and their old names. The covering of a the Rbine; and in time the general name man is fastened with buttons, and these reached the coast. The border on the are often numerous, and so contrived as Netherlands was low, and they transat once to be of use and an oroaient. lated it Low Lauds. On the coast of HolBut we call not man a button, because land the land lay underneath banks, and his taylor has bedecked him with buttons; they translated ihis Hollow Land. The nor should we call a hill a crocus, bea word Bel, signifying a border, might imcause nature has adorned it with cro- ply a bigh or a low one from its root; and

hence these translations. The Belge Cor is a name used in the composition were therefore named from their situafor even the bighest hills and heads of the tions, as well as the Celle. world. This word is derived the same Gallia then came from Gal, a head, as Cau, in which the u is generally and Ia, land or territory, and meant changed to l or r, when a syllable fol- the Head Territory. The Celtæ, Celtici, lows; and hence Cau, Cal, Col, and Cor, Galli, Cumari, or Cumbri, were the imply the same. But each of these is dwellers witbin the dominions to which derived from the root A, an hill, pro- the heads, or head-lands, gave name. nounced Au, which, to form a proper Let us put Gual, for Gaul, and we shall name for an head or hill, takes a c as a have Guallia, or Wallia, which will also prefix. Prefixes were either given to mean the head-territory, and Wales will form proper names only, or to convey meau The Heads. We have, Mr. Editor, some additional meanings to their roots. all our districts, ancient and modern, At present they are not fully understood, known to be nained according to the imbut I will hereafter explain these as far ports of their principal features; two only as I am able. The word Ic is a root for excepted, Wales and Scotland. But are Jand or territory; and the Hill Territory is there any sufficient reasons for excepting the import of Corycus,

these? I believe no good ones. Wales I have proved that the lands of Spain is very appropriately named. gave name to its inhabitants the Celts, But following these principles, I hear and not the inhabitants to the lands, as some readers exclaim that we shall not all authors, both ancient and modern, be enabled to trace the inhabitants of from not understanding the imports of Europe to their present lands." To names they have written upon, bave sups which I answer, that where we cannot posed. I shall therefore have little trou. rationally, we shall be unwise to attempt ble to prove the same of Gaul. I have it; the best way of tracing a people is already shewn that Gal, in Galicia, and from its history, and a comparison of its Cel, or Kel, in Celtica,

were the same. language with the languages of other naThat the syllable Ic, in Galicia, takes a $ tious. The descent on this island of inin Celtica, which are names for the same babitants from the “ Land of Pits and tract in Spain, in the same manner as Pools," seems like a cradle story. We En or An land, takes a t in tan, which have, however, every where to encounter is also land. The syllable Gal taken such stories. Livy, the father of Roman singly became Guul; but the word Cel, History, derived the Apennines from taking the letter t from the second sylla. Hannibal Penninus; Tacitus, Cæsar, and ble in Celtica, became Celt. The Celts other Roman historians, give proofs of ånd Gauls were therefore the same men. the same knowledge in the imports of The end of the known world was not only names; all these give you details of a Spain, nor did this kingdom contain all variety of strange things. Plutarch has its head-lands. Gallia contained also a chapter on the names of rivers, moun. much head-land : and its derivation from tains, &c. he derives the names of his Cal, or Gal, a head, is as reasonably in- rivers from heroes which were drowned ferred froin its figure, running on the in them: he then relates a story of a marnorth-west and on the north towards vellous stone found in each stream: and the sea in one continued head, as the next gives you the names their principal land of Spain.

mountains derived from the mosi fanciful I have said that the coast of France stories. We read his accounts as we do was considered as an end or head of the old romances, not to seek information, continent; but some of this coast was but to admire the invention of the author. low, and some added by time at the If we go further back into antiquity, we mouths of its rivers in the Netherlands. are still disappointed; if we return to The word Cal, or Kel, applied to heads later times, we find tales of which I am in general; but I implies border or ashamed. mouthi The Bulyo lay on the border of Wlieu old errors are attacked, people


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who are attached to them, collect around surprise that the art of combining sounds their temples, not to defend truth, but did not take place till about the fifteenche their idols. For a time it will be so with century. those who hold the commonly received Muris, Fairfax, and Bird, were the opinions of the descent of nations. His first musicians who laid the foundations tory will be searched to support their edi. of the harmonic science. Handel, Purfice; fiction will be brought against cel, and Corelli, gave it scale, system, fact: and nothing will convince a few, and arrangement; but the completion of until they find their writings fixed on the the work was reserved for the immortal shelves, with books of magic, witchcraft, Haydn, who has spread out the edifice and astrology.

