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Giving as the average quantity of metal resulting from the labour of each person employed rather less than 8 tons in France, and more than 35 tons in this country. But, to estimate to its full extent the greater efficiency of this branch of labour with us, we must bear in mind the greater number of persons employed in France for the production and transport of the fuel used at the iron-works, and which, as we have seen, is 126 percent. greater than with us. If the cost of fuel at the iron-works of Great Britain were as great as at the iron-works of France, it would on a moderate computation add 50s. per ton to the cost of the iron produced in this country.
The value of the fuel consumed in the manufacture of iron in France in 1836 and 1841 was :-
Being 41 per cent. on the value of metal made in 1836, and 38% per cent. in 1841.
The above amounts were divided among the different processes in the following proportions:–
The average prices of the different kinds of fuel used in each of the above two years, were:—
1836 I841 s. d. s. d. Wood Charcoal, per ton - - - - - 54 10 57 5 Coal, per ton . . . . . . . . . 18 5 14 7 Coke, per ton . . . . . . . . . 20 3 20 2 Wood, per stëre . . . . . . . . 2 10 4 7
The continually increasing cost of wood in France, should tend, in conjunction with the continually decreasing cost of coal, to alter the existing system of manufacture; but under any circumstances, the ironmasters in that country must be placed at a disadvantage in competing with countries where ironstone is found on the same spot with the fuel and the flux needful for its reduction. We have seen that the cost of coal at the places of production in France was in 1836, per ton, 11s. 3}d., and in 1841, per ton, 7s. 94d., and it therefore appears that the expense of carriage from the collieries to the iron-works amounted on the average to 7s. 1%d. per ton in 1836 and to 6s. 93d. in 1841, or more than the entire cost of the fuel used by English iron-masters. The quantity of iron made in France in each year from 1837 to 1841 appears from the official documents to have been as follows:—
Pig Iron. Malleable Iron.
How inadequate must be the native production of this all important metal, as here shown, to supply the wants of an extensive and populous country like France If the rules of common sense were allowed to regulate the conduct of nations in matters of this nature, we should assuredly see that every possible inducement were held out to make good the deficiency by importations from foreign countries. The French government has, on the contrary, chosen to throw the most serious obstacle in the way of such importations, and under the pretext of stimulating the production at home, has loaded iron of foreign make with all but prohibitory duties. Pig iron is subject to a rate equal to 31.2s. 6d. per ton. Plates, bars, and rods have to pay duties according to their dimensions, varying from 8!. 7s. 4d. to 16l. 14s. 9d. per ton; and such articles as are not actually prohibited, and to which a higher process of manufacture has been applied, for example wire, are charged with 'a duty equal to 26l. 15s. 8d. per ton. At these rates the importations of iron into France are, as might be expected, small in quantity, not in any one year reaching 50,000 tons. The payment of high duties upon even this small quantity is, however, a proof of the excessive prices which the consumers are forced to pay for all that they use—prices from 100 to 250 per cent. greater than are paid in England; and the slow progress made by the iron-masters of France in providing for the wants of the country should convince the government that the method they have adopted for stimulating production by means of high protective duties, is but ill adapted to that end. It would most probably be found upon inquiry, that the ironmasters in that country are in fact but little interested in the question. By the price which they obtain for their iron they are governed in the price which they can afford to pay for the wood fuel which they use; or it may be more correct to say, that the proprietors of woods in the iron districts exact from the iron-masters the highest price which the market value of their iron will enable them to give, and thus the protecting duty on iron is a benefit only to a proportion of the proprietors of woods, at the expense of the rest of the community.
The small quantity of iron imported from other countries into France is almost wholly in the first stage of manufacture. There are no means afforded in the official accounts of that country for ascertaining the proportionate quantities of various descriptions of the metal imported ; but as the duty levied in 1841 and 1842 upon all kinds of iron averaged 3l. 11s. 9d. per ton, it is evident that nearly the whole importations must have consisted of pig-iron. It is probable that the small importations of other kinds which are made are confined, or nearly so, to the produce of this country, from the greater cheapness of our market; and we know that the great bulk of our shipments to France are of pig-iron. In 1842, out of 23,428 tons of all kinds of iron shipped by us to that country, 16,464 tons were pig-iron; and in 1843 the proportion was still greater, having been 22,103 out of 29,626 tons,—in both cases more than 70 per cent. of the whole shipments.
A considerable relaxation of the French tariff, whereby the purchase of iron from other countries would be encouraged, would doubtless prove of benefit to those of us who are engaged in its production; while the benefit which France must derive in various ways from having so important a material in greater abundance, would, by advancing the general wealth of the country, make France a more desirable customer; but in the meantime, the course which the French government pursues on this and other points of commercial policy, is by no means an unmixed evil to us, through the obstacles which are thereby raised by itself against the manufacturers of that country in their competition with us in third markets.
