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to reconcile itself to Lenten fare- could have preserved the heavenly while his penitence for sleeping during principle alive in such a place. Duty, a sermon, and that laudatory certifi- too, after its kind, and the supersticate of church attendance and mem- tious loyalty in which the ancient bership-& certificate which, with a Cavalier families were sedulously bred, little alteration of form and diction, must have come in to close those meek might satisfy the strictest kirk-session uncriticising eyes to the vileness of in Scotland-show a certain honesty the illustrious vice before them ; yet, in his profession. There is, indeed, so witbal, it shocks our modern notions, perfect an honesty in this entire jour to realise this mingling of the pure nal of his, that Samuel's religiousness and the impure, and to excuse this tolclaims full credit at our hands, such eration of high-seated iniquity. How as it is-yet, nevertheless, it is true chary is the good religious Evelyn in that Samuel might be a very heathen his comments, how slow to condemn for any restraint his religion puts “his Majesty," how much inclined in upon him. Compunctions afterwards loyal reverence to do what domestic it may produce; but prudence, and love does so often-and be bitter on not piety, checks Mr Secretary before the evil influences the temptations the act, however piety may come in and the tempters who “lead away." bebind to prick the offending con- How the king would have been a great science. Yet wbatever he does, Sa- monarch, "had not bis easy nature muel never misses going to church; resigned him to be managed by crafty and if it be to see a pretty Mistress men, and some abandoned and deSomebody, or if he chances to fall praved wretches, who corrupted his asleep before the sand in the hour otherwise sufficient parts;" how “he glass has measured out the heads of was a prince of many virtues, debo. the sermon, Samuel fails not to pray nair, easy of access, not bloody nor a " God forgive me," as he records his cruel ;" and how “he would doubtsin. Nor is he by any means alone less have been an excellent prince had in this union of vice and devotion. he been" something exactly the reThe royal reprobate himself hears verse of what he was. After this many a sermon, and there are solemn fashion only, and with manifest pain preachings, very frequent and very and reluctance, Evelyn permits himeloquent, to the household—with what self to condemn; and it is easy to effect upon the household manners perceive with what a pang of humiliaand mode of life it is difficult to per- tion and disappointment the old highceive. Nor is this all. We are minded honourable Royalist must have accustomed to tbink of this period as owned to himself this pitiable failure the most entirely reprobate and aban- of the royal blood to produce any, doned in all our national history, yet thing worthy of the throne, which nevertheless true it is, and of perfect that "arch rebel” and “unnatural verity, that piety also flourished in usurper" had filled after so kingly a those days; piety-genuine meek de- fashion. The testimony of two am. votion-and a divine and undefiled bassadors, who had served the Comfaith. Within the unwholesome at. monwealth first and then the king, mosphere of that court of Charles, and who complained of the lessened doing dutiful homage to the poor, respect paid to them, when sent by swart, uncomplaining Portuguese Ka- Charles; the evident diminution of therine, brushing against the very English influence everywhere; the skirts of Portsmouth and Castlemaine, unwise and unprosperous wars, rashly living under the polluting eyes of Ro- undertaken and ill conducted—though chester and Sedley, and, still worse, always saved, by little outbursts of of their master, piety was even here. vigour and courage on the part of the The last place in the world to look for generals, from entire discomfiture and such a strange and alien visitant, yet shame; the wanton extravagance of there the angel found it possible to the court, and corresponding dishoexist; and perhaps nothing less than nesty, penuriousness, and bankruptcy the ascetic routine of perpetual devo- in public affairs, were all so many sore tion, the sad, self-absorbed, and self. assaults upon the old enthusiastic party inspecting pietism of Mrs Godolphin, of Cavaliers, whose sufferings and plottings, in which neither land nor period—what was his company, and life were spared, and whose insane what his fare; whether he made rejoicing and triumph over the accom- merry upon venison and pullets, or plished restoration were so utterly put had fish, because it was Good Frito shame by the result. They had day; or felicitated himself that he had buried Oliver at Tyburn-but all the come to sufficient estate to have a gold in England could not purchase hash of fowls for the little private Oliver's imperial mantle to fall upon supper of himself and his wife at the shoulders of this impotent and home. Nor are we less enlightened careless king.

