bability, that this was intended as a ridie nient. I have taken them from the cule on the Augustine manner of defining Morning Chronicle of March 30. free will in the schools. But Mr.Steevens “ Mr. Edward Morris said that be tells us that Shakespeare could not mean could not help relating to the house, to ridicule a circumstance of which it the case of an unfortunate woman, was bardly possible for him to have the tried for stealing above the value of least knowledge. “ He spent his time," five shillings. He was present at the this coininentator informs us, “ belier trial. From many circumstances it than in reading scholastic trash." As was obvious that it was a first offence, Shakespeare's library however consisted and every person in court wished her of little else than trash, surely scholastic acquittal. The jury watched the tes. trash, which was the most fashionable timony very narrowly, to see if any kind of trash, would not be excluded. thing could be laid bold of in her faHe has, in fact, numerous allusions to vour. Lord Kenyon told the jury that those learned disputes of which Mr. They were not to take any of the al. Steevens imagines it scarcely possible leviating circumstances into considerafor him to have the least knowledge. tion in this verdict, whaiever palliation And the trash of the schools may without there might me, and the woman was any undue partiality be deemed at least found guilty. Lord Kenyon proceeded as edifying as the trash of Marlowe, to pass the sentence of the law. When Heywood, Decker, and Middleton, the woman heard the sentence of death, For I have ever verified my friends,

she fell lifeless to the ground. Lord Of whom he's chief, with all the size that ve Kenyon, who was endowed with great rity

sensibility, instantly called out, “My Would without lapsing suffer.

good woman, I do not mean to hang Act V. Scene 2.

you. Will nobody tell the poor woman Dr.Warburton, who changes “verified"to that she is not to be hanged?” This "narrified" without necessity or propriety, case made a great impression on him has taken occasion from this passage to sell, as well as every one present. lle oliserve " that Menenius, the present had frequently heard the same noble Speaker, and Polonius, in Hamlet, have lord pass scntence not on the prisoner much of the same natural character; the before him, but on the law." difference consisting in this accidental "Mr. Percival agreed that it would circumstance, that the first was a senator be an important improvement on the in a free state, and the latter a courtier law, if jusiges were not compelled to and minister to a king." But the reser- pass sentence of death on those who, blance is wholly imaginary; Menenįus is at the time of passing sentence they a man of sense, of sagacity, and wit, apo should be of opinion, did not deserve proaching indeed at times to buffoonery. a capital punishment.” “ He could Pulonius is a compound of weakness, not agree, however, to the suggestion conceit, and formality, verging on do. of his honourable friend (Mr. Frauka tage; swelling with ideas of bis own im. Jand,) that an option might be given to portance; “ full of wise saws and modern prosecutors to lay their indictinents ca. instances." "The power of exciting pitally, or not, as they chose. If this mirth is perhaps equal in both; but we were the case, 10 offence would be laid are diverted with the wit of the one and as of a capital nature, unless from some the folly of the other. Both are cha. improper feeling on the part of the racters of huinour; but Polonius diverts prosecutor." us by a display of the incongruities of Does not the last sentence strongly his own character; and Menenius by shew that the opinion of the Chancellor exposing in a lively and striking manner of the Exchequer is that the people at the follies and incongruities of others, largc, are, generally speaking, much

against the punishinent of death for To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ofiences? Else why, does he suppose SIR,

that no offence would be laid as of a caTHE following passages in the debate pital nature, unless from some improper

1 on the second reading of Sir Sainuet foeling? Thar, lov far the greater nunRomilly's Bill on Stealing in Dwelling- ber, are against this punishment I am houses, March 25, appearing to me to well convinced, and most sincerely wista Le particularly striking, I shall beg the success to the present endeavours of favour of you to insert them in your Sir Samuel Rumilly and his supporters. Publication as soon as may be conies



To the Editor of the Asunthly Magazine. from their richer neighbours, the poor SIR,

are shut out of all remedy for want of N R . Cobbet has, with great feel. this power. It is astonishing that a

1 ing and propriety, called the bill for this purpose could be lost. aliention of the public to the intamous 5. A reforin in the law of capital conduct of some London Newspapers, punishment: the inequality, and, in many particularly of Walter's Times, in giving instances the excessive rigour, of which erparle statements of accusations and presses on the poor; and, by rendering trials. The corrupt and oppressive prosecution and conviction, even when tratřic of the papers in this way has proved, very uncertain, injures them long been notorious, and it is suspect. in another, and perhaps an equal de. ed ihat thousands per annum are made gree. For the progress of this remedy hy some of the London papers in thus the public is unspeakably indebted to buying and selling justice, and in admin the benevolence, devotion, and persenistering to the mutual malignity of verance, of Sir Samuel Romilly. parties in legal suits!