The production of metals, other than iron, is so inconsiderable as to be a matter of no national importance in France, and it does not at all interest us except as it points out that country as qualified to be a good customer for a portion of our superabundance. The following figures will show that, small as was the production of those metals in 1836, it is now even less.
These quantities are of course quite inadequate for the supply of the kingdom, and the importations for consumption (commerce spécial) into France in 1841 and 1842 were as follows:—
Lead . . . . Tons. 17,375 | 18,671
The greater part of the lead was obtained from Spain, but England supplied of that metal 2,519 tons in 1841 and 5,027 tons in 1842. The copper was principally imported from England, viz., 6,830 tons in 1841 and 8,300 tons in 1842, a great part being the produce of foreign ore smelted in England. The declared value of British metals and of coals exported to France in 1842 was as follows:— Iron and Steel . . . . . . £105,172 Hardwares and Cutlery . . . 90,035 Copper . . . . . . . . 682,833 Lead . . . . . . . . 91,687 Tin . . . . . . . . . 79,223
1,048,950 Coals . . . . . . 173,278
The quantities of iron and steel exported in that year and in 1843 to France were:—
Note.—Since the foregoing statement was drawn up, the “Résumé des Travaux Statistiques de l’Administration des Mines en 1843,” detailing the mining operations carried on in France in 1842, has been received. From this statement it appears, that the production of coal, lignite and anthracite, amounted in that year to 3,592,084 tons, being an increase over the preceding year of 181,884 tons, or 5% per cent. The excess of the quantity imported over that exported, which in 1841 was 1,569,692 tons, amounted in 1842 to 1,611,331 tons, leaving from this source an increase for internal use of 41,639 tons, and showing the total increase of consumption to have been 4% per cent. over the year 1841. The production of pig iron in 1842 exceeded that of 1841 by 22,314 tons, or not quite 6 per cent. Of bar iron the increase was 21,076 tons, or 8 per cent., and the value was also increased by 256,7311.
Report on the Experience of the St. Marylebone Infirmary, since i827, with respect to Admissions, Duration of Treatment, Mortality, and other Statistical Results, according to Age and Sex. By John Clendinning, M.D. Oxon., F.R.S., Physician to the Infirmary.
[Read before the Statistical Section of the British Association at York,
In 1838 a Committee was appointed by the Council of the Statistical Society for “collecting the statistics of life,” as shown more especially in the leading medical charities of the country, and circulars were issued to 46 London institutions, and to about 80 similar charities in the provinces; amongst the former was the parochial infirmary of St. Marylebone. In consequence of this application conveyed to the guardians and directors of the poor for St. Marylebone, by the author of this paper, permission was given him by the guardians to examine the records of the infirmary, and report the results of his inquiry to the Committee. Circumstances beyond the control of the writer, prevented the preparation of a report of the experience of the infirmary, in due time for the use of the Committee. Since then the writer has been enabled to complete those analyses for which suitable materials were then placed at his disposal. He has, further, since been able to make use of returns made to the Poor Law Commissioners, and to the guardians, for various purposes, and at various times, all of which have more or less bearing on the subject of the statistics of life. Some time since, the author communicated to some leading members of the statistical section of “The British Association for the Advancement of Science,” the fact that he was in possession of these materials; and undertook, with their sanction, to draw up a report to be presented to the ensuing meeting of the Association, if his other engagements should admit of his completing it in time, and if not at the next meeting, then at the meeting of the following year. He has subsequently had communication again with the members of the statistical section above alluded to, and with the treasurer of the Association, and has the honour now, with the sanction of those gentlemen, to present his report in as complete a condition as the materials at his disposal have admitted of.
Preliminary General Observations respecting the Infirmary.
The St. Marylebone Infirmary, or “Sick House,” forms a portion of the parochial establishment for the relief of the poor of St. Marylebone. It adjoins, but is distinct from, the “Workhouse,” having for the most part officers and servants of its own. Its professional staff consists of 3 honorary Physicians—an honorary Physician Accoucheur—2 honorary Surgeons—a House Surgeon–3 assistant House Surgeons—and 2 Dispensers—in all 12 persons. The admissions to its wards come partly from out of doors, and partly from the adjoining workhouse. It receives indifferently both sexes, all ages, and all diseases, except small-pox. The right of admission is legally limited to persons locally resident for a minimum time; but in practice the legal limit as to residence, is often, as I understand, over-stepped in favour of urgent sickness, and extreme destitution; and such transgressions of law, are happily now not only justifiable but inevitable, in consequence of the