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intended as a present for the sultan. Very high words passed between CoBut wbilst the vessels were still within lonna and Don Carlos Dávalos, who a few miles of the coast, they were commanded a strong body of infantry suddenly destroyed by the explosion on board the Spanish galleys. Doria of their powder magazines, nothing interposed his authority, and ordered remaining of them but a few planks his subordinate to retire, or the quarrel floating on the water. Some histo- might have come to blows. Doria then rians attribute their destruction to required that Colonna should show accident; others, adopting a more him his authority for acting as he did; romantic version, declare it to have and it soon became evident that the been the work of one of the captives, three powers had made no express a beautiful girl, who preferred death arrangement on the important subject to dishonour. Of the catastrophe of command, but that each pretended there can be no doubt, but its cause to be independent, and even to a right must ever remain uncertain.
of commanding the other two ; whilst, The loss of Nicosia, quickly fol- in the instructions given to the genelowed by that of the whole island, is rals, no provision had been made for attributed by Señor Rosell, with settling the difficulties that could every appearance of reason, and upon hardly fail to spring up from the want the strength of Italian authorities, to of one directing head. Finally, a few the neglect of the Venetians. Had days after the stormy councils, the they, when they first perceived the fleets separated, but met again at hostile intentions of the Turk, em- Candia, whence Doria, the season no ployed a part of their resources to longer allowing of naval operations strengthen and garrison their colo in those seas, departed, early in Ocnies, and especially Cyprus, Selim's tober, for Sicily, with the consent of avowed object, instead of attending Colonna and Zanne, which he had solely to the fitting out of a fleet thought proper to ask out of courtesy. which came too late to save the island, The conduct of the three admirals after they might have retained their valu: the fall of Nicosia, their disputes and able colony. Such was the advice their separation, have given rise to given them by the celebrated Duke of much discussion amongst historical Alba, in a letter dated from Brussels, writers. Señor Rosell vindicates Doria the 31st March 1570, to be found in and casts blame upon Colonna, taxing the appendix to Señor Rosell's work, him with presumption, and with havin which the duke strongly recom- ing, in concert with Zanne, abandoned mends to them to cargar sus plazas, the Spanish fleet. It is not unnatural to supply their fortresses well with that a Spanish writer should take this the best soldiers they have, so that view of the question, but he also brings they may gain time—the greatest Italian authorities to his support. The enemy, he says, of those who besiege controversy, however, is not now of strong places—until at last, the num- sufficient interest to be worth dilating bers of the foe being diminished, re- upon in this place. lief may be taken to the besieged. Leaving a garrison in Nicosia, But at the same time he recom- Mustafa laid siege to Famagusta. He mends that the places should be pitched his camp at three miles from so provided as if they never were the town, and daily sent horsemen to to be relieved. It has been seen how ride up to its walls, and to exhibit to little the republic profited by these its inhabitants the heads of the prinwise counsels.
cipal persons killed at Nicosia stuck When the news of the fall of Nicosia upon the heads of lances. Neither reached the combined fleet, another this bloody menace, nor the fair procouncil of war was held, at which con- mises of which he afterwards was lavtrary opinions were emitted, and some ish, had the slightest effect upon the angry discussion took place. Colonna defenders of Famagusta, who were reattempted to assume the supreme solved, as they afterwards showed, command, and to control Doria, who to fight to the death, and who, in two declared that he acknowledged no sallies, drove the Turks from their superior but Don John of Austria, trenches, destroying, with the guns of captain-general of the Spanish navy. the fortress, three redoubts that they had thrown up. The reduction of the gary that had fallen under the Mosplace not appearing so easy as bad lem yoke, but his treasury was low; been anticipated, Mustafa postponed he was bound by a trace of eight it until the spring, and went with the years, signed with the Grand Seignfleet in quest of that of the Christians, ior, and he could not seriously enwhich he knew from his spies to have se. tertain the proposals of the Veneparated into two portions. Deprived tian ambassador. The conferences of the assistance of the Spaniards, the were prolonged, many dificulties Venetian apd Roman squadrons were intervened, and at one time Venice, not in condition to make head against doubting of a favourable result, and the Turk, the news of whose approach cherishing little bope of alone bringwas very unwelcome to them, espe- ing the war to a successful issue, cially as they had just lost eleven was near entering into negotiations galleys, and bad others damaged by with the Porte, when Muhammed, a storm at