India; Or, Facts Submitted to Illustrate the Character and Condition of the Native Inhabitants: With Suggestions for Reforming the Present System of Government, 第 2 巻
Smith, Elder & Company, 1832
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abuses accounts allodial allodial right amount ancient assessment authority Bareilly Bengal Bengal Government Canara Cass Chitty causes ceded districts Chitty's civil Coimbetoor collected collector Commissioners common conquered conquest consequence Court of Directors cultivation Cutchery Decoity district duties effect embezzlements encrease escheat established estates Europe European evil exactions existing expence extent extortion feodal fraud grant habits Hindoo Hyder Aly improvement India inhabitants institutions Jaghire Jenm Jenmkars judicial Jumma justice labour landed property landlords lease lord Madras Mahomedan Malabar Malguzar Meerasseedars Meerassy ment metayer Moradabad Mul Guenies Mussulman native nature Nayr occupancy officers oppression Pagodas Pags permanent persons possession prietor principles produce proof proprietary right proprietors provinces public revenue records Regulation rent rent-free Revenue Board revenue servants Rupees Ryots Ryotwary settlement soil sovereign superior Tacitus Tehsildars tenants tenures tion Tippoo usages vernment vested Vide Vol village whilst whole Zemindars
297 ページ - The labour of his body, and the work of his hands, we may say, are properly his. Whatsoever, then, he removes out of the state that nature hath provided and left it in, he hath mixed his labour with, and joined to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his property.
297 ページ - Whatsoever then he removes out of the state that nature hath provided and left it in, he hath mixed his labor with, and joined to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his property. It being by him removed from the common state nature hath placed it in, it hath by this labor something annexed to it that excludes the common right of other men.
225 ページ - Verily those who disbelieve our signs, we will surely cast to be broiled in hell fire ; so often as their skins shall be well burned, we will give them other skins in exchange, that they may taste the sharper torment ; for GOD is mighty and wise.
297 ページ - For this labour being the unquestionable property of the labourer, no man but he can have a right to what that is once joined to, at least where there is enough and as good left in common for others.
297 ページ - They, looking back, all the eastern side beheld Of Paradise, so late their happy seat, Waved over by that flaming brand; the gate With dreadful faces thronged and fiery arms. Some natural tears they dropped, but wiped them soon; The world was all before them, where to choose Their place of rest, and Providence their guide.
477 ページ - The increase of our revenue is the subject of our care, as much as our trade; 'tis that must maintain our force, when twenty accidents may interrupt our trade; 'tis that must make us a nation in India; — without that we are but as a great number of interlopers, united by his Majesty's royal charter, fit only to trade where nobody of power thinks it their interest to prevent us...
224 ページ - When ye encounter the unbelievers, strike off their heads, until ye have made a great slaughter among them; and bind them in bonds- and either give them a free dismission afterwards, or exact a ransom; until the war shall have laid down its arms.
252 ページ - ... gave them title to prescribe against their lords; and, on performance of the same services, to hold their lands, in spite of any determination of the lord's will; for though in general they are still said to hold their estates at the will of the lord...
477 ページ - ... tis that must make us a nation in India;— without that we are but as a great number of interlopers, united by his Majesty's royal charter, fit only to trade where nobody of power thinks it their interest to prevent us;— and upon this account it is that the wise Dutch, in all their general advices which we have seen, write ten paragraphs concerning their government, their civil and military policy, warfare, and the increase of their revenue, for one paragraph they write concerning trade...
252 ページ - Villeins, by these and many other means, in process of time gained considerable ground on their lords; and in particular strengthened the tenure of their estates to that degree, that they came to have in them an interest in many places full as good, in others better, than their lords. For the goodnature and benevolence of many lords of manors having, time out of mind, permitted their villeins and their children to enjoy their possessions without interruption, in a regular course of descent, the common...