A. B. to the skies, and environed with the de

lights of melody. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. The leading characteristics of the im. SIR,

proved music depend upon new adinixTN this enlightened age, in this epoch tures of sound to an extent hitherto un

of novelty and invention, while the known. If we search into the old au. arts are attaining a perfection hitherto thors, we shall not find a combination unknown, it is curious to see with what that exceeds four ingredients, whereas tenacity the advocates of ancient music the present discoveries fully authorize adhere to their old notions and favourite the use of the chord of the thirteenth, masters. They set up the works of Han- which is a compound of all the notes of del and Corelli as the models of excel the scale. In what way the five remain lence, arid scruple not to speak of the ing semitones may be employed, it is music of the present day in terms of left for succeeding ages to determine. contempt and disgust.

Another prominent feature is the fre By what pretensions these partizans quent use of a combination of four minor arrugate to themselves the staiidard of thirds, constituting the chord of the experfection, I know not; but they remind treme flat 7th. By this agent the most us of the Spartans who cut off the four intricate harmony is solved; it is a menstrings from the lyre of Timotheus. They struum in which all the chords are che would dictate their own ideas of taste, mically changed, and in the hands of a and prescribe the boundaries of science; master it is the key that leads us through but when* philosophers, and lecturing the winding recesses to the unexplored musicians, add weight to these opinions chamber of harmony. by entering their denunciations against a Having slightly hinted at these discover. system they obviously don't understand, jes,it is requisiteto pointout some improveI think it only necessary to point out some ments in the department of melody that of the excellencies of modern music, to have much tended to increase its operation prove its superiority, and the want of and sympathetic effects upon the mind. feeling in its opponents.

In the time of Handel and Scarlatti, and Music, like all other arts, is progres- prior to the invention of the piano-forte, sive, and its improvements may be traced the composer had no helps to his genius through a period of more than two thou. but what the harpsichord would attord; sand years. In the time of the Greeks and, as this instrument, from its mecha it was thought to be in high perfection, pical structure, is devoid of expression, but we need only examine the structure it was only serviceable in the combinaof their instruments, to prove its com- tion of sound. But the piano-forte at parative rudeness and simplicity.

once combines with this power the graces The elements, or simple notes of the of enunciation. Its improvements have scale, have experienced no inprovement kept pace with the genius of the age, They are the same now as in the days of and it has powerfully lent its nid in Pythagoras; but it is matter of great giving birth to the most passionate and

exquisite species of song. Though im. * In the lectures of the late Dr. Moyse, perfect, it has taught the voice and now read by Mr. Nicol, I was much surprised violin to give a new utterance to sounds, co hear the modern music called a senseless and to divulge a tenderness that softens jargon, and compared to the tricks and juga and refines the heart of man. gles of a mountebank--that might' astonish,

Musical enunciation may be said to be but never could please. The speculations of this philosopher go still farther: he estas still in its infancy, and its faculty of utblishes discord co be musical evil, and concord terance and inflexion is apparently with. musical good, and infers that much vice may

out bounds. I have experienced with be apprehended from the frequcat use of the delight the indescribable impression which podera music!

Catalaui imparts to the movement of


her voice; but the effect is too evanescent have hitherto felt or conceived. The to be cauglit, and too perceptible to be collision of the truinpets and trombones, lost, even in the ears of dullness. If I and the awful motion of the bass, render appeal to my recollection for an idea, I the chorusses terrific and grand. The would call it' a capricious and happy de concluding movement of The hearena rangement of time and place. In vain are lelling the glory of God, is penned may the Croyphæus of the band attempt with a majesty of thought that transcende to follow her through these scintillations the powers of musical expression. Witb of voice: his powers are great, and our present means we can scarcely prothough he is the first star of the constel- duce a sbade of what the imagination of lation in which he shines, yet bis light is the musician would intend. Jost in the splendour of this divine lu. The volume of sound that is wanted minary.

in the bass, and that is requisite to give It has served our purpose to speak of an amplitude of idea, must be sought harmony as a chemical combination of for in instraments as yet unknown. sound; but we shall 110w take notice of Were it necessary to bring farther ila grand effect which the new music pos. lustrations of the great powers of the new sesses, from the judicious appointment music compared with that of the an and combination of the various instru, cients, we might attempt a description ments in a full orchestra.