6. A method of bringing the smaller How many men compromise their offences to a speedier trial, by empowerrights and buy their peace by enormous ing the justices to empannel a jury of sacrifices, to avoid the inisrepresentations the hundred by precept to the sheriff and perversions of these base and for that purpose, and to hold an hun. unprincipled newspapers!

dred-court once a month, in their sere. So great an evil ought forthwith to he ral districts, for that purpose: but so corrected by a special enactment of the that all prisoners upon bail, and all comlegislature, and the crime placed among milted not more than a month before the highest class of social offences, the quarter-sessions or assizes, shall be

X. Y. Z. triable at the quarter-sessions or assizes, Lewes, May 8, 1811.

and not otherwise; the intent being only

to shorten previous imprisonment; and . For the Monthly Magazine. as far as may consist with this, the more On the MEANS of BETTERING the con. general jurisdiction being preferable to DUZION of the poor. '

the more confined, THER means of bettering the con. 7. A clear and simple promulgation

dition of the poor are these : of the laws which concern the poor, A reformn in the political law: by ex- that is, the body of the community; tending and equalizing the exercise of so that all w!lo can read may have the the right of suffrage; enabling the poll means of seeing and understanding the for the election of a representative in laws to which they are subject, and Parliament to be begun and finished in those who cannot, but who attend some the sanic day, and reducing the dura place of divine service, may know this tion of Parliaments to short and fixed lie also, by abstracts being read monthly. mits.

8. A more liberal extension of the A sense of personal and of collective law which assigns counsel in formá pattdignity would he thus maintained ; and peris, to those who may have to sue or corruption would be nearly annihilated; be sued, but are unequal to the expences. and with it the immoralities so degra- 9. Some regulation with regard to ding and so destructive to the poor. the hours of labour, the construction

2. A reform in the laws rc pecting of work-rooms, the heating of them, debtor and creditor; and this seems to &c. in those trades and manufactures be making some progress; favourably which are most prejudicial 10 health. to personal liberty, industry, probity, 10. The taking off niuch from the the security of property, credit, and duty on malt and increasing it proportiongeneral wellare.

ably on spirituous liquors. This would 3. A reforin in the law of impound. at ihe same time lessen the enormous iny and of replerin, which are of very frauds on that branch of the revenue. ficquent occurrence (at least ihe im. These are be principal vieans by úbich pounding); and are attended with much the condition of the poor miglit be, int intricacy, disadvainage, and oppression, all respects g. eatly ameliorated. And to the poor.

perbaps none of them, certainly not 4. A power of allowing costs in case of many, are difficult to be put in practice, misdemeanor, Atp:esent for many most or at all hazardous. vexatiuus,ů ad sometimes habitual injuries,

CAPEL Lorrte


To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. only means by which it can be reple

nished, namely importation, IT appears to me that our present These reflections lead directly to the

1 scarcity of gold is in a considerable means by which the further decrease in degree attributable to its bearing in this quantity of our gold and silver coin may country, when coined, a nominal value be prevented, and their return to this considerably less than its real value; a country faciliiated. Instead of offering piece of gold of the size and weight of a only at the rate of twenty-one shillings guinea, being worth at least twenty-four per guinea for gold, and twelve pence per shillings, while the guinea itselt passes for shilling for silver, let our government only twenty-one shillings. This for- offer the same price for thein as they nisties an inducement to Jews, sinige fetch in foreign markets, or even a little glers, and others, who usually engage in more, and issue a coinage of a correcontraband traffic, to export the coin of sponding weight and size. This will at the kingdom, while on the other hand once destroy the inducement to export there exists no encourageinent to import our coin, and encourage the importation the inetals of which it is made; for the of the precious metals into this country. exporter of a guinea receives for ic That other causes have tended to abroad at least twenty-four shillings, create the present scarcity of gold and though he has taken it here for only silver, I am fully aware; causes whose twenty-one shillings; but the importer effects have been infinitely more extenwould have to give (wenty-four shillings sive, and infinitely more ruinous. [ for a piece of gold of the saine size, for know that the enormous subsidies with which the government here could only which we hare, at various cimes during afford to give hiin twenty-one shillings, the last twenty years of war, paid foreign since the piece of money they would princes for fighting their own battles, and make of it would pass for no more than the inmense sums we must have remitted that sum: and that twenty-four shillings abroad for the payınent of our armies, is the real value of such a piece of gold, whilst enyaged on forcign service, inust is evident; because that is the price given have drained us of millions and millions for guineas, when collected for the pur- of specie: but these are causes the effects pose of exportation, and because they of which I fear are irremediable. must fetch even a higher price abroait, in I know that twenty-four sbillings is the order to yield a profit proportionate to price given for guineas for the purpose of the trouble, expence, and risk, of collect exportation, for I was accosted about a ing and exporting them.