as to the extent and increase of Very much more distinct, for Pepys Samuel's wardrobe, and the finery of was not restrained either by personal his wife, which last he rather grudges, attachment or exaggerated loyalty, yet is complacent in. Steadily growis the deliverance which he gives upon ing in wealth, he grows in splendour Charles and his reign. Unmitigated withal, abounds in new-fashioned luxis the public discontent, according to uries; sets up a magnificent coach, with Mr Secretary, and the people look gilt standards and green reins, and wistfully upon the times of stout old everything handsome about it; wears Oliver, when England was great silk on working days, and procures among the nations, and pure, if some for himself a suit ornamented with thing rigid and straitened at home; gold lace, so overpoweringly grand when the public money supplied the that he keeps it by him long in fear public necessities, and there was no and trembling, afraid lest it be too vicious and disreputable court to sap fine for public exhibition, as indeed it the national finances and credit, and afterwards proves to be. Private make the national establishment a domestic incidents there are not many Castle Rack-rent on a larger scale. to animate the record, though Samuel's “ Why will not people lend their misdemeanours bring him at last into money?" cries an afflicted my Lord a state of much uneasiness at home, Treasurer, when the Commissioners where his poor wife's suspicions and of the Navy carry their accounts and jealousies give him a troubled life of complaints to him. “Why will they it, and even put the guilty Secretary not trust the king as well as Oliver? in bodily fear and dolour : it is, howWhy do our prizes come to nothing, ever, some satisfaction to perceive that that yielded so much heretofore ?" Samuel at last heartily sets himself to In the Council Chamber, and such an overcome this, and succeeds very honourable presence, Mr Secretary tolerably, as it seems; his wife being makes no response, but does not fail a persuasible woman, who will hear to record a very clear opinion on the reason after all. And an important subject, in the privacy of his own man in his office grows Samuel, the closet at home. The boldness of very soul of its business and diploSamuel's secret chronicle even dis- macies, its triumphant defender before closes more courageously than he him- Parliament, when, as the spokesman self does the opinions of Evelyn, of the arraigned Naval Commissioners, "who," says Pepys, “is grieved for, he covers himself with modest glory. and speaks openly to me his thoughts Nor does Mr Pepys make less proof the times, and our ruin approach- gress in the general world, where he ing — and all by the folly of the is adopted into learned and courtly king."

circles; becomes a member of the With an incalculable amount of Royal Society, an intimate of Evepleasure-making, and that strange lyn's, known at court, and familiarly cross-fire of report and incident, which recognised by duke and king. Neither make the daily narrative, so minute the Plague nor the Fire sends him and clear in all its details, something from his post, and his account of both perplexing as a whole, we make of these events is very distinct and our circumstantial progress with Mr graphic, with that indubitable air of Secretary through several slow-paced eyewitness and sufferer which gives years, and are able to decide with ab- reality to the tale. The irrestrainable solute certainty where our hero has curiosity which makes him follow dined on almost every day of the whole funerals against his will during the reign of the one, and his manifold greater measure, we find that Evelyn tribulations under the other — his has a much larger share of the troubles shoulder of mutton without a napkin, of common life. He loses several his dirty and undressed plight, his children, among them one of those borrowed shirt and precarious rest, learned and pious youthful ladies, of the little personal inconveniences, whom he numbers several among his which mark the period quite as clearly friends ; none is fairer, sweeter, more as the public calamity, are all very pious, or accomplished, than his own plainly set down ; yet his own mea- Mary, and his grief has satisfaction in sures are those of an active and care- recording her perfections. Of this ful public servant,--there is quite as daughter, who died at nineteen, and of little doubt of that. And Samuel the wonderful little Richard long ago escapes upinjured in home and per- dead, at six years old, the father speaks son, in goods and family connections, with a full heart. It is " grit,” like a from both the great national disasters river, overflooded and running wide, of his time.

this grief of his, in respect to these Bat the naïve and plain-spoken children; and it is singular to note autobiographer has a period put to his how differently the death of his son disclosures. Samuel must relapse into John, in the prime of manhood, when the veiled propriety of ordinary story. Evelyn himself is old, affects his Samuel must be content in future with calmer faculties, and how he can only such a record as all the world couple with the brief obituary a notice may see-for these twinkling carious of my Lord of Devonshire's misforeyes of his may not avail bim longer tunes on the turf. But even sorrow for his secret ciphering, and it is with does not turn aside his life from its a great pang that he yields to the full current. John Evelyn is as busy necessity, which is “almost as much a man, after his grave fashion, as as to see myself go into my grave," Samuel Pepys, and a very much more he says, disconsolately, and so con- disinterested one, since neither fee nor cludes a chronicle wbich has no equal compliment seems to come in his way, —the clearest picture ever displayed and his charge of the sick and wounded to the world of a mind and conscience in these harassing naval wars, his in perfect undress, with not a thought embarrassment how to provide for concealed.

