ish fleet had reached Previsa, and on the 30th September the com· Aali Pasha, having Selim's orders to bined fleet was moored in the spacious

seek and fight the Christians, resolved Albanian harbour of Gomeniza, seto pass into the neighbouring gulf of lected by Don John as convenient to Corinth or Lepanto, a convenient pass a review of the whole of the position, whence he could undertake armada, he himself inspecting some of any expedition that seemed advisable. the vessels, and his generals the others.

When the allied fleet sailed out of It is related by some historians, Messina, the Pope's nuncio stood upon (amongst others by Arroyo and Torthe quay, blessing each vessel as it res Aguilera, both of whom served in quitted the port. Conspicuous amongst the fleet), that upon this occasion, it all was the royal galley, built three being the duty of Juan Andrea Doria years previously at Barcelona, having to inspect the Venetian galleys, Geneits poop covered with delicate carv- ral Veniero refused to allow it, and the ings and ingenious allegories. Don inspection was passed byanother officer, John of Austria was on board this against whom the Venetians were not vessel. All the galleys and ships prejudiced. Afterwards the republican were well supplied with arms, artil- general, either irritated by the contenlery, and ammunition. Besides the tion he had provoked, or in consequence vast number of Spanish, Venetian, of his naturally irascible character, disItalian, and Maltese knights and charged his ill-humour on a captain nobles who served in the fleet, there named Mucio Tortona, who served in were upwards of eighteen hundred the Italian regiments. This officer adventurers, and persons pertaining having got into a dispute with the to the household of Don John himself. crew of a Candian galley, in which An order of battle was published, to he and his soldiers were, the general be constantly preserved, when in mo- ordered his arrest. Mucio resisted, tion as well as in front of the enemy. and the affair ended by Veniero's It consisted of a vanguard, a main having him forcibly seized and bung body and wings, and a reserve. The to the yard-arm of his flagship. Don right wing was commanded by Doria, John considered, as well he might, the centre by Don John, the left by that this act was unjustifiable, and an the proveditore Agostino Barbarigo, insult to his authority, and so great and the reserve by the Marquis of was his anger that he was on the Santa Cruz. At first, circumstances point of hanging Veniero ; but the appeared little favourable to the sight of his white hair and the entreaLeague's formidable armada. The ties of the other leaders appeased him, season was already advanced, and the and he contented himself with forbidallies encountered severe gales, which ding the fine old soldier to appear retarded their progress, and even com- thenceforward at his councils, where pelled them to put in to shore for Barbarigo replaced him. The threat shelter. At last the weather im- sufficed to awe the Venetians, and proved, and on the 27th of September perhaps to prevent other breaches of they cast anchor before Corfu. Here discipline. But the time was close at a council of war was held, and al hand when such jealousies and quarthough some of its members were for rels would be forgotten, and when the half measures, for attacking Turkish sole rivalry of Spaniard and Venetian forts, and suchlike unimportant ope- would be, which should most distinrations, others, -Colonna and Barba- guish himself against the common foe. rigo, and the Marquis of Santa Cruz, On the 5th October the fleet received and especially Don John himself intelligence of the fall of Famagusta, were for going instantly in search of and of the unhappy end of its brave the enemy's fleet, and assailing it, defenders. The news of Mustafa's without a doubt of the victory being treachery and cruelty inspired all, and theirs. This generous ardour and especially the Venetians, with an arenthusiasm communicated itself to all dent desire of revenge. The wind present, and it was resolved to follow was unfavourable to the progress of up the Turk, though he were to take the armada, and for two days it adrefuge in the very heart and citadel of vanced little; but at two hours before his dominions.

daybreak, on the morning of the 7th,

Don John, “ conquering,” says Sefior cision, would have urged the proRosell, “ the opposition of the ele- priety of retreat, “Señores,” replied ments, and his soul moved by an the heroic prince," this is not the irresistible power, gave, to the gene- time for counsels, but combat;" and ral astonishment, the signal to weigh he continued giving his orders. As to anchor." The sun had not long risen Veniero, still crestfallen, and perhaps when the look-out man on board the repentant, our historian says that he royal galley announced a sail in sight, showed symptoms of apprehension, and soon afterwards that he saw the as if he feared disaster ; but it is not whole Turkish fleet. This news was surprising that the irritable soldier, confirmed by others who ascended the who had incurred the disgrace of his rigging, and by Doria, from his divi. chief, should, at such a moment, apsion of the armada; whereupon Don pear sad and gloomy. In the battle John ordered the standard ofthe League he set an example to the bravest, and to be hoisted, and a gun to be fired, in won high praise and distinction. Beannouncement of battle. The whole fore it began, however, Don John fleet broke out into loud acclamations. took an opportunity, when going

