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love, and by the breeding of a dove, &c. Macrobius resembles
the world to an egg, in the vii. book and 16 chap. of his Saturna-
lia. And hence the Syrian gods are called by Arnobius the off-
spring of eggs, by which gods he means the stars. Orpheus had
his opinion from the Phænicians, one of which was this in Athe-
nagaras, that mul proceeded from water, after which he mentions
a great egg split into two parts, heaven and earth.
In the Argonauticks, ascribed to Orpheus, we have these lines,

“In verse he sung the origin of things-
“ How Love, the cause of all things, by his power

“ Creating every thing, gave each his place." And Aristophanes, in his play called the Birds, in a passage preserved by Lucien, in his Philopatris and Suidas,

“ First of all was Chaos and Night, dark Erebus and gloomy Tartarus. There was neither earth, por air, nor heaven, till dusky night, by the wind's power on the wide bosom of Erebus, brought forth an egg, of which was hatched the god of love; (when time began,) who with his golden wings fixed to his shoulders flew like a mighty whirlwind, and mixing with black Chaos in Tartarus' dark shades, produced mankind, and brought them into light. For before love joined all things, the very gods themselves had no existence. But upon this conjunction all things being mixed and blended, æther arose, and sea, and earth, and the blessed abodes of the immortal gods." Grotius. Ibid.

ness.

[448] Gen. i. 2. “And the earth was without form and void.” Tohu, Bohu, which last are words signifying vanity and empti

Thus God was pleased in the first state of the creation to show what the creature is in itself; that in itself it is wholly empty and vain, that its fulness or goodness is not in itself, but in him, and in the communications of his Spirit, animating, quickening, adorning, replenishing, and blessing all things. The emptiness and vanity here spoken of is set in opposition to that goodness spoken of afterwards. Through the incubation of the Spirit of God, (as the word translated moved, signifies,) the Spirit of God is here represented as giving form, and life, and perfection to this empty void and unformed mass, as a dove that sits infuses life, and brings to form and perfection the unformed mass of the egg. Thus the fulness of the creature is from God's Spirit. If God withdraws from the creature, it immediately becomes empty and void of all good. The creature as it is in itself is a vessel, and has a capacity, but is empty, but that which fills that emptiness is the Spirit of God.

As the Spirit of God here is represented as hovering or brooding as a dove, so it is probable when the Spirit of God appeared

in a bodily shape, descending on Christ like a dove ; it was with a hovering motion on his head, signifying the manner in which not only he personally was filled with the fulness of God, but also every individual member of his mystical body. So that this that we have an account of is one instance wherein the old creation was typical of the new. (See note on Eph. iii. 19.)

[398] Gen. i. 27, 28, 29, 30. Covenant with Adam. “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him, male and female created be them; and God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it : and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat; and it was so.”

Here is described the sum of the blessedness that man had in bis first estate. Here is first his inherent spiritual good, which lay in his being created in God's image. Here is the happiness that he had in the favour of God; his blessing of him is a testimony of it. Here is the happiness he had in his intercou rse with God; for his thus talking with him in this friendly man ner is an instance of it. Here is all his external good, which consisted in two thiags: first, in having society, implied in that expression, Male and female created he them, and in those words, Be fruitful and multiply. Here is the sum of their outward good in the enjoyment of earthly good. Here is the possession of the earth, and the enjoyment of the produce of it, and dominion over the inferior creatures in it. These things were evidently given to Adam as the public head of mankind. God in blessing them, evidently speaks to them as the head of mankind. The blessings he pronounces are given him in the name of the whole race, and therefore the favour manifested in blessing them is implicitly given to him as the head of the race. God's making them in his own image, and then blessing them, implies his bestowing those blessings pronounced on the subject blessed, on the condition of its continuing such an excellent subject as he had made it, and as it now stood forth to receive his blessing, or continued in such an happy capacity to enjoy the blessings as it now was. Otherwise the blessing would be in a great measure made void; for in order to men's being happy in the blessing, two things were needful: first, that the enjoyments granted should be good; and secondly, that the subject should be

good, or in a good capacity to receive and enjoy them; therefore both these are doubtless implied in the blessing here pronounced on Adam, which is plainly pronounced on him in the name of the whole race. And therefore, in like manner when Adam is threatened with being deprived of all these in case of his disobedience, Adam must understand it in like manner as a calamity to come on the whole race, and consequently the implicit promise of life, as the confirmation and increase of the blessing, respects also the whole race. Hence the covenant must be made with Adam, not only for himself, but all his posterity.

:

[450] Gen. ii. 2. “ And on the seventh day God ended all his works." The word translated work, is inoxyd, which comes from 785%, angel or messenger, and therefore most properly signifies a work done in the execution of some function to which the workman is appointed, as the angel, messenger, officer, or workman of another; and so is fitly used concerning the work of creation ; which was performed by the Son of God, who is often called the angel of the Lord: He being the Father's great officer, and artificer, through whom he performs all his work, and executes his eternal counsels and

purposes.

