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are embarrassed by a depreciation in the prices of him powerful medicine, and, under the divine sugar and molasses. On this ground a resolution blessing, in a few days he recovered. When he was brought forward, recommending that the came to his senses, the secret was soon divulged ; government should allow spirits to be made by he had eaten sweetmeats with a relative, and in the planters under certain restrictions. It came the tempting morsel they had hidden a poisonous yesterday under consideration, and occupied drug. This was the second time that similar nearly the whole day. The discussion was con- effects had been produced upon this lad by similar ducted with much courtesy and calmness on both causes. The Hindoos, even though enjoying the sides, before a full and interesting house. The benefits of an English education, would rather a friends of temperance, as you may imagine, rallied son or a brother should pine away as a maniac their strength.

The discussion assumed than bring disgrace upon the family by being a the character of a thorough-going temperance Christian.' debate; and the temperance cause came off quite PAPAL MISSIONS.- The central association triumphantly. The final decision showed only for propagating the gospel, which is not the gospel three or four votes in favour of the resolution ; of the Lord Jesus, is established at Lyons. Its and to the honour of the planters it should be receipts from all quarters of the globe, according said that nearly all were in the majority. I need to the latest report, amounted for the year to not say that we feel greatly cheered by ihis result. £120,184 only. More than seven-tenths of this An important advance has been ade. We have amount was derived from France herself, viz., heard many fears that the distillery would be let £74.382. The whole of Italy, including Savoy, loose among us; but the danger is now over, at yielded but £15,920; and outof the empire of Great Jeast for years to come. And not only so, the Britain, inclusive of its colonies, but £4,934 ; of discussiou will have its influence on public senti- which £3,191 was extracted from oppressed Írement, in promoting the cause of temperance land. The expenditure of the society amounted throughout the community." In Jan., 1850, to £129,565, the particulars of which are as folwhen the census of the population of the seven lows: in Europe, £20,087 ; in Asia, £40,786 ; in islands was taken, it was found to amount to Africa, £10,528 ; in America, £30,291, and in 4:35. They contained 5 English schools, with Oceanica, which comprehends New Zealand, 488 pupils; 4 high schools, with 202 pupils ; Australia, the Sandwich Islands, &c., £16,002. and 540 primary and common schools, with 16,620 SYRIA.---The papal patriarch has taken up pupils; in all, 549 schools and 16,260 pupils. Of his residence in Jerusalem, and opened a hospital those schools 437 were protestant, and the rest under the management of the so-called sisters of Romanist : these last having 2,359 pupils. St. Joseph : it makes up two and twenty beds, Owhyhee had 25,864 inhabitants ; Oahu, 25,410; and is supported by voluntary contributions. The Maui, 21,047 ; Kaui, 6,956; Molokai, 3,540; individuals admitted are Romanists, Greeks, Niihua, 714 ; and Lanai, 604.

Copts, and Mussulmans. The in-patients from BENGAL.- Church Missionary Society's Mis- Nov. 1 to Dec. 1 last were 18, and the outsion.-Of the six missionaries sent into this im- patients prescribed for, 427, among whom were portant field during the year 1850, two have been some Bedouins of the desert. The Propaganda appointed to the new Missionary College at Agra, in Rome lays, however, the greatest stress upon and one has been sent into the Punjaub. At the the establishment of a school or seminary for native end of the year the total number of labourers em- boys, and lias commended this point to the patriployed by the society was--ordained missionaries arch's particular attention. An experienced in active service, 34; European and Indian-born French missionary in these parts, of the name of lay assistants, 18; and native lay assistants and Dequevouvillier, has been appointed his chanschoolmasters, 279; making a total of 331. They cellor. There are twelve candidates for orders are distributed among 25 stations. During the in training at Gazir, on the Lebanon. The year there were baptized 79 adults and 405 chil- sisters of St. Joseph are active bodies; three of dren. The number of communicants was 1,072. them are giving instruction to 120 girls at JeruThe number of seminaries and schools was 93, and salem, among whom there are 20 Greeks and 10 the individuals attending them were 5,289. The Copts': three others of this order have a school at aggregate of native Cbristians connected with the Jaffa, which is attended by 65 girls; and others mission was 6,200, of whom in Calcutta 1,119, are located in the island of Cyprus, where they Burdwan 704, and Krishnagar 1,517. The bin are engaged in attending to the sick and edudrances which lay across the path, both of the mis- cating the young. The number of Romanist sioparies and the converts in India, may be inferred establishments in the Holy Land is 65; namely, from a solitary fact related by the rev. Mr. Hassell 21 monasteries and convents, 10 schools, 28 in a recent communication : “ One of the three churches, and 11 hospitalsat least according to converts from Dam-Dum, who were baptized in papal returns, which state also that there are 102 1848, and were pupils in the English school, was priests, 67 lay-brothers, 12,122 Romanists, and absent from his class for several days without 694 children educating in Palestine, where they leave; and it was found upon inquiry that he had have 16 parish-districts. All these establishments been to visit his heathen relatives. When he are maintained by external resources, the amount returned, his countenance was changed, his eyes of which has much fallen off'; for Spain, which were inflamed and glistening, with now and then used to contribute £12,000 yearly, does not now a vacant, rolling motion; his whole system seemed send £600 to £800 ; and Portugal, which formerly agitated; he spoke but little, and either sat súl- supplied £8,000, has ceased to help them with any lenly by himself in his class, or paced the room funds whatever. France, Austria, and Bavaria, violently. Mr. Sandys (the head of the school) however, continue to make liberal contributions. having had experience in such cases before, gave Of Mr. Valaga, the Latin patriarch, the rev. J.