The Turks, who had left Lepanto round the fleet in a swift vessel, and the night before, were not less rejoiced encouraging the men by brief but than the Christians at the prospect of appropriate speeches, to address to him action. Their force, increased dur- a few kindly words. Then the prince ing their stay at Lepanto, was not reminded the Venetians of their injuless than one hundred and twenty ries, and offered them revenge. His thousand men, embarked in two address to the Spaniards, as preserved hundred and forty-five galleys, many to us by historians, was admirably of them of twenty-eight and thirty appropriate to the time, circumstances, benches of rowers, seventy galliots, and martial and religious spirit of that and a host of inferior vessels. A age. “My children," he said, "we famous corsair, named Caracush, who have come here to die—to conquer, if had been in the disguise of a fisher. Heaven so disposes. Give not occaman, to reconnoitre the Christian fleet, sion for the enemy to ask us, with reported its strength as much less than impious arrogance, "Where is your it really was either because he had God?' Fight in his Holy name; dead not seen all the vessels, or that he had or victorious, immortality will be made a mistake in counting them, or, yours.” Joyously were the preparaas others assert, because he did not tions for action made, under the eyes wish to discourage his friends. Thus of the chief, and with the stimulus of misinformed, it is not surprising that his exhortations. But as the fleets Aali Pasha, at the head of his numer- approached and deployed, exposing ous and well-manned galleys, made their entire strength to each other's sure of victory. The two leaders, view, their respective commanders therefore, sought each other with a found a new cause of uneasiness. Aali, like eagerness, although some of their beholding the numerous galleys and lieutenants-Doria and Ascanio de la admirable order of his foe, saw at once Corna on the one hand, and Uluch that Caracash had deceived him, and Aali and Perteu Pasha on the other Don John at the same time perceived would have dissuaded their chiefs from how false was the news he had rerisking so great a combat. Siroco, ceived and credited that Uluch Aali viceroy of Alexandria, an officer of and his squadron were detached from much valour and wisdom, opposed the the Turkish armada. But it was too pasha's intention, because, he said, late for the Turk to retreat, even if after the conquest of Cyprus, and the such were his wish ; and as to Don glorious Albanian expedition, he John, although he felt how great was should remain contented with his lau. the hazard of the enterprise, he rels and advantages, and not risk all thought of his father's exploits, says upon the hazard of a general action. Señor Rosell," and fixing his hope in But Aali turned a deaf ear to such God, and his eyes on a crucifix, which counsels. As to Don John, when he always carried with him, he thanked some of his generals, having come on Heaven beforehand for his triumph. board his galley to learn his final de. And as if Heaven favoured him, the


agitation then observable in the waters the whole line closed, and the contest suddenly ceased, and the wind, previ- became general. Don John, recog. ously contrary to our armada, went nising Aali's galley by its standard and about and blew against the enemy's three lanterns, made towards it. The prows -- a change highly favourable pasha was equally eager to meet him, to the Christians." The two fleets and they encountered each other with were nearing each other, when a shot such fury that the prow of Aali's galwas fired by the Turks, to which Don ley, being the highest of the two, John, understanding it as a challenge, thrust its beak as far as the fourth replied by another. Soon afterwards bench of the Spanish vessel. The another shot was exchanged in like shock was terrible, but yet more so manner, and then the prince, placing was the havoc committed by the arhimself, fully armed, upon the prow of tillery and arquebusiers, whilst swords his galley, ordered his trumpets and rang loud on shields and armour, and kettle-drums to sound the combat the waters foamed with the agitaThen he and all the fleet, kneeling tion of the conflict. Meanwhile Siroco, down, prayed devoutly, and received having, by a rapid movement, turned general absolution from the priests the flank of the Christians' left wing, scattered through the squadrons. dashing in with a few galleys between

The Christian fleet was formed, as it it and the land, set fiercely upon Barhad sailed, in three divisions—a centre barigo. Here the Venetians were staand two wings. That of the Turks, tioned, as was well to be known, says which was more numerous, at first Señor Rosell, by the fury with which presented an unbroken line, in the they fought with the murderers of form of a crescent; but on beholding their brethren in Cyprus. Thinking his enemy's order of battle, Aali only of attack and not of defence, they adopted one similar, altering his dis- fought with uncovered faces, careless positions as he advanced. He himself of the shower of darts poured upon commanded the centre, Mehemet Si- them. This temerity cost Barbarigo roco the right, Uluch Aali the left, his life; an arrow entered his left eye, and a number of light vessels formed he had to be taken to his cabin, and a reserve. Before the action com- died three days afterwards. His menced, Aali Pasha, who was an ami nephew, Marino Contarini, hurrying able and humane man, addressed him to assist him when he saw him hard self to the Christian slaves who rowed beset, was also slain, and his galley his galley. “If the day is to be yours," was near being taken, for scarcely any he said, “God grant it you : but be of its defenders remained alive. To certain that if I win it, I will set you all Doria, who commanded the right wing, at liberty; and therefore do your duty was opposed the fierce Uluch Aali, in the work I have intrusted to you, who, with the view of turning his ad