month ago, at Dartford, hy a Jew, who It is obvious, therefore, that as pur., was returning from a journey made exo chasers of gold, we offer a less price for pressly to collect them, who asked me it than other nations; that their markets whether I had any guineas, and said, if I are the best for the sale of it; and that, bad, he would buy them of me at that while they continue su, all the gold will rate. He told me he had purchased 163 he carried to foreign markets in pre- within the last three days, and that he ference to ours.

had given a one pound note and four The same observacions are applicable shillings a piece for them. I asked him to our silver coin, the scarcity of which how he could afford to give so high a has nrisen froin the saine causes as the price, and he answered in a whisper, scarcity of gold, with the additional cause ** They are for exchportation, and you arising from the necessity our merchants may be sure I makes it vorth my while." are under, of paying for teas, and other At the time, I thought it was only a Chinese commodities, in that metal only. Jewish expedient to pass a forged note,

Hence it is evident that our coin is or to exchange four bad shillings for one disproportionately large, and that, while good one; but I have since learned that it continues so, the advantage of purcha. the price be offered for guineas was what sing gold and silver here at a certain rate, they were really worth. and of selling them abroad at a much April 13th, 1811. higher price, must have the effect of en. couraging the exportation of them, and To the Editor of the Monthly Mugazine, consequently of encreasing their present ".' SIR, scarcity, while the evident loss on the A NEW edition of Mr. Wales' Tren. importation of them to go bad a market, A tise on the Method of finding the will stand as an insurmountable obstacle Longitude by Timekeepers, having reto the replenishment of our inint by the cently made its appearance, professing to MUNTILY MAQ, No. 213,

. 3 H



be printer from a copy corrected by the own reason, ascertain the truth or false author, and carefully revised by ----- L. hood of whatever has been delivered Gwynne, A.M. master of the Royal concerning the subject of our enquiry; Maihematical School, Christ Church, yet when inen, pre-eininently distiirLondon, &c. &c. and, observing that guished for their abilities, and for their a very material error still remains uncor. arduous enquiries after truth, have suc. recied, I beg, through the mediuin of cessively maintained a doctrine by the pour very usetul publication, to point it force of reason and argument alone; I vut, for the benefit of such persous as think it must be confessed, that sudinay use the tables in the above work. denly to renounce such doctrive, and to

The error I allude to is in the applica. pronounce it fallacious, argues a degree tion of the second part of the equation to of self-confidence which is more geequal alucudes, (in Table II.) as ex• gerally fuund to accompany vanity and plained by an example in page 81, which ignorance, than truth and knowledge, the author prefaces thus, " Another ex. Mr. Hawes next gives a very nbscure ample will make every thing relative to and inelegant definition of what he these tables perfectly plain to the “ takes to be" a fraction; he then promeanest capacity.".

ceeds tbus: “By consulting Nature in In this example the latitude is 830.56' preference to my own imagination, or to south, and the first part of the equation any received doctrine, I food the proba109.64 which is subtractive, because, the bility that a person, whose age is twenty, latitude being south, the sign is changed shall attain to the age of 6fty, or live from * to . But we are told that the thirty years, is, according to the obsersecond part of the equation 1".25, is sub- yalions of M. De Parcieux, 'as given tractive likewise, naturally leading one, in Mr. Baily's third table, equal to not of the meanest capacity, to suppose 25-6689 that the signs in Table II. are to be on years." But why, Mr. Editor, changed when the latitude is south,

did not your correspondent acquaint his which is contrary to the construction of the construction of readers with the method by which he

a the table, and will certainly produce an found the probability that a person, erroneous conclusion in the calculation;

om aged twenty, should attain to fifty, was for in the present instance the whole equa: 05.6689 tion is said to be ~ 11".89, instead of 000x. Not one word however has he which it ought to be - 91.39, being the 30:0000 difference instead of the sum of the two said of the modus operandi. No, but he parts of the equation, and sabtractive says that he has consulted Nature: true, because ihe greater part is so. M. I know he says that he has consulted

Nature; but may not his reader be at To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. liberty to doubt!

liberty to doubt the truth of this asserSIR,

tion? For does it not seein strange that I HAVE read in your last Number a Nature should have thrown her whole

communication entitled “ Objections blaze of lighc upon Mr. Hawes, and have to Doctrines adopted by Mr. Baily and afforded only a few occasional rays to other Writers, on the Probabilities of Newton, Halley, and De Moivre; rays Life," by Nathaniel Hawes, on which I too, wbich it should now seem, only beg leave to send you a few comments. served to bewilder and deceive them? Is