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C. Reichardt writes, on his arrival at Jerusalem, | the knowledge and truth that we suffer trouble for ; after being five weeks on his voyage from Eng- and begin to repent that ever we began to favour or land: “Our fellow-passengers happened to be embrace the truth; and wish also that we had used the Latin patriarch of Jerusalem and several ourselves as other men did ; and then, to have suffered ecclesiastics, who accompanied him from Italy. with other men the common lot and fortune of the

As we glided along, with mounts Lebanon, Carmel, the mountains of Galilee, Samaria, and world, and not thus to have been given to a singular Judea full in view, I had now and then a friendly knowledge of God's word, which bringeth with it a conversation with our fellow-travellers, who singular hatred and punishment in this world. Such manifested a great interest in all they saw; and I is our nature, if we be by afflictions and troubles but for asked the patriarch whether he believed these a day's space made like unto Christ, we think it too countries would ever again be inhabited by the long ; but if we be by sin for all our lifetime made like Jews. He replied in the negative, as he thought unto the devil, we think the time too short, and wish the prophecies referring to Israel's restoration had longer to live, because we would longer work and debeen fulfilled in their return from Babylon. This light in sin and abomination. Great and heinous is led to an amicable discussion on the subject, in which all the priests took a lively part, while my well-doing we judge too long; and all time spent in

our offence in this respect : for a little time spent in English bible, in the hands of the patriarch, was the law and testimony to which we referred as our evil-doing we judge too short. All labours and pains authority.” With regard to the state of the be too little, if they be bestowed in worldly things ; English mission in the Holy City, Mr. R. ob. but if they be appointed to heavenly things (be they serves, “There is no reason to feel disappoint- never so few and slender) we think them too much. ment. The work indeed is difficult, and we There is not sea nor land, with all the perils within must not at once expect great results: but I have them, but men dare adventure both their goods and already conversed with many Jews, either in their lives to win increase of worldly goods ; but to Hebrew, German, or English, and found them win towards God and godliness scarce one of & great friendly and reasonable. I stood by them to-day (Nov. 28), near the western wall, where they wail many without danger will labour or take pains to gain and pray; I felt and sympathized with them, and it. So doth the prophet say in this place, that "he they listened to my words, addressed to them in had cleansed his heart in vain ;” because he saw Hebrew, with great attention, because they felt cleanliness and virtue persecuted, and filth with inithat I spoke to them sincerely, and with concern quity honoured and exalted. Christ, in the gospel of for their best interests. They said to me, 'All St. John, perceiving that, when virtue and well-doing the words you have uttered are words of truth.' should be troubled, men would wax weary of wellI have also visited all the members of our little doing and virtue, he said unto his disciples, “ Rememcommunity, both Jewish and Gentile Christians, ber, when they come, that I spake of them, and warned and am glad to find there is a nice spirit among them, which, by God's grace, may be cultivated. you before."--Bp. Hooper. All are much attached to the bishop and Mr. Nicholayson; and the attendance on Sundays, both morning and afternoon, shows that they take a

Poetry. delight in going to the Lord's house on his holy

SACRED SONNETS. THE ORIENTAL CHURCHES.–The whole re

No. XXXII. view of the protestant missions at Constantinople and in Asia Minor exhibits the most decided marks

BY MRS. PENDEREL LLEWELYN. of divine interposition ; and the entire field stands (For the Church of England Magazine.) out to view as one of the most hopeful and interesting which the world is now presenting for morning.”—Ps. xxx. 5.