It was noon when the action began versary's flank and taking him in rear, -beneath an azure sky, and with a stood out far to sea, compelling Doria brilliant sun gleaming on weapons and to make a corresponding movement, armour. As the fleets closed, the until the Turks, it is said, began to Turks, according to their practice, set think that he fled, and Don John sent up lond shouts and horrible vocifera- him word not to extend his line so tions, the Christians silently observing much, because by so doing he left the them. The Turkish flag-ship, with centre uncovered. At last the action Aali on board, and some other galleys began on this flank also, by a fierce from the centre of his line, opened the onslaught made by Uluch upon the action with a vigorous cannonade; but flag-ship of the Maltese, the corsair's on approaching four large Venetian old and inveterate enemies. The prior galleys, they received such a terrible and the general, Pietro Justiniano, broadside that they stopped short as made a valiant defence and took four though their prows had struck against Turkish galleys, but he was unable to a wall; and a second discharge sunk cope with seven others that beset him: two of them, causing great confusion the Turks boarded his vessel, and with amongst the others. This was the implacable fury slew all its crew, the first incident of the fight, and so far only persons who escaped being the favourable to the League ; but coon prior himself, with five arrow-wounds,

and two other knights, a Spaniard ish soldier, Alonzo Dávalos by name, and a Sicilian, who were so badly he jumped upon an enemy's galley, hart as to be reckoned amongst the and cleared it with his own arm. His dead. Many were the valiant deeds friends, who came to his assistance, that signalised that episode of the were shocked to behold him covered battle. A French knight, from Bur with blood; but it was that of the foe, gundy, sprang into a galley of the and not a drop of his own had flowed. enemy, killed four of its defenders, On the left, where Barbarigo's wounds and made head against the rest until and Contarini's death cast a momentsuccour came, and the vessel sorren- ary gloom over the prospects of the dered. The prior remained the pri- allies, Federigo Nani took command of soner of a janizary, to whom he of the flag-ship, by Barberigo's express fered a large sum as ransom, and direction, and soon restoring, by his Uluch Aali towed behind him in tri- valour and skill, the courage of his amph the galley and standard of Malta. men, took one of the Turk's best gal

It is not our intention here minute leys, and the corsair Caurali who comly to follow the mancuvres and inci- manded it. The Infidels returned fudents of this great battle, which Senior riously to the charge to revenge this Rosell, in fulfilment of his duty as a reverse, and the Christians met them historian, traces in all its details. Soon, with equal desperation. however, he finds it as impossible to "In the Marquesa, belonging to preserve exact order in his narrative Doria's division, there lay in the caas it was to maintain the strict array bin, sick of fever, a young man of of the contending fleets. The mêlée twenty-four, a Spaniard, born at Albecame complete ; right, left, and een- calá de Henares, of noble but poor tre were mingled together; Spaniards parents, as brave as the bravest, and, with Turks, Africans with Candiots, as regarded understanding, judgment, the galleys of Venice with the galiots and wit, superior to all those of his of Barbary. The most bloody and time, and unequalled, at least up to desperate fight was between the two our day, by any that were to come admirals' galleys. There some of the after him. When he heard that the best knights in Christendom contend- battle was about to begin, he got up ed against Selim's chosen warriors, and requested his captain, Francisco and the renowned infantry of Spain San Pedro, to station him at the most against the picked men of the jani dangerous post; but the captain and zaries. Don John and Aali had each other friends advised him to remain three hundred arquebusiers, and the quiet. Seriores,' he replied, what Turk, moreover, had one hundred would men say of Miguel de Cervanskilful bowmen. The Spanish com- tes? Upon all the occasions that have mander was supported by Colonna hitherto offered to do battle for his and Veniero, the Prince of Parma, majesty, I have served like a good Urbino, and other distinguished lead- soldier, and I will not do less to-day, ers; Aali and Perteu by Caracush although I be sick and fevered.' Heand Saiderbey with two galiots, and was appointed to command twelve ten very strong galleys. Long did the soldiers in the boat, where he found contest last, with fluctuating fortune; himself, as he desired, in the hottest Don John fighting, sword in hand, in of the battle, and, fighting valiantly, the thickest of the peril, and Aali using he received two wounds in the breast. his bow, and displaying great skill When his comrades wished to withand intrepidity. Veniero fought with draw him from the struggle, he vehethe impetuosity of a young soldier; mently replied : It is better for the Colonna worthily maintained the fame soldier to remain dead in battle than of his illustrious name. Perteu Pasha's safe in flight. . . . Wounds upon galley was taken, and he himself dis- the face and breast are stars that appeared-or drowned, according to guide others to the heaven of honour." some accounts--a fugitive, according And he persisted to the last in his to several eyewitnesses of the battle. heroic obstinacy. His captain killed The Prince of Parma, with the Gen- and the combat at an end, he withoese flag - ship, performed prodigies drew to have his wounds dressed. of valour. Followed by a single Span. He was long in recovering, and all

