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III. The intentions of his providence carried into effect by the A.M. 2484. ministration of a heavenly hierarchy.8
B.C. 1520. IV. The heavenly hierarchy, composed of various ranks and orders, possessing different names, dignities, and offices.
V. An apostacy or defection in some rank or order of these powers ;10 of which Satan seems to have been one, and perhaps chief.11
VI. The good and evil powers or principles, equally formed by the Creator, and hence equally denominated “sons of God;” both of them employed by him in the administration of his providence ; and both amenable to him at stated courts, held for the purpose of receiving an account of their respective missions. 12
VII. A day of future resurrection, judgment, and retribution, to all mankind.13
VIII. The propitiation of the Creator, in the case of human transgressions, by sacrifices,14 and the mediation and intercession of a righteous person.to
Several of these doctrines are more clearly developed than others : In what yet I think, says our author, there are sufficient grounds for deducing developed. the whole of them. Some critics may, perhaps, conceive that the different names by which the heavenly host are characterised may be mere synonyms, and not designed to impart any variety of rank or order. Yet the names themselves, in most instances, imply distinctions, though we are not informed of their nature. Dinge (memitim), destinies, or destroyers, ministers of death, cannot possibly apply to all of them, and appear to be nearly synonymous with the Mógoro Aigui, or Parcee, of the Greek and Roman writers. The term itself, indeed, is obviously used in a limited and appropriate sense, in ch. xxxiii. 23, and is distinctly opposed to bukso (malacim), angels ; Diyobo (melizim), intercessors; and 3* (alep), chiliad, or thousand :
As his soul draweth near to the grave,
An INTERCESSOR,-one of THE THOUSAND. The general term for the whole of these different ranks appears to Heavenly be bryty (kedosim), SANCTI, or HOLY ONES; Dany (obedim), “ministers hierarchy. or servants,” seems to convey in every instance in which it occurs, a subordinate idea, in office as well as in name, to buyers (malacim), “ angels, thrones, or princedoms.” 75 (alep), “the chiliad, or thousand,” distinctly imports a particular corps or class; and is probably denominated by a rule common to most countries and
8 Chap. i. 6, 7; iii. 18, 19; v.1; xxxiii. 10 Chap. iv. 18 ; xv. 15. 22, 23.
11 Chap. i. 6-12; ii. 2–7. '9 As obedim, servants; malacim, angels; 12 Chap. i. 6, 7 ; ii. 1. melizim, intercessors ; memitim, destinies 13 Chap. xiv. 13, 14, 15; xix. 25—29 ; or destroyers; alep, the chiliad or thou- xxi. 30 ; xxxi. 14. sand; kedosim, SANCTI, the heavenly 14 Chap. i. 5 ; xlii. 8. saints or hosts generally. See chap. iv. 15 Chap. xlii. 8, 9. 18; xxxiii. 22, 23 ; v. 2; xv. 15.
A.M. 2484. languages, from the number of which it consisted, -as militia, B.C. 1520. centurion, decemvir, heptarch, tithingman.
Mr. Good proceeds to inform us that the same general belief has descended in Arabia, to the present day; and forms a distinct and prominent doctrine of the Alcoran ; which he exemplifies at considerable length ; and then shows that a similar belief was common to all the nations of the East, from whom it descended to the Greeks, and is especially adverted to by Hesiod, who calculates the whole number of heavenly guards, or deputies, appointed to watch over the earth, at thirty thousand: Op. et Dies, I. 246. With this passage he compares the strikingly similar and well-known description of Milton, Par. Lost, IV. 477, but derived from a superior authority.
Millions of spiritual creatures walk the earth
Unseen, both when we wake and when we sleep, &c. The source, says our author, from which these lines of Milton are derived is the Bible; and it is of far more consequence to us that the doctrine they develop pervades the Bible, than that it pervades any other work; and especially that it runs through the whole of the Scriptures, both Jewish and Christian, from Genesis to the Revelations—there being scarcely a book which has not a reference to itand without a single caution or hint that the language employed is merely figurative, or designed to convey any other than the obvious and popular idea which must necessarily have been attached to it, by those to whom it was delivered. Thus especially, Coloss. i. 16, in which we have, in few words, a description of invisible, as well as of visible beings, inhabiting the earth, and the different orders of which the hierarchy consists: “For by him were all things created that are in heaven, and that are IN EARTH, VISIBLE and INVISIBLE, whether THRONES, or DOMINIONS, or PRINCIPALITIES, or POWERS.' Whence Milton again, Par. Lost, V. 600:
Hear all ye angels, progeny of light,
Thrones, dominations, princedoms, virtues, powers. cy in The doctrine of an apostacy among the celestial orders, as ascribed
to the patriarchal religion from the poem before us, is derived from
Behold! he cannot confide in his servants,
What, then, are the dwellers in houses of clay?