"Heaviness may endure for a night, but joy cometh in the missionary cultivation. Besides important tours

FADETH the grey mist in the early light: made by the members of the mission, the many Pale stars drop one by one away : visits of the native helpers, as well as the wide- The glorious sun breaks out with cheerful ray, spread communion of native converts with the And heaven's own choristers' melodious flight people, have all been made an important means of Filleth the air with warblings of delight. diffusing extensively evangelical influence and Sorrow and gloom no more the spirit sway: interests. Ten distinct protestant churches have Their darkness lessons with the approach of day : been formed. ... Temperance has become the Faith gleams around in purity most bright, distinctive mark of a protestant; and with the first And hope, with heavenly aspect, sheweth where serious attention to the gospel there is renuncia- All earth-born vapours fade, before the sun tion of all intoxicating drinks. The people are

Of that almighty love, boundless and high, learning to venerate gospel truth.

That ransomed man, and bade the soul prepare

To meet his searching and all-healing eye,
H. S.

With countless hosts before Jehovah's throne.

Llangynwyd Vicarage.

day.”

The Cabinet. Max's EstimATE Of Truth.-We be admonished HUGHES, 12, Ave-Maria Lane, St. Paul's; and to be

London: Published for the Proprietors, by JOHN that our nature is to be offended by and by with trou- procured, by order, of all Booksellers in Town and Country. bles for the glory of God. And even as we be unquiet

PRINTED BY ROGERSON AND TUXFORD, with the troubles, so be we inconstant and unstable in

246, STRAND, LONDON.

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DEATHS OF EMINENT CHRISTIANS. to presage a year before he died, and therefore

prepared bis oil, that he might be admitted in due No. XIX.

time to the bride chamber. That of qualis vita,

&c., was truly verified in him; for, as he lived, so BISHOP ANDREWS*.

died be. As his fidelity in his health was great,

so increased the strength of his faith in his sick(Died 1626, aged 71).

His gratitude to man was now changed LANCELOT Andrews was bishop of Winchester. into his thankfulness to God ; his affability to inBy his learning and devotion the church of Christ cessant and devout prayer and speech with bis mas much blessed.

Creator, Redeemer, and Sanctifier; his laborious Having faith!ully served his generation, let us studies to his restless groans, sighs, cries, and pow see him dying. He was not often ill, and tears; bis hands labouring, his eyes lifted up, and but once (till his last sickness) in thirty years be his heart beating, and panting to see the living fore the time he died, which was at Downham, God, even to the last of his breath. in the Isle of Ely, the air of that place not agree

of this reverend prelate, I may say, his was a ing with the constitution of his body. But there life of prayer : a great part of five hours every day be seemed to be prepared for his dissolution, say- he spent in prayer and devotion to God. After ing oftentimes in the sickness, “ It must come the death of his brother, Thomas Andrews, whom once, and why not here?” and at other times, he loved dearly, he began to reckon of his own, before and since, he would say, “The days must which he said would be in the end of summer or come, when, whether we will or nill, we shall say the beginning of winter. And, when his brother, with the preacher, 'I have no pleasnre in them Nicholas Andrews, died, he took that as a cer(Eccles. xii. 1). "Of his death he himself seemed tain warning of his own death; and from that

• From “ Last Hours of Christian Men; or an Account time till the hour of bis dissolution' he spent all his of the Deaths of some eminent Members of the Church of time in prayer. In his last sickness he continued England;" by the rev. H. Clissold, M.A. London : Society when awake to pray audibly, till bis strengih for Promotiog Christian Knowledge.

failed, and then, by lifting up liis eyes and hands, No. 938.

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VOL. XXXII.

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OR CONCISE AND POPULAR EXPLANATIONS OF
THE CONTROVERTED PORTIONS OF THE BOOK
OP COMMON PRAYER.