sea. Fortunately, high the Grand Vizier, jealous of Musand contrary winds frustrated Mus- tafa's triumph, had persuaded Selim tafa's design, and he at last changed to offer peace to the senate — a his plan, and went to winter at principal condition of which would Constantinople. Zapne took advan- have been the cession of Cyprus by tage of his absence to throw a re- the latter, or at least the payment of inforcement of sixteen hundred in a tribute, if they were allowed to refantry into Famagusta, and thence tain the island or the town of Famawent to Corfu, to seek orders from the gusta. Before, however, these negosenate, by whom he was shortly af- tiations had commenced, the Pope, terwards, either by reason of his ill learning that Venice had sent a spehealth, which incapacitated him for cial envoy to Constantinople, nomithe command, or because his conduct nally to negotiate an exchange of of the campaign was disapproved prisoners, feared some underhand (Señor Rosell says the latter was the dealings, and despatched Colonna to cause), removed from his command. assure the Doge and senators of his It was bestowed upon the proveditore, desire to carry out the league, and of Sebastian Veniero, who had for his his willingness to yield certain points lieutenant Agostino Barbarigo, a man, that had proved impediments to its says Benior Rosell, of singular discre- completion. The conferences were tion, and very well beloved by his resumed, and finally, on the 25th May, follow-citizens. Meanwhile Colonna, a perpetual treaty of alliance against passing through many perily, and suf- the Turks, and also against the Moors fering much damage including the of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, was loss of his own galley, which was sworn to, and signed by the three struck by lightning and reduced to ambassadors, on the part of Rome, ashes-at last reached Rome, where, Spain, and Venice. Don John of although he arrived with scarcely á Austria was appointed captain-geneshadow of his squadron, he was re- ral of the league, and Colonna was to ceived with great demonstrations of replace him in case of absence or joy.
accident. No one of the contracting Such was the unsatisfactory state powers was at liberty to conclude of allairs at the close of the cam. peace or truce with the Porte without paign of 1670. Meanwhile, Pius V. the consent of the others. The league used every exertion to bring about was not published in Venice until the the much - desired league, whose 2d of July, but before then the Ponobject was to be the humbling of tiff, with great zeal and diligence, had the power of the Turk. Conferences sent a legate to Spain, to urge Philip were held at Rome between the II. to hasten his preparations, and representatives of the Pope, the also to Austria and Portugal to press King of Spain, and the Republic of them to join the alliance. The legate Venice; and Maximilian of Austria deputed to Spain was received with was again urged to join in the pro- great pomp and magnificence, upon jected alliance. He would gladly the details of which Señor Rosell have reconquered the part of Hun- complacently dwells. But before
tracing the results of the league, we ings were afterwards effected in the must revert for a moment to the Turks islands of Cerigo, Zante, and Cephaand to Famagusta.
lonia, where barbarous cruelties and On the approach of spring, Selim devastations were committed ; and in ordered a numerous fleet to be got the month of July, Uluch Aali entered together, with the purpose of rein- the Adriatic, took two galleys, seized forcing the army in Cyprus, and of upon Dulcino and Antivari, passed by falling upon the Venetian squadrons Curzola, where the women—there be. wherever they were to be found. He ing very few men in the place—dressed made various changes. Piali, accused themselves as soldiers, and showed of having suffered the enemy's galleys themselves on the walls, making the to escape in the previous autumn, was Turks believe in the presence of a disgraced, and replaced by Aali Pasha; numerous garrison, and sacked the whilst Perten, an experienced officer, island of Liesena. Venice, beholding took command of the land forces. the enemy so near, whilst her own Uluch Aali, viceroy of Algiers, squadrons remained in shameful inbrought a good number of galleys, and action, was in consternation; but Hassan Pacha, a son of the celebrated Uluch knew his business too well to Barbarossa, also came with a squad remain long in the Adriatic, whose ron, so that the fileet altogether was entrance might suddenly be closed to of two hundred and fifty sail. When him, so he rejoined Aali at the mouth this strong force was united, Selim of the Cattaro, and sailed with him gave orders to his captains not to re- to Corfu, to seek intelligence of the main idle a single day, and they im- fleets of the league. mediately attacked various Venetian During the time occupied by this possessions, landing at Canea in Can- daring expedition, Mustafa was busy dia, where, however, they were set at Famagusta. When the middle of upon by the inhabitants as they re- April arrived, and with it weather tired to their ships, and suffered great favourable to military operations, he loss. At Retimo, in the same island, established his camp on the spacious the ferocious Uluch Aali* was more plain, three miles in extent, that insuccessful; for, although repulsed at tervenes between the city and the sea. first by the admirable artillery-prac- This army was very numerous: some tice of about a hundred men who com- writers have stated it at 200,000 posed the garrison, he soon discovered men. Serior Rosell estimates it at with how slender a force he had to 80,000, but adds that it is difficult to deal, returned to the assault, and fix its numbers exactly, owing to the sacked and burned the town. Land- great number of adventurers who had