[451] Gen. ii. 5. “And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew; for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground." This seems to be observed to teach that all the life that is in the creation is immediately from God, and not from the creature itself: that in itself is wholly lifeless and void, and empty of all perfection. The vegetable life that is in this lower world was immediately from God. Of all the indumerable kinds of principles of life that now are manifest, every one was immediately from God. Though the earth, and the rain, and the cultivation, and husbandry of men be now made use of, yet these living principles were not first owing to them, for they were before them. So it is as to all principles of spiritual life in the spiritual creation.

[397] Gen. ii. 9, and iii. 22, 23, 24. Concerning the Tree of Life. This tree seems manifestly to have been designed for a seal of Adam's confirmation in life, in case he had stood, for two reasons: 1st, because its distinguishing name is the tree of life; and 2d, because by what is said in the latter end of the iï. chapter, there appears to have been a connection by divine appointment, between eating of that tree and living for ever, or enjoying a continued, certain, and everlasting life. But yet here are these dis

ficulties attending such a supposition. If it was so that this fruit was intended as a seal of Adam's confirmation in life, and was by divine constitution connected with confirmed life, then it should seem that it was something kept in store, reserved by God to be bestowed as a reward of his obedience and his overcoming all temptations, when bis time of probation was ended. There seems to be an allusion to this in Rev. xxij. 14. “ Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life." And chap. ii. 7. “To him that overcometh will I give to eal of the tree of life." So that it was not to be come at until the time of his trial was ended, for if he had eat of the tree before his probation was ended, confirmed life would doubtless have been as much connected with it as after he fell, and that would have de. feated God's design, which was that he should not have confirmed life till his obedience was tried ; and if so, why was there not need of cherubim and a flaming sword before, to keep Adam from the tree, before he fell, as well as afterwards ? Whereas there seems to have been nothing to keep him from this tree. The tree was pot forbidden him; for be bad leave to eat of every tree, but only the tree of knowledge of good and evil. And as there was no moral binderance, so there seems to have been no natural force to keep him off: it does not seem to have been out of his reach; for, if so, what occasion was there for placing cherubim and a flaming sword after he fell. The tree does not seem to be hidden from Adam, for, if it was sufficiently secured from him by this means, before be fell, so it was afterwards, and so what need of the cherubim and flaming sword ? From the account, which Moses gives of the place of this tree, that it was in the midst of the garden, it appears probable that it was in the most conspicuous place in the whole garden ; as the tree of life is said to grow in the midst of the street of the beavenly paradise. Rev. xxii. 2. The street of a city is the most public place in it; and that Adam might have it in view to put him in mind of the glorious reward promised to his obedience, to engage him to the greater care and watchfulness, that he might not fail.

The most probable account that is to be given of this matter is this : that the fruit of the tree of life was not yet produced ; but that it was revealed to Adam, that after a while the tree should produce fruit, of which whosoever eat should live for ever; that he might eat of it if he persisted in his obedience; and that if he did not persevere in obedience he would expose himself to death before that time, and so cut himself off from ever tasting of it. The tree' probably made a most lovely and excellent appearance, and sent forth a sweet fragrance, and perhaps was gay in the blossom, promising most excellent fruit.

This tree, as it grew in the midst of the garden, so probably it grew by the river, that ran through the midst of this Paradise, See Rev. xx. 2. Ezek. xlvii. 12.

[469] Gen. ii. 9. and iii. 22—24. On the Tree of Life.

There is not the least probability that every fruit-tree in the garden of Eden was then loaded with ripe fruit all at one time. If so, there would have been no provision made for Adam's subsistence through the year, according to those laws which God had established concerning the trees when he created them ; for, according to those laws, the same fruit was not to be perpetually hanging ; but when the fruit was ripe, the fruit was to be shed, otherwise the seed would not be shed upon the earth in order to a new production, according to Gen, i. 11, 12. “God said, Let the earth bring forth grass ; the herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself upon the earth, and it was so." It is much more probable that it was with the trees of paradise as is represented of the trees that grew on the banks of Ezekiel's river of living waters. It is represented as though there were all sorts of fruit trees, and some yielding their fruit one month, and others another; so that there were ripe fruits newly produced every month of the year, and so a perpetual summer, and also a perpetual spring: some trees were hung with ripe fruit, and others in the blossom, in each month in the year. St. John's vision, Rev. xxii. may be so understood that each single tree bore twelve manner of fruits on different branches; and yet perhaps there is no necessity of so understanding it; and so one sort bore ripe fruit in one month, and another in anoiher; so that the same tree was always in blossom in some part, while some other part was loaded with ripe fruit. But in Ezekiel's vision the variety of fruits seems to be on different trees, because it is said there shall grow all trees for meat.

Corol. This is a confirmation of the supposition, that the angels were not confirmed till Christ had ended his humiliation, and until he ascended into glory. For Christ is the tree of life in the heavenly paradise, in the native country of the angels; just as the tree of which we have been speaking was the tree of life on earth, the native country of men ; and the scriptures give us to understand that this person, who is the tree of life in this heavenly paradise, is angel's food.” Hence we may inser, that the fruit of this tree was the food, by which the angels have their eternal life, or their confirmed life. But as man, who was made under a like covenant of works with the angels, would not have been confirmed, if he had persevered in his obedience, till the tree bad brought forth its fruit, and till the fruit of the tree was ripe; so it is not probable that the angels were confirmed, until Christ, the

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