his life he bore an honourable mark the formidable squadrons of the Turks of that famous victory, since he lost were annihilated, Don John went to the use of the left hand, for the succour his right wing, and on his greater glory of the right.'"*

approach the Turks fled. It was four The combat in the centre, between in the afternoon, and there were signs the two groups of galleys headed by of a storm. Uluch Aali, with what Don John and Aali Pasha, had lasted galleys he could collect, made for the fully two hours. The decks were coast of Santa Maura. The greater heaped with dead, the sails, rigging, part of his division took the direction masts, and upper works, swept away of Lepanto, pursued by the allies, who or riddled with balls; it seemed im- made little way, owing to the wearipossible that the surviving combat- ness and scanty numbers of their rowants should bear up longer against the ers, many of these having been taken heat, thirst, and weariness they suf- from their benches to fight. Many of fered from. Twice did the Christians the Turks, however, panic-stricken, reach the mast of Aali's galley, and ran their vessels to the shore, and twice were they driven back with numbers were drowned owing to their heavy loss. The third time they too great haste in jumping overboard. reached the quarterdeck, the last of So great was the terror of those who the janizaries fell, and Aali himself succeeded in landing, that the sight of was wounded in the forehead by a shot a single enemy sufficed to make them from an arquebuss. Then rose a fly by scores. No triumph could loud shout of victory, and the head of be more complete, no defeat more the pasha, cut off, some say by a total, Spanish soldier, others by a galley- Señor Rosell has collected various slave, was testimony to the triumph. remarkable incidents of the fight, and Historians relate that it was set upon feats of individual bravery. On the a pike to exhibit it to the fleet, but authority of Marco Antonio Arroyo, some of the witnesses of the battle say he mentions the valiant conduct of a nothing of this; and Torres of Aguilera woman, by name Maria, surnamed the expressly says that it fell from the Bailadora, or Dancer, who assumed galley-slave's hands into the sea, and male attire and slew many Turks with was no more seen. The point is un an arquebuss, and one, in a hand-toimportant. After the death of the hand contest, with a knife, in reward Moslem chief, who had so nobly done for which exploits Don John allowed his duty, the issue of the battle could her to take her place as a soldier, in hardly be doubtful. Still some of the one of the Spanish tercios, or infantry galleys bravely defended themselves, regiments. Frederico Venusta, a capespecially those opposed to Doria, tain of Spanish artillery, who served whom the Marquis of Santa Cruz had in Doria's galley, had his left hand already gone to support, encountering sorely wounded by a grenade, which Uluch Aali, who was towing the burst just as he was about to throw it Maltese flag-ship, and proudly dis- amongst the enemy. He went to a playing its standard. The renegade galley-slave and desired him to cut did not wait for the Spaniard's attack, off his hand with the knife artillerybut cut loose his prize and precipi- men were wont to carry. The slave tately fled, satisfied with the flag as a lacking courage, Venusta cut it off trophy. Three hundred dead Turks himself, went to the ship's cook, had a were found in the Maltese galley. fowl opened, and thrusting in the The wounded prior, Justiniano, was bloody stump, had it tied, and returnalso there, and by this change in the ed to the fight. A Spanish soldier, fortune of the fight he recovered the wounded in the eye by an arrow, tore crowns he had given to the janizaries, out arrow and eye together, tied a and became the captor of those whose bandage over it, sprang into an captive he had been.

enemy's galley with a single comrade, The fight over in the centre, where killed three Turks with his own hand,

# These two last quotations occur in the prologue to the second part of Don Quixote, and in the Viaje del Parnaso, chap. i.

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