* This renegade was born of poor parents, in the Neapolitan province of Calabria, and was brought up as a fisherman and boatman. Captured by a Greek renegade corsair, he for many years pulled an oar in a galley. Having lost his hair from a skin disease, the other Christian slaves affronted him, and would neither eat with him nor row upon the same bench. It chanced one day that a soldier struck him ; he concealed his anger, but vowed revenge, and, as the only means to secure it, he abjured his religion, and became a Mussulman, an act of desperation characteristic of the man, and which was the commencement of his fortune. As a Turk, he rose to be boatswain of a galley, then associated himself with others to arm a brigantine, and finally became one of the principal corsairs in Algiers. He entered the service of Dragut-arraez, lord of Barbary, who sent him to Constantinople in 1560, to solicit assistance from the Grand Seignior. He returned to Africa with Piali Pasha, and assisted at the battle of Gelves, where he highly distinguished himself. Piali took a great liking to him, made him governor of Tripoli, and in the year 1568 obtained for him the regency or sovereignty of Algiers. In the following year, Uluch Aali conquered the city of Tunis for the Turks ; in 1570 he obeyed the summons of Selim to reinforce the Turkish armada with his galleys, and hereafter we shall see him figure as one of the Porte's principal generals. Further details of his life are to be found in the Epitome de los Reyes de Argel, by Fr. Diego de Haedo, from which we have extracted these particulars.-(Note by Señor Rosell, Historia del Combate nadal de Lepanto, &c., pp. 62-3.)
flocked to the spot in hopes of booty. before the eyes of the besieged. On The Turks, in their hyperbolical style, the 21st of June it was sprung with said that if every one of their fighting terrific effect; the whole city rocked, men threw one of his sandals into the wall fell in ruins, an assault was the moat they would fill it up, and given and resisted with equal valour. might walk into the town. The camp. The combat lasted five hours ; five ing ground of this great army was hundred Italians remained upon the most agreeable. True that the inha- ground, but remained as victors; the bitants had destroyed the gardens and Turks, although five or six times rethe groves of orange and cedar that inforced, were fain to retreat. This before embellished the vicinity, but they triumph redoubled the courage of the had been unable to stop the numerous besieged. Within their shattered wall rivulets that meandered through the they formed a new line of defence, plain, fertilising the soil, and offering composed of casks and bags full of wet delightful refreshment in that burning sand. Two other assaults followed, climate. To defend the town, Astor at intervals of eight and fifteen days, Baglione, the governor, and Marco in the second of which Astor Baglione, Antonio Bragadino, a brave and inde- fighting at the head of his men, fatigable officer, had seven thousand wrenched a Turkish standard from the fighting men, little inured to war, but hands of its bearer. Mustafa was courageous and disciplined.
furious. The wall had fallen, the The besiegers passed a month in ditch was filled, but still the victory fortifying their camp and making their was not his. approaches to the counterscarp. They But the unfortunate besieged, who opened trenches three miles in extent, displayed such heroic courage, were and cut so deep, in some places through now exposed to the horrors of famine. the living rock, that when a man-at- Their provisions expended, they rearms sat on horseback in them, the sorted to the most disgusting aliments; point of his lance was hardly to be dis- these exhausted, their strength failed cerned. Thence their arquebusiers them, though their valour still surincessantly harassed the town. They vived. At last, towards the 20th of also constructed ten forts, of beams, July, the principal citizens represented fascines, and earth, with platforms for to the governor the impossibility of artillery. The besieged, on their part, further defence, and urged him to camade frequent sorties, skirmishing pitulate upon honourable terms. Bagwith the besiegers, interrupting their lione called a council of his captains. works, and habituating themselves to Some of them were for sallying out of those hand-to-hand conflicts which the town and dying with arms in their they afterwards had to maintain on hands; and the result proved that the breaches in their walls. On the theirs was the wisest opinion. But morning of the 19th May, a great others, considering that they had no movement was observed amongst the right thus to leave their fellow-citiTurks, who with fierce shouts waved zens exposed to the fury of the Turks, their lances, pennons, and standards, voted for surrender. The majority and soon seventy-four pieces of heavy