force, and so long a while, that we could not but thinke they must needs get them out, or smoother within : and forasmuch as we found not that they dyd the tone, we thought it for certain thei wear sure of the toother.”—Patten's Account of Somerset's Eagedition into Scotland, apud Dalyell’s Fragments.


Southern ravage.—P. 64.

From the following fragment of a letter from the Earl of Northumberland to King Henry VIII. preserved among the Cotton MSS. Calig. B. vii. 179, the reader may estimate the nature of the dreadful war which was occasionally waged upon the Borders, sharpened by mutual cruelties, and the personal hatred of the wardens, or leaders.

Some Scottish barons, says the earl, had threatened to come within “three miles of my pore house of Werkworth, where I lye, and gif me light to put on my clothes at mydnyght; and alsoo the said Marke Carr said their opynly, that, seyng they had a governor on the marches of Scotland, as well as they had in Ingland he shulde kepe your highnes instructions, gyffym unto your garyson, for making of any day-sorrey; for he and his fiends wolde burne enough on the nyght,

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