of the chaos, which opens the work we In the time of Handel, it is true hat have been quoting. It commences with the same assemblage of instruments oc. all the known instruments, displayed in curred, but it was simply a congress of twenty-three distinct parts. After these musical machines. The author never are amalgamated in one tremendous note, consulted the power or genius of the a slight motion is made perceptible in instruments; the bassoon was called the lower parts of the band, to represent upon to move in the graceful inflexions the rude masses of nature in a state of of the violoncello, and the trumpet to chaos. Amidst this turbid modulation, wrestle with the violin; often whole pass the bassoon is the first that makes an sages were out of the verge of possibility, effort to rise and extricate itself from the many so uncongenial as to be played cuinbrous mass: the sort of motion with with difficulty, and all were so ill digested which it ascends, communicates a like as to encumber an effect they were ins disposition to the surrounding materials; tended to improve.

but this is stifled by the falling of the The powers of instruments vary in, double basses and the contrafagotto. finitely more than the voices of men: In mingled confusion the clarinet their size and magnitude, their peculiar struggles with more success, and the structure and force, give them a marked etherial flutes escape into air. A disdistinctness and character.

position verging to order is seen and It was a prime consideration with the felt, and every resolution would intimate great masters, to consult the species and shape and adjustment, but not a concord style of voice of the singers for whom ensues! After the volcanic eruptions of they wrote. This fact may be exem- the clarini and trombones, some arrange plified by turning to the works of Han ment is promised; a precipitation fols del, Purcel, Pergolesi, and Croft; but it lows of the discordant sounds, and leaves never occurred to any one of these to a misty effect that happily expresses the write for the instruments they employed: “Spirit of God moving upon the fuce of it was left for the immortal Haydn to the waters." At the fat, “ Let there la embody the ideas of the poet,

light !the instruments are umuted, “The soft-complaining flute

and the audience is lost in the refulgence In dying notes discovers

of harmony: The woes of hopeless lovers,

Many who have beard these sublime Whose dirge is whispered by the warbo effects with surprise, think there is no ling lute."

thing left for genius to do, and that To exemplify what has been stated, we Haydn has lived long enough to perfect must open that treasure of musical subs the art in which he excelled. On the limity, the .Oratorio of the Creation. contrary, these emanations of genius Here we find every voice and instrument have opened to us new fields of disco conspiring to raise the mind of inan to very, and it is fortunate for science, that contemplate the wonderful works of God. he is succeeded in this elevated walk of

The exquisite feeling in the songs, and composition by bis pupil Beethoven, the taste displayed in the accompani. This author, who is now the first master ment, exceeds in beauty every thing we living, is bred up purely in the new






school, and possesses great and original powers. Though less perfect than Haydn, It is the privilege of every well-disposed he disdains to imitate him; his genius citizen to participate in the satisfaction loves to rove in the darkest recesses of and in the glory of serving his country. modulation, which impart to his compositios a peculiar strength and rudeness; It is a right of every man to share the and the science which has been nursed rewards of the community of wlrich he in the lap of Italy, is now masculizing in forms a part, and which arise from re. the regions of the North.

venues towards which he contributes his I cannot conclude these observations due proportion. upon the new music, without paying a tribute to the memory of Mozart. For Greater caution ought not to be used feeling and expression, this favourite of in regard to such as are admitted into the Muses may be denominated the Do- executive offices, than are required of minichino of our art; and during the short the members of the two houses of partime that he flourished, exhibited the liament, who are not obliged to receive most exquisite flights of fancy. The the sacrament to enable them to vote in attire of his melodies are unrivalled for either house. grace and simplicity; and since his death it is said, that Ilaydn has affirmed his A refusal to take the sacrament, from compositions to be the models of the conscientious motives, can by no means most refined elegance, and that in his render a person suspected, much less old age he was studying the works disaffected, to the government. of his pupil. His imagination has ina fused a sublimity into the opera, that The sacramental test is not a mera mok renders it the highest of all intel form, but is equivalent to a solema sublectual pleasures; and it is to be lament. scription of all the articles of' faith, dised that a great nation like England has cipline, and worship, of the church of not talent or ability sufficient to repre. England. dent and perform any of the works of this

VIII. great master.

If it be a crime not to take the sacra. We are still doomed to listen to the ment according to the usage of the churel efferninate strains of Italy, and the nur- of England, every one ought to be puSury-songs of Pucito, while the gorgeous nished for not doing it; is it be no crime, and terrific Don Juan, and the beautiful those who are capable and are judged fic Clemenza di Tito, lie unopened and un- for employments, ought not to be punished known in thousands. But the same by a law of exclusion, for not doing that apathy that I have censored in the stu. froin which it is no criine to forbear. dents of the old school, with a mixture of puerility is found to prevail within To set a stigma on men for religious the walls of the first theatre in the world; opinions is an act of intolerance; to and it is matter of curious moment direst them of rights, or subject chein to that we are now in possession of the penalties, is an act of persecution. very works that are to form the acme of theatrical representation in a suc

Jealous and illiberal policy against

dissentients, makes those enemies Leicester, Feb. 14.