CONFIRMATION

SERVICE,

AND

THE

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showed that he still prayed; and then, when both | heartily thank our heavenly Father, that he hath voice, and eyes, and hands failed in their office, called me to this state of salvation, through Jesus his countenance showed that he still prayed and Christ our Saviour. And I pray unto God to give praised God in his heart, till it pleased God to me his grace, that I may continue in the same receive his blessed soul to himself. It is said unto my life's end." "Thirdly, in God the Holy that after his death his manuscript prayers were Ghost, who sanctifieth me, and all the elect found so soiled by usage, and so stained with people of God.” tears, that they were scarcely readable.

Now, with reference to the answer to the second REFLECTION.— There are few things relating question, so far as regards that vital union with to death which so evidently manifest the divine Christ which includes justification (Rom. viii. 1) care for our souls, as the many solemn warnings and sanctification (2 Cor. v. 17), that is the being which God gives us by the successive removal of made a member of the mystical church of Christ, a relatives, friends, and neighbours. For every child of God by being actually “led by the death, of which we hear, preaches a most for- Spirit of God” (Rom. viii. 14), and consequently cible sermon from

“ Be ye also (Rom. viii. 17) an actual heir of everlasting sal. ready."

vation; or, in other words, the being “inwardly and spiritually," and really and truly, made "a

member of Christ, the child of God, and an LITURGICAL REMARKS:

inheritor of the kingdom of heaven;" the homily on Fear of death tells us that it is "a true Christian man" who " is the very member of Christ, the temple of the Holy Ghost, the son

of God, and the very inheritor of the everlasting BY THE REV. C. H. DAVIS, M.A., kingdom of heaven" (part i. p. 83). The comOf Wadham College, Oxford; Chaplain of the munion service also speaks of faithful communiStroud Union, Gloucestershire.

cants as being assured that they “are very mem.

bers incorporate in the mystical body of” God's No III.

Son, which is the blessed company of all faith.

ful people.” Furthermore, the 11th of the ThirtyTHE CATECHISM AND THE OCCASIONAL SERVICES; OR

nine Articles expressly affirms that we are justified REMARKS ON CERTAIN CLAUSES IN THE CATECHISM,

MARRIAGE, “ by faith only;" and the 27th, mindful of the VISITATION, BURIAL, AND COMMINATION SERVICEST. scripture truth that we are “ the children of God The next subject for consideration will be certain pressly affirmed also in the concluding address of

by faith in Christ Jesus” (Gal. iii. 26)—as is ex. portions of the church catechism, the service for the office of adult baptism, where the newly-bapconfirmation, and the offices for the celebration of tized persons are said to have been “ made the holy matrimony, visitation of the sick, and burial children of God and of the light, by faith in Jesus of the dead, together with the commination Christ*, and that “as many as are led by the service. The first point to be discussed is, there- Spirit of God, they are the sons of God” (Rom. foreI. The church catechism. It has been objected forgiveness of sin, and of our adoption to be the

viii. 14), states that by baptism “the promises of that the catechism, taken in its “naked verbality,” “holds out the doctrine of universal sal- and sealed” (šee Acts ii. 38, xxii. 16; Gal. iii

.

sons of God by the Holy Ghost, are verily signed vation;" also that the latter portion of it, respect, 26, 27). That thereis a sacramental connexion being the sacraments, called " the sacramental tween the ordinance of baptism, and the privilege part,” is full of Romish “absurdities.”

of being “made a member of Christ, the child of With respect to the former of these objections, the portions of the catechism which have been that in the thanksgiving after baptism we pray that the child supposed to lie open to the charge are the second,

may be” hereafter " an inheritor of” God's "everlasting the fourth, and the latter portion of the sixth kingdom" of future glory (Matt. xxv. 1; Luke xvii. 21), and

therefore that it must be of the visible kingdom here on earth answers, which stand thus : “My godfathers and that the child was in baptism actnally “made" an "ingodmothers in my baptism; wherein I was made heritor;" and that this agrees with the scripture, "we a member of Christs, the child of God, and an receiving a kingdom" (Heb. xii. 28), "hath any inheritance inheritorg of the kingdom of heaven.” “ Yes in the kingdom of Christ and of God” (Ephes. v. 5); and verily; and by God's help so I will. And I that “inheritor of the kingdom of heaven" means, therefore

, one who has been put in possession of membership with • An Exact Narrative of the Life and Death of Bp. An. Christ's visible church on earth (see Baylee's Institutions, pp. drews, 1650 ; reprinted 1817, &c.