hosts of prisoners, having neither And bad darkness rested still upon houses to receive nor money to supthe mysterious characters of Pepys' port them, give him little satisfaction Diary, not Evelyn himself had shown in his public labours. Providing a better example of respectability to chirurgeons and medicaments, and aftercoming beholders. The Pepys himself overseeing these poor maimed who writes letters to those contem- victims of warfare, everywhere finding porary people with whom it is neces- accommodation inadequate, and means sary to stand well, is a very different insufficient, Evelyn travels from town Pepys from him of the journal; and to town of his district with most conwe are half inclined to take for irony scientious zeal; nor, though the emthe serious compliments and much ployment is very far from being an respect with which he is saluted by agreeable one, does he fail to devote the potable compeers, who know him himself to it with good-will and his so much less than we do. It is a best endeavours. Along margin of time carious fact this, among the many is left over, however, for his own percurious facts which this self-exposure sonal pursuits; and all the wonders of reveals to us; no doubt Mr Pepys the time are welcome to Evelyn, who knew Mr Evelyn a great deal better dabbles in all the arts and sciences, than we know that well-mannered and and has a smattering of every branch worthy gentleman-but not a hon- of learning under the sun. It is now dredth part so well informed was Mr that, by his skilful negotiations, Harry Evelyn, not so learned was Mrs Howard of Norfolk bestows the ArunPepys herself in the character of del Marbles upon Oxford, and a Samuel, as are we.

library upon the Royal Society, for In a corresponding space of time, which first good office Evelyn has over which he walks with strides of a the solemn thanks of the University, and is with mach pomp and circum- of a statae, and seeming to flow for some stance created Doctor of Laws; and miles, by being artificially continued in now it is that be reads his paper upon the painting, where it sinks down at the forest trees—the Sylva by which he is wall It is a very agreeable deceit. At principally known as an author-before

the end of this garden is a little theatre

made to change with divers pretty scenes, the Royal Society, of which he may

and the stage so ordered with figures of very justly be called the founder and

men and women painted on light boards parent, and to waica de lucrodaces and cat out and bya person who stands unvarious magnates, foreign and native; derneath made to act as if they were speakamong them the Duchess of New ing, by guiding them, and reciting words castle and Queen Christina of Sweden, in different tones, as the parts require.” with both of whom our stately cicerone is considerably amused in his Have we not seen in the modern courteous way. And now it seems Royal Academy, within the range of that among the palace-builders of this tbese very few years, sundry acres of extravagant era, no one is contented verdant canvass, which might add without the approval of Evelyn, and marvellously to a suburban garden we hear of him carried by this noble "by the addition of a well-painted lord and that illustrious earl to in- perspective"? At this present mospect improvements and new erections, ment there rises upon our memory a the growth of new and sudden for- gigantic oak, overwhelming in its maltunes, or the increase and reparation titudinous foliage. What " an agreeof old. Terraces and lofty elevations, able deceit" might this prore, if it parks and labyrinths and curious gar- were but hung to advantage upon dens, exotic plants and rare flowers, some bit of intrusive wall, in the narwith every practicable device of land- TOW grounds of a London mansion! scape-gardening, pass in brilliant re- and how delightful the delasion, lookview before his eyes, and Evelyn ing through scrubby lilacs and acacias, maintains his place of critic loftily, to find the forest king in all his pride, and praises with discrimination, al- where nothing but a smoky line of ways retaining some small matter of brick and mortar was wont to be! disapproval. In one of the earliest But however the fashion of the art pages of his Diary he tells us of the was, there can be no dispute of Eveplace where, as an infant, he was sent lyn's high authority in all matters of to purse, "a most sweet place towards landscape-gardening, nor of the perthe hills, flanked with woods and re- petual reference made to him. Of the freshed with streams, the affection to great nobles of England many had which kind of solitude I sucked in returned from exile to find their patriwith my very milk;" and the taste monial homes desolated by the civil remains with him all his life, since war, or impaired by Roundhead occuwe find him permitted by his brother pation; there had been sieges, asto make an artificial lake and hermic saults, defences, among these houses tage at Wotton in his youth, and of the great, and the age had a taste subsequently perceive him curious in for magnificence, for costly rarities, landscape-gardening during his tra- and “curious” decorations, so that vels and early life abroad. In gar- all who could, and many who in real dening, as in all other arts, this age is ability could not, set about the costly emphatically "curious," and as full of work of building and improving. Mr quips and conceits in its plantations Evelyn's journeys from one lordly as in its literature. Here is one seat to another are almost as frequent strange instance seen abroad; it is and as laborious as are his official pilat the palace of the Count de Lian- grimages; and Mr Evelyn is equally court in Paris :