W.G. to the church who otherwise would only

be non-conformists. The church can For the Monthly Magasine. never be in danger till the opinions of AXIOMS in favour of RELIGIOUS LIBERTY a large portion of the people are adverse and TOLERATION.

to its principles. ELIGIOUS tests keep out of office Religion and government are so enand they are never any bar to the ad- one, destroys the other. By power gotoission of unconscientious and unprin. vernment subsists, but by force true cipled persons.

religion is subverted, If men perform their social duties Good governments can only be supFaithfully, and in obedience to the laws, ported by good laws; true religion can they do all that the state can with pro- only be preserved by making po human priety demand or expect of them. laws about it.



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For the Monthly Magasine. Though the doctrines of an established The HISTORY OF LITERATURE, from the church may be true, and its commands earliest PERIOD till the DESTRUCTION reasonable, yet, if a man believes the of the ROMAN EMPIRE, one and obeys the other, because en- no trace the various gradations of arises out of the will of men, not from the adding its own discoveries to the expegrace of God; and his obedience is rience of another, and to observe the merely civil, not religious.

progress of each successive age in wis.

dom and science, is a disquisition in If it be contended that governinent the highest degree useful and entertain. ought to provide for the public supporting to a liberal mind. Even a partis of religion, it does not follow that unis investigation into the progress of im. formity is necessary.

provement, is, to a man of business, an

agreeable relaxation; to him who is not Were it conceded that a particular confined for subsistence to any partimode of faith and worship is necessary, cular profession, it is a pleasant, if not a it does not follow that it ought to be necessary, source of employınent; to the maintained by excluding persons of other philosopher it affords matter of wonder persuasions from public trusts. It would and adiniration, and lays a foundation be sufficient that it were supported by a for the most interesting discoreries, general fund.

An enquiry into the rise and progress XVI.

of literature, with wbich, the arts and The property of the church is the real sciences are intimately connected, is, property of those who at present possess perhaps, the most interesting that can it, and the reversionary property of every be offered to our notice. We can confamily in the kingdom: a stronger bare template man at first rude and unre. rier than tests and jealous policy. strained; afterwards obliged by neces. XVII.

sity to submit to laws, and cultivate the Scotland affords a refutation of the arts of social life; while his advanceadage “No bishop, no king," and the ment in science and the liberal arts, rights of any members of a community kept pace with his proficiency in virtue ought not to be taken away as security and cultivation. This, we know, has against hypothetical dangers.

ever been the case in the original for. XVIII.

mation of states and empires. It is also No man should be regarded as cri- gratifying to observe, from what small minal for adopting religious opinions, heginnings, and by what slow gradations, which force themselves upon his convic- the most polished nations liave arisen tions by the strength of their own evi- from the greatest depths of ignorance dence.

and barbarity, to the utmost heights of XIX.

learning and politeness. There are re. Religious opinions can never be detria volutions in the literary as well as in the mental to society; if they are true, they political world, an enquiry into whicha ought to be propagated, that they may would afford equal pleasure to the curious be universally adopted; and if false, that or inquisitive observer. The decay of they may be confuted.

learning and knowledge is generally rapid

in proportion to its advancement; helice When no civil duty is violated, no nations succeed each other in literaryemicivil punishment or privation can be nence, as well as in political superiority. justly inflicted. When religious notions However necessary, useful, and enterbecome personally injurious to others, it taining, the disquisition may be into is then only that they become cognizable which I am about to enter, it has been by the civil magistrate.

very biule touched upon, for a very obe XXI.

vious reason. The nature of the under. Persecution, or intolerance, is founded taking appears to present innumerable on a principle by which men arrogate to obstacles to its success. The difficulty themselves the faculty of knowing other of obtaining materials for a work of this zBen's opinions, and of foreseeing all the kind, and of arranging them when obconsequences which must or will flow tained, deters the more wealthy writers; from them.

while poor ones bave the additional dis. COMMON SENSB. advantages to combat-of want of time, Noo. 1810.

and' want of money. “ It is a painful



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