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relations, when domestic tranquillity had been restored by the removal of the instrument of its disturbance. Isabella of France, the young bride of the late King Richard, was in England at the time of her husband's death. Her father, Charles the Sixth of France, when he heard of the deposition, and then of the death of Richard, was so much alarmed for the safety of his daughter, that a paroxysm of insanity took him with unusual force. He had been much subject to such attacks; so much so, that his realm was governed in fact by his two ambitious and inimical uncles, the Dukes of Burgundy and Orleans. These princes, of whom Burgundy was at that time the most powerful, though the less popular, were very indignant at the usurpation of Henry, and seized what they regarded as a promising occasion to attack the English possession of Guienne, on the French coast. They counted, with little judgment, on the cooperation of Bordeaux, the principal city, because there Richard had been born, and his memory was highly regarded by the Bordelais. Two forces, under Burgundy and the chivalrous young Bourbon, advanced upon the English province. When, however, they came to Bordeaux, they found that city unwilling to transfer its allegiance. The Bordelais were shrewd enough to perceive that under a kingdom so distracted as was that of France—torn by jealousies, weakened by an insane head, the shuttlecock of contending vassals—their taxes would be high, the draughts upon their population large, and the protection afforded them poor indeed; whereas, under the prosperous reign of a capable foreign King, they would abide in peace, their property would be secure, and their burdens light. So that Burgundy and Bourbon retired from a fruitless and mortifying failure. Henry the Fourth was little inclined just now to engage in war with his neighbor. On the contrary, he sought, by every means, to pacify the turbulent nobles who governed France. He sent an embassy to solicit a recognition of his sovereignty. He received with marked cordiality the envoys who came from the French King to ask that Isabella might return to the parental palaces. He urged the propriety of a marriage between the child-queen and his young heir, which Charles was so foolish as to decline. Cheerfully overlooking the slight, Henry permitted the princess to depart with her jewels, withholding, as necessary to himself, only the dower which she had brought to Richard's coffers.

Hardly had his difficulties with France ended, before he determined to cultivate the martial spirit of his people by attempting that ancient ambition of English monarchs, the subjugation of the contiguous realm of Scotland. There was so little concord in the government of that country, that the occasion seemed to offer a favorable prospect of success. King Robert was in the dotage of extreme old age. Prince David, the heir apparent, was dissipated, reckless, and took no interest in the political events of the court. The Duke of Albany, younger brother of the King, was organizing a party in his own interest among the nobles, and raised his audacious hopes to the throne itself. The military organization of Scotland was in a pitiful state of inefficiency. Henry, having derived a new supply from the taxation of clerical incomes, now raised an army by summoning the vassals of the crown to his standard. He called upon King Robert and the Scottish nobility to convene at Edinburgh, and do homage as vassals of England. The Scottish heir apparent, for the first time in his life, exhibited a rare courage and ability. He fortified the castle of Edinburgh, and took such measures as to render the project of the King of England hopeless. Henry, after an unsuccessful and inglorious campaign, retired to his own dominions. The humanity with which, notwithstanding his discomfiture, he protected the lives and property of the population on his line of retreat, from the outrages which his soldiers were tempted to commit, are celebrated with great praise by the historians of the age.

The rise of the discontents in Wales, immediately after his return from Scotland, bereft Henry of that rest which he would willingly have sought. Owen Glendower, an active and popular chieftain, had arisen, bid defiance to the English crown, and had put himself at the head of a great multitude of his countrymen.'' King Henry promptly marched his army westward, and engaged in a fruitless warfare with the wily and active rebel . The campaign here, as in Scotland, proved a most discouraging one. No other result came of it than long marches, sickness, and discontent among the troops. Glendower would make a hasty incursion into the English counties; then retiring to the fastnesses of his own bleak hills, would defy his enemy to follow. Three times Henry in person made the attempt to subdue this audacious chief; each time he was fain to withdraw to his capital without having accomplished his object.

A new source of trouble arose whilst he was on his last expedition to Wales. A report had been circulated that Richard was still alive. Sir Roger Clarendon, a natural son of the Black Prince, had declared that he had seen the King in person. The Scots made this a pretext for ravaging the northern counties of England. They were led by Hepburn of Hales, a bold but imprudent chief. The Scotch Earl of March, who had quarrelled with the court,* now joined the Percys of Northumberland to repel this invasion. He encountered Hepburn at Nesbit, and totally routed him, capturing nearly his whole force. Douglas now appeared as the champion of Scotland. With an army of ten thousand Scotchmen, that indomitable warrior came thundering over the border, and spread ruin far and wide along the banks of the Tyne. He advanced upon the English territory with a reckless courage all his own. Bent on the destruction of March, whom he regarded as a traitor, he gave full license to his soldiers, and preserved but little order in the ranks, He proceeded in an ill regulated march almost as far south as Newcastle, whence, having satiated the troops with plunder and malicious destruction, he leisurely retraced his steps toward Scotland. But he was soon brought to his wits in a startling manner. The Earl of Northumberland, Lord Percy, and the Earl of March had planted themselves quietly in his rear, with a large and disciplined force. He found himself intercepted; he must fight through the opposing column, or surrender his whole army. The English were found to be drawn up on an elevation near Milfield, not far from the Scottish border. Douglas promptly seized and posted himself upon a neighboring elevation, called Homildon Hill, and awaited the attack. Harry Percy, in his impatience, would have charged up Homildon with his horsemen; but March told him to order the archers forward alone. This splendid corps descended slowly to the valley, and thence directed their shafts, with fatal precision, at the Scottish line above. The Scotch remained for a while immovable; at every volley from below large numbers fell; still no Englishman was yet hurt. At last, Douglas, drawing up proudly, turned to his soldiers and addressed them: "Oh, my brave fellow soldiers, what fascinates you to-day, that you stand like deer and fawns in a park to be shot, instead of showing your ancient valor, and meeting your foes hand to hand? Let those who will, descend with me, and in the name of the Lord we will break that host and conquer, or if not, at least die with honor like soldiers!" Then setting the bold example, Douglas dashed hotly down the hill, and with great shouts his faithful soldiers followed. The archers slowly yielded to the assault, always shooting, however, as they retired. As the Scottish chief at the head of his bands approached, a volley, sharp and simultaneous, came from the English bows, which brought Douglas himself to the ground with five wounds, and deprived him of an eye; while other brave knights fell on every hand around him. The Scotch were thoroughly disheartened when they saw their brave general vanquished, and fled back into the Tweed, where many, in the hurry and confusion, were drowned. Douglas, Murdac (nephew of the King), the Earls of Moray and Angus, with many others of less note, were taken prisoners by the victorious Percys; eight hundred

* A more particular account of Glendower's rebellion will be found in Chapter IV., where Prince Henry's share in these events is narrated.

* March was disgusted with the Scotch court, because Prince David, the heir apparent, had been betrothed to his daughter, and had broken his plight.

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