77-79, Prophetic Herald, 1845, vol. i. p. 312 and 461); and † We feel bound to repeat, with all respect for our obliging that it refers to Christians as "members one of another" contributor, that to several of his assertions we by no means (Rom. xii. 5). However, the episcopal divines at the Savoy Conassent, and that, therefore, we do not make ourselves respon- ference in 1661-2 asserted the term “ inheritor" to be here sible for all his opinions.--Ed.

equivalent to "heir" (Cardwell, p. 357). And the scripture It is not said "a" child, but “the” child of God; and saith, “if children, then heirs” (Rom. viii. 17); "heirs of probably for this reason, viz., all mankind are, in oue sense, the kingdom which” God " hath promised to them that love

the offspring of God” (Acts xvii, 28, 29), and baptism is a him” (James ii. 5). And the office of private baptism speaks sign whereby Christian men are discerned from others that be of the child as "being born again, and being made an heir of not christened (27th article), and an ordinance for visibly everlasting salvation.". desiguating them as}" his own” children in a peculiar sense. Hooker states, in his Discourse on Justification, that "by

$ It has been argued that the word “inberitor" is differ- faith we are incorporated into" Christ (8. 6). In book v. c. ent from "beir," and implies actual and present possession ; 67, s. 1, he seems to refer it to baptism. This remark of bp. and, in this particular place, one who is put in actual posses Jewel's will

, perhaps, explain the apparent discrepancy: "By sion of the outward privileges of the present manifestation of our faith we are incorporate or made one body with Jesus " the kingdom of heaven," which like the field and the drag- Christ our Lord. Afterwards this incorporation is assured Det, includes both good and bad (Matt. xiii, 24, 37, 47); for unto us and increased in our baptism."

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God, and an inheritor of the kingdom of heaven,” | inheritor of the kingdom of heaven,” " heir of is apparent from these passages of scripturc: 1 everlasting salvation” (sce Rom. viii. 17, James Cor. xii. 12-14; Gal. iii. 26, 27 with Rom. viii. ii. 5), the inheritance being conditionally made 17; Mark xvi. 16. But that the sacrament of over, visibly signed and sealed by baptism (Mark baptism confers only the “visible signing and xvi. 16); in other words, “a member of the sealing," the conditional making over, of this visible church of Christ-or the Christian churchblessing to the penitent believer, must be clear a child of the Christian covenant, and an heir of to any unbiassed student of scripture and of our the privileges of Christ's kingdom upon earth”*. church formularies*.

According to the old theological and ecclesiastical If, then, the terms of the catechism be under- language, wherein the sign was often put for the stood as referring to the inward and spiritual" thing signified, and likewise the name and effects reception of these blessings, they must be taken of the one were attributed to the othert, so the to mean that in baptism the child was condi- church, wishing to make no separation between tionally "made” (sce Hebrews iii. 6, 14+) “a the name and profession and the inward reality, member of Christ, the child of God, and an in- | leads the child to maintain his claim to all that beritor of the kingdom of heaven," and that is represented by the sacramental sign and seal; be becomes entitled to the actual possession of and leaves it to him to examine himself, and also to them on his falilment of the baptismal vow. the catechist to teach him to examine” himself Thos rev. E. Bickersteth argues from scripture“ whether” he “be in the faith” (2 Cor. xiii. 5) that with " justice and scriptural warrant our really and truly, or only nominally and profeschurch applies the words of our catechisru to all sedly; whether be be a Christian inwardly and the baptized. They are, in an important sense, as spiritually, or only “outwardly and visibly” brought into covenant with God openly in the (see Rom, ii. 29). The catechism evidently sight of his charch, members of Christ, children

assumes the catechumen to be what he ought to of God, and inheritors of the kingdom of heaven; be, viz, a true Christian, and to be living in the and in the assurance of these blessings sealed to habitual exercise of prayer and praise, as is evithem in baptism, are pledged to repentance and dent from the fourth answer. And upon the faith, to which, and to the increase of which, same principle he is charitably assumed, in the God's previous grace then assured to them is á

second answer, to be a member of Christ and the mighty help. Let them truly repent and believe, child of God. For, upon that hypothesis, he would and then the blessings are truly and fully rea- of course have actually realized by faith and so have lized” (Companion to the Baptismal Font, pp. entered upon the actual possession of the privi95, 96). In like manner in rev. C. Bridges leges which were visibly signed and sealed to him “ Church Catechism explained,” we read as fol. at bis baptism. And it is, consequently, the cate