Behold! he cannot confide in his ministers,
And the heavens are not clear in his sight,
Where, observes Tyndal, “ under the name of the hevens, under- A.M. 2484. standeth he the aungels :” on which account the Alexandrine version B.C. 1520. gives AXTPA Òè oux dépéus tra—" the stars are not clean,” — i.e. “the MORNING STARS.” It is, in truth, under this precise image that the same fact is a third time referred to in the speech of Bildad; Ch. xxv. 5. though, for want of due attention, it has seldom been understood to have this reference:
Behold! even the moon-and it abideth not.
How much less man, a worm ! &c.
Concerning the doctrine of an universal resurrection and retribution, Resurrecthe poem, upon a cursory view, may in many places appear to be at home of the variance with itself; for there are several passages which at first sight seem to point to an opposite conclusion: and hence a cloud of learned and excellent men in all ages, from St. Chrysostom and St. Ambrose, among the fathers, to Le Clerc, Reiske, Vorgel, Michaelis, Warburton, Geddes, and Stock, among modern commentators, have denied that any such doctrine is fairly to be collected from the poem as a whole. The question is, therefore, entitled to be examined with minute attention.
It must be admitted that the only person amidst all the interlocutors who distinctly alludes to the subject, either on the one side or the other, is Job himself: and it certainly appears not a little extraordinary that none of his companions when reminding him, in succession, of the advantages of real contrition, and a restoration to the favour of the Almighty, shouid, even in the remotest manner, direct his attention to a future as well as to a present reward: and it is hence, perhaps, but fair to conceive that the doctrine of an after-state was no more in universal reception in the last of what may be denominated the patriarchal ages than it was among the Jews at the advent of our Saviour, and that the friends of Job did not themselves accede to it. Yet, in opposition to such a conclusion, there are two or three passages in the different speeches of Job which distinctly refer to it as a doctrine in general acceptation, and admitted by his companions themselves. But let us trace the principal passages which have any relation to the subject, in the succession in which they occur: and, in order to our reconciling the wide difference they exhibit, it should be constantly borne in mind that they are only brought forward by a man who, in the midst of extreme bodily pain, and the most complicated mental affliction that ever fell to the lot of any one, is perpetually agitated by every change of contending
A.M. 2484. emotions; hope, fear, confidence, despondency, indignation, tenderB.C. 1520. ness, submission, and triumph; each abruptly breaking upon the
other, and frequently hurrying him away from his habitual principles to an utterance of transitory thoughts, urged by transitory feelings.
The following are the chief passages against the existence of a future life:
CHAP. XIV. 15–22.
CHAP. XVI. 22.-CHAP. XVII. 1.
CHAP. XVII. 11.
CHAP. XXX. 24, 25.
Upon all these passages it may be observed, that they rather refer to an insensibility or dissipation of the soul upon death, than to the question of a re-existence or resurrection at some future period: and hence they cannot strictly be said to annihilate this latter doctrine. In the midst of his deepest despondency, as expressed in these extracts, the speaker still alludes to his hopes, though to hopes which, at the immediate moment, he felt incapable of cherishing; still proving, however, that, even on such occasions, the DOCTRINE itself was known to him, and existed before him, and had been agitated by him, although his fears or his sufferings impelled him at the time to relinquish it. It should also be observed, that, except the last of these passages, they are all uttered in the earliest part of his affliction, when the disease itself appears to have raged most violently, and the reproaches of his companions to have been most bitter. From chap. xix. he seems, in a considerable degree, to have recovered possession of himself: A.M. 2484. he is conscious of his superiority over the speeches urged against B.C. 1520. him; and, for the most part, exchanges his exclamations and complaints for sound logical reasoning; and from this period, the only relapse into a state of despondency and disbelief, in any way discoverable, is contained in the last quotation.
The following are the chief passages in favour of a future existence:
CHAP. XIV. 10–15.
Thou shalt yearn towards the work of thy hands.
CHAP. XIX. 23—29.
Therefore beware of its judgment.