Mr. Hawes first briefly mentions the it not extraordinary that Nature should manner in which the probability of life have been su munificent of her favours has been expressed by' Halley, De in, most probably, her first interview with Moivre, Simpson, Dodson, Price, Mor your correspondent, and that she should gan, and Baily; and then states, that the have been so coy in her manuers, so repurport of bis letter is “to represent the served in her appearance, and so nigfallacy of such a doctrine," "This cere gardly of her gifts, to those great men, tainly is a very modest beginning, and I who spent their whole lives in her so.. assure you that, when I lind proceeded ciety? Surely, therefore, Mr. Editor, only thus far, I forned no very elevated your readers may be at liberty to doub: opinion of the ability of your corre. this consultation with Nature, and to spondent; for, though I by no means rank it in the class of those experiences, think it proper that we should place an as they are called, which are not una implisit confidence in names, particularly frequent among the members of a certain wher: we may, by the exercise of our religious persuasion, but which are some

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times, it is said, of such a nature, as to end of the said time. One almost w011render it doubtful whether they are spi- ders how such an instance of absurdity ritual, or otherwise.

could have escaped even Mr. Hawes That I may not however be thought himself, accompanied as it is with sneers too hasty in my ridicule of Mr. Hawes' of contempt upon the most accurate of consultation with Nature, I will examine all sciences, the mathematics, and upon his results. He says, that he finds, (from the ever-to-be-revered names of Halley, this consultation) ihat the probability De Moivre, Simpson, Dodson, and Price, that a man, ayed 46, shall attain to the But lest our minds should not be suf. age of 56, or live 10 years, is equal to ficiently illuminated by the light which 8.9219

Mr. Hawes has shed upon us in the com. 10.0000 years, and the probability that

munication of the results of his consyle a woman, aged 40. shall attain to the tation with Nature, which have been age of 50, or live 10 years, is equal to

above stated, or rather, perhaps, that 9.2425

his readers might entertain a due sense •. But the probability that both of the high estimation in which Nature those persons shall live 10 years, is equal length of her conference with him; this.

held this, her darling son, from che " Will the reader think gentleman has added, as a conclusive ar. 10.0000

gument for the ignorance of Halley, any ridicule too severe after noticing this De Moivre, Price, &c. &c. that he finds


(from his consultation with Nature, mind resul? For the fraction on which

ye) that the probabilities of a person Mr. llawes finds by consulting Nature, to aged 15, continuing in being 10, 20, 30, express the probability of both persons 10, 30, 60, 65, 70, and 80, years, will be surviving for the specified time, is greater

respectively *95837, 18.2394, 23.9894,

32.8101, 38.2624, 41.8909, 42-8573, than the fraction _89219

which he 43.3278, and 43.5094; thus making the 10 0000

probability that a person should be found fuds, from the saine consultation, to

alive at the end of 80 years, nearly five express the probability that one only of

times as great as the probability that the those persons would be living at the end

saine person will be found alive at the of the said time; that is to say, that it is

end of only 10 years. Bravissimo, Mr. more likely that two persons should be

old be


Hawes! Bravissimo Daine Nature, Mr. both found alive at the end of any given Hawes' confidential adviser! ume, than that one of them only should

Your correspondent concludes his survive to the end of the said tine! Mr.

communication with the like expressive Hawes further says, that he finds (whe.

modesty witb which he commenced it; ther from the same consultation of Na

for he says, that be trusts he has suclure, or from any after interview with the

ceeded " in representing the fallacy of a goddess, he has omitted to state) that it

doctrine so confidentially authorised, so is more probable that three persons,

mathematically tolerated, and so impli. wliose ages are 20, 30, and 40, should

citly acquiesced in, during the last hunall be found alive at the end of fifteen

dred years;" and, by way of climax, years, than that the person whose age is

closes with, “ It is only left me now to 40, should alone be found alive at the

enquire, on which side of the question, end of that time; for he finds the fraction

conviction preponderates?"-Yes, Mr. 13.0505 on to expreßs the probability thay

Hawes, you need not for one moment

doubt but your readers are fully conall of them will continue su long, but vinced, that the “suggestions" of Dr. . 12:5836

Halley were foolish; that the "adoponly the fraction on to express the

tion" of those suggestions by Mr. De probability that the person, aged 40,

Moivre affords a proof of ignorance, the will continete to the same period. And "adherence" to them by Mr. Simpson. Thus, Mr. Editor, from that glorious in; an astonishing instance of obstinacy; the flux of light which has fallen upon us,

has fallen upon us. “ confidence" placed in them by Mr. through the liberality of your corre

Dodson, a display of rashness; the spondent, we are now to believe, that, if “espousal" of thein by Dr. Price, an there be a hundred persons of the saine age, it will be more probable that they • The reader will observe, that there are should all be found alive at the end of no denominators to these numbers. * any specified time, than that some one . The editor presumes, however, that deof them only should be found alive at the pominators are to be understood.


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