“How were you made a member of Christ, chist's obvious duty to urge and to lead him to &c., in baptism? Because by baptism I obtained self-examination upon all these points, and to a title to these blessings, and may lay claim to urge him to search and to see whether he really them by faith. Gen. xvii. 7, 10; Rom. ix. 4. be so or nots. This line of reasoning is equally What is meant by your being made in baptism applicable to the collect for Christmas day. a member of Christ, &c. ? Because I was not * In John xv. 2, 6, we read of unfruitful " branches in" born so. Ephes. ii. 3” (pp. 4, 5. Compare rev.

Christ. The Jews were outwardly and visibly by ceremonial C. Bridges' • Sacramental Instruction" c. iv. pp. consecration children of God (Deut

. xiv. 1, 2), to whom per68, 69, note). To the like effect speaks rev. c. tained an ecclesiastical" adoption” (Rom. ix

. 4), and who

“ children of the kingdom" (Matt. viii. 12), though Simeon in his “Horæ Homileticæ” vol. ix. No. many of them would perish-a kingdom now extended to the 966, p. 395. See also rev. J. N. G. Armytage's gentiles (Matt. ixxi. 43)--being," children.... of the cover work on the subject, pp. 92, 93). The writer nant” (Acts iii. 25), even the covenant of circumcision” of this paper, however, thinks that the words (Acts viì. 8). admit of a more simple interpretation, viz., that Augustine is quoted as saying that sacraments have “ a cer:

† Thus in the Homily on Common Prayes and Sacraments they refer to the ecclesiastical standing of the tain similitude of those things whereof they be sacraments," catechumen, 1. e., to his standing." in the eye and of this similitude they do for the most part receive the of the church" (Hooker); and that they are names of the self-same things they signify” (p. 313). So abp. consequently, to be understood as meaning that Cranmer says, ".We use daily to call sacraments and figures in baptism he was “outwardly and visibly, '

by the names of the things that be signified by them, although ecclesiastically and professedly, 'made a member they be not the same things indeed.” So bp. Jewel, “ Be. of Christ (see John xv. 2, 6), the child of God represent, they be oftentimes termed by the names of the

cause of this likeness which they have with the things they (see Deut. xiv. 1, 2; Rom. ix. 4), and an things themselves." So abp. Whitgift, “There is such a

similitude between the signs and the thing signified, that • Dr. John Mayer in 1630 writes thus : “The right under they are in scripture usually called by the names of those standing then of this is, that in our baptism we are sacra- things whereof they be sacraments; as bread, the body of mentally or instrumentally, made the children of God; and Christ; and water, regeneration." And so again, the Westreally and truly when we are together baptized with the Holy minster Confession, " There is in every sacrament a spiritual Ghost."

relation, or sacramental union, between the sign and the † “ We are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the begin- thing signified; whence it comes to pass, that the names and ning of our confidence stedfast unto the end” (Heb. iii. 14). effects of the one are attributed to the other” (c. 27, s. 2). That privileges are often spoken of as actually conferred, Bishop Mant well observes that catechizing can only be while they are only conditionally promised, would appear duly performed “not by merely teaching the catechism to from Gen. xv. 18 compared with Numb. xiv. 28, 30, 34. And our children by rote, but, as the church provides, by diliso in 1 Sam. xi, 14, 15, it is said that they "made Saul king,” gently instructing them, and examining them in it. The though it had been previously said in chap. x. 1, 21, 24, that duty of the minister therefore is, not only to put the queshe was the king.

On another portion of the prayer book the tions to the children, and to receive their answers, in the preSavoy conference divines in 1661 said, “The condition needs scribed form of words ; but it is to render them assistance not to be expressed, being always necessarily understood” towards understanding it, and to be satisfied that they do (Cardwell, p. 361).

understand it” (Clergyman's Obligations, c. v. pp. 71, 72).

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