great on internal decoration, and on “ Towards his study and bed-chamber

the embellishments and accessories is a little garden, which, though very

without. The fair chambers, “ parnarrow, by the addition of a well-painted

getted with yew and divers woods," perspective, is to appearance greatly en

the rare tapestries of dining-hall and larged ; to this there is another part, withdrawing-room, the Indian cabinets supported by orches, in which runs á of my lady's elegant retirement, and stream of water, rising in the aviary out the accumulation of rare and fantastic curiosities in my lord's closet, are all of this advice of his. Added to all matters of interested comment to our these, he has matrimonial negotiations, virtuoso. A cabinet of coins or a executorships, dispensings of alms painted ceiling, an "incomparable" from sundry quarters, and all manner picture or a magnificent toilet- of family duties and offices of friendeverything comes under his inspection; ship upon his hands. Every day, and but of all other matters the thing in all day long, John Evelyn lives; which it seems most difficult to satisfy there is no time for vegetation in this the taste of Evelyn is, the funda- full and energetic existence. mental matter of the site. Wotton is And now there comes an abrupt always in his eye-Wotton, where, conclusion to the reign of Charles. after his illness, he goes to be recovered Death comes fiercely in a paroxysm by his “sweet native air," and which and agony upon the bapless king, and is clearly next to his heart at all times. in a few hurried days all is over, and He finds a great many imperfections James is regnant in his brother's place. in the position of his friends' houses; His brother's eminence in vice throws one is too far from the water-one James into the shade, and makes, on from the wood-another lies in a hole the whole, rather a decent creditable low-another has no windows towards private man of this narrow-sighted the prospect-the disadvantages are despot. There is great hope of his bemanifold; and it is rare to find the ginning, for, after all, a certain honesty critic entirely satisfied, let him go of intention is in the new king, and he where he will.

has served the public with honour in Specially consulted and authorita- bis day. We have no longer Pepys tive in this, there are few arts or in- to refer to for the unvarnished truth genuities known which come amiss to of public opinion, but Evelyn records Evelyn; a learned and wonderful his own expectations of a respectable infant prodigy-a philosophical cook- and prosperous reign. A brief trial, ing apparatus (would that Monsieur however, brings sore doubt upon this Papin had bequeåtbed his wonderful subject; Popish officers begin toswarm machine to the present generation, to in public employments — even that the gladdening of many a housewifely dreaded animal the Jesuit makes its beart, which mourns over bones and appearance in open daylight at Whitesinews unresolvable into the savoury hall; the Parliament is assaulted by jelly of the philosopher's supper!)-à bribes and flatteries and threatenings wonderful conjuror-alternate in Eve on every side. Toleration, a new lyn's notice with Grindling Gibbons, word in the Papistical mouth, begins his special protégé, whose "incom- to be demanded with a voice gradually parable" carving he is the first to increasing in haughtiness, and at last bring into repute—with that other and suddenly the Prince of Orange "incomparable" genius, Dr Christo- appears on the troubled scene. Hurpher Wren-with famous travellers ryings to and fro, hopeless bewilderand great inventors, with foreign sa- ment, desertion, panic, as in a house rants and notables, each and all of assaulted by unseen midnight enemies, whom contribute something to the darken the air for another brief constant accumulation of knowledge space of time; and then the scene is which Mr Evelyn notes so carefully. changed after a confused and disorAnd he who plans benevolent infir- dered fashion, and we perceive Wilmaries and makes “plots" for a new liam, very silent, very reserved, very city, who plants a great society of Dutch, and not very gracious, perhaps philosophy, and does distinguished even a little scornful of those timeservice to an illustrious college, has serving deserters of his predecessor, time withal to be interested even in setting himself down deliberately and the fashions of the time, and to pre- solemnly in the royal place. sent to the king a pamphlet called But Mr Evelyn says not a word of "Tyrannus, or the Mode,"recommend- William ; only one mention of "the ing a Persian costume, which is after- morose temper of the Prince of Orange, wards temporarily adopted, though who showed little countenance to the Evelyn modestly declares that "he noblemen and others, who expected a thinks" it cannot be in consequence more gracious and cheerful reception

VOL. LXXVI.-NO. CCCCLXV.

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