coincided, and word was taken to artillery, and four enormous basilisks, Mustafa to send delegates into the thundered against the devoted town. town to arrange terms of surrender. The besieged vigorously replied, This was done; two Turkish officers causing heavy loss to the enemy, and entered Famagusta, and two Venerendering fifteen of their guns useless; tians went into the enemy's camp. but such was their haste to fire that The terms demanded by the besieged they soon ran short of ammunition, were granted, and on the 4th August and the artillerymen were ordered to the keys were given up to Mustafa, fire no shot without the consent of who received them with signs of joy, their captains. The Turks got pos- lauding the valour of the defenders of session of the ditch and counterscarp, the place, and marvelling especially at and opened several mines. Some of the heroic firmness of Bragadino, these were countermined, but this whom he expressed a wish to see and could not be done to all; and one speak with that same day. especially, near the arsenal, was made “Accordingly," says Señor Rosell, “Bragadino, accompanied by Baglione ed, the windows full of richly-attired and other captains, all on horseback, ladies, the squares adorned with triumand attired in his dress of ceremony, phal arches, columns, inscriptions, and with purple tunic and crimson parasol, hieroglyphics; the shore crowded with betook him to the pasha's tent, with a the banners, arms, and plumes of the calm countenance and a tranquil heart, captains and soldiers of half Europe ; neither fearing any risk nor puffed up by day the thunder of salutes, the by the high praise bestowed upon him. rattle of drums, the clang of trumpets, Various discourses passed between by night illuminations and fireworks. Turks and Venetians; but after some "Such great rejoicing," quaintly retime it occurred to Mustafa, or thus marks Señor Rosell, as could not but he disguised his infernal will, to de- be the presentiment of another greater, mand securities for the return of the which Heaven reserved for those who, vessels that were to convey the garri. with lively faith, invoked its holy son from the island. Bragadino re name." The valiant bastard of plied that he was not obliged to give Charles V., whose arrival was the them, because no such condition had signal for a display of enthusiasm been stipulated in the capitulation; which he was soon to justify by his and on that pretext, and others no high deeds, was, says Van der Hamless unjustifiable, the pasha, blind with mer, in his History of Don John of rage, ordered Baglione, Martinengo, Austria, “ of sanguine temperament Quirini, and the others, to be taken and lordly presence, somewhat above from his tent, and perfidiously and in the middle height, of joyous disposihumanly butchered. Bragadino was tion, and inclined to what was just; present at the slaughter of his com- quick of wit, and of a good memory. panions : the blood of his friends He was very vigorous and strong-S0 spurted into his very eyes ; from much so that he swam in armour as that torment he could not exempt if he had nothing on him. He was himself. And who can relate the tor- agreeable and courteous, a great retures reserved for him? Compelled specter of letters and arms, and an to carry gabions full of earth, and to excellent horseman. He had a noble, kiss the ground when he passed be clear, and spacious forehead ; his blue fore his tyrant, he dragged out a pain- eyes were large and lively, with a ful existence until the 17th of August, grave and amorous look; his countewhen, by Mustafa's order, he was nance was handsome, he had little flayed alive, and his skin, stuffed with beard, and was of a light and elegant straw, and suspended from the yard- figure." The command reserved for arm of a galley, was triumphantly this accomplished and martial prince, paraded along all their coasts." who had refused a cardinal's hat to
The conquest of Famagusta is said follow the profession of war, was to have cost the Turks fifty thousand worthy of his high qualities ; since men, and some of their best officers the great days of ancient Rome no fell in the course of the siege. Mus. such fleet had been seen in the Italian tafa left twenty thousand infantry and waters as that now mastered under two thousand horse to guard the island, his orders. There were more than and returned to Constantinople, which three hundred vessels, carrying uphe entered in triumph, to the great wards of eighty thousand men, assemcontentment of Selim, and amidst the bled under the banner of the League, envy of the courtiers. Famagusta in the spacious harbour of Messina. taken, Cyprus had become a Turk- The fighting men amounted to twentyish possession. The republic's only nine thousand, including eight thouhope was now in the fleets of the sand of the famous Spanish infantry.
The Venetian galleys being thinly On the 25th August, Don John of manned, Don John ordered Veniero Austria reached Messina, the point of to take on board four thousand Spanjunction of the allied squadrons, where iards and Italians, which was done, Colonna and Sebastian Veniero anx. although not without some opposition iously awaited his coming, and where and murmuring on the part of the he was received with infinite joy and Venetians. Whilst these and other great magnificence, the streets throng- arrangements were making, the Turk