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hence usually designated Paulus Diaconus. Paul, however, did publish an edition of Eutropius, whom ne expanded at both extremities, affixing levera, chapters to the commencement and bringing down the work to his own times, while by others it was continued as low as the year 813. Thus at the revival of literature, the history of Eutropius existed under three forms: 1. The genuine ten books as they proceeded from the author. 2. The editions as extended by Paullus Diaconus and others. 3. The entire but largely interpolated copy contained in the IIistoria Miscella. The Editio Princeps, which was printed at Rome, 4to., 1471, together with all the other editions which appeared during the 15th century, belong to one or other of the last two denominations. The first attempt to restore the pure original text was by Egnatius, in his edition printed at Venice in 1516, along with Suetonius and Aurelius Victor. But the great restorer of Eutropius was Schonhovius, a canon of Bruges, who published an edition from the Codex Gandavensis at Basle, 8vo., 1546 and 1552; further improvements were made by Vinetus (Pictav. 8vo. 1554), who made use of a Bourdeaux MS.; by Sylburgius, in the third volume of his Scriptt. histor. Rom. (fol. Franc. 1588), aided by a Fulda MS.; and by Merula (Lug. Bat. Elz. 8vo. 1592). Of the very numerous editions which have appeared since the close of the 16th century, the most notable are those of Hearne, Oxon. 8vo. 1703; of Havercamp, with a copious collection of commentaries, Lug. Bat. 8vo. 1729; of Gruner, Coburg. 8vo. 1752 and 1768; of Verheyk, with voluminous notes, Lug. Bat. 8vo. 1762 and 1793; of Tzschucke, containing a new revision of the text, an excellent dissertation, together with good critical and explanatory observations, 8vo. Lips. 1796, and again improved in 1804; and of Grosse, Hall. 8vo. 1813; Hanov. 1816; Lips. 1825. On the whole, the most useful for the student Tzschucke and Grosse. Eutropius was twice translated into Greek. One of these versions, executed by Capito Lycius before the time of Justinian, has perished ; that by a certain Paeanius still exists, has been frequently published, and is contained in the editions of Hearne, Havercamp, and Verheyk. Many translations are to be found into English, French, Italian, and German, none of them deserving any particular notice. In illustration, the dictionaries of Grosse, Stendal, 1811 and 1819; and of Seebode, Hanov. 1818, 1825, and 1828; Moller, Disputatio de Eutropio, 4to., Altdorf. 1685; the excellent dissertation of Tzschucke prefixed to this edition ; the preface of Verheyk, and the prooemium of Grosse, may be consulted. (Suidas, s. re. Eòrpétuos, Karstwv ; Symmach. Epist. iii. 47, 53; Auctor Anonym. de Antiq. Constuntinopol. lib. i. c. 5. p. 4 (vol. xvii. of the Venetian Corpus); Codinus Curopalates, Select. de Orig. 'onstantinopol. pp. 4 and 7, ed. Venet. ; Jo. Malala, Chronograph. in vil. Julian. apost.; Nicephor. Gregor. Oratio encomiastica in Imp. Constant. May. quoted by Fabricius and Tzschucke from Lambecius, Comment. de Bibliothec. Caes. viii. p. 136, ed. Kollar; Eutrop. Dedic. ad Val. Imp. lib. x. 16 and 18; Amm. Marcell. xxix. l. § 36, and note of Wales; Liban. in vit. vol. i. p. 113, ed. Reiske, and sopist. iv. 191, ad Themist.; Greg. Naz. Epist.

are those of

137, 138; Cod. Theod. i. 1. § 2, xii. 29. § 3. and Gothofred. Prosopogr. Cod. Theod. p. 52; Gennad. De Viris Ill. c. 49.) [W. R.] EUTRO'PIUS (EJrpários), a physician who lived probably in the fourth century after Christ, as he is mentioned along with Ausonius by Marcellus Empiricus (in Praefat.) as having been one of his immediate predecessors. He wrote a medical work which is noticed by Marcellus, but is no longer extant. [W. A. G.] EUTY CHES (Eörðxms). 1. An engraver of gems, was one of the sons of Dioscurid Es. His name is seen on an extant gem, with the inscription ETTTXHX AIOXKOTPIAOT AITEAIOX. (Bracci, P. ii. tab. 73 ; R. Rochette, Lettre à M. Schorn, p. 42.) 2. Of Bithynia, a sculptor, who is known by a statue in the worst style of ancient art, with the inscription ETTTXHC BEITYNErx TExNITHc ETIOIEI. (Wincklemann, Gesch. d. Kunst, b. x. c. 1. § 21. [P. S.] EU'TYCHES or EUTY'CHIUS, a disciple of Priscian, taught Latin grammar publicly at Constantinople, and wrote a treatise in two books, De discernendis conjugationibus Libri II., inscribed to his pupil Craterus. This work was first published by Camerarius, Tubing. 4to. 1537, along with Marius Victorinus, is included in the “Grammaticae Latinae Auctores Antiqui” of Putschius, Hanov. 4to. 1605, and has been recently edited in a more correct and complete form by Lindemann (Corpus Grammat. Lat. i. p. 151) from a MS. now at Vienna, but formerly in the monastery of Bobbio. Here the author is termed Eutychius and not Eutyches. Some remarks from a tract of Eutychius, De Aspiratione, are to be found in the 9th chapter of | Cassiodorus, De Orthographia. [W. R.] EU'TY CHES (EST/xms), a presbyter and abbot at Constantinople, in the 5th century, who headed the party opposed to the Nestorian doctrines [NESTorius]. Nestorius having maintained that there are in Christ two persons or substances (Jiroatáaeus), one divine (the A670s), and one human (Jesus), but with only one aspect, and united not by nature, but by will and affection 5–Eutyches carried his opposition to this system so far as to assert that in Christ there is but one nature, that of the Incarnate Word. The declaration “the word was made flesh” implies, according to Eutyches, that He so took human nature upon Him, that His own nature was not changed. From this it follows that His body is not a mere human body, but a body of God. There can be no doubt that this doctrine, if pushed to its logical consequences, would be highly dangerous, since it would destroy all the practical benefits of our belief in in the Incarnation, as it involves the denial that we have a High Priest who can be touched with a feeling of our infirmities. If this is borne in mind, the horror which it excited can be accounted for; and although we do not know that Eutyches, any more than many other teachers of error, did carry out his principles to their practical conclusions, still the means which were adopted to support his cause were such as to prevent our feeling any sympathy with it. His opinions became popular in the Alexandrian Church, where the doctrines of Nestorius had been most loudly condemned, and where the patriarch Dioscurus was

eminently violent and unscrupulous. Eutyches. was first warned of his error privately by Eusebius, bishop of Dorylaeum, and was then denounced by him as a heretic, before a synod which assembled at Constantinople, under the presidency of Flavian, patriarch of that city. He was condemned, in spite of the extent of his influence at court, where Chrysaphius, eunuch and chief chamberlain to Theodosius II., was a close friend of Dioscurus, and godson to Eutyches. Besides this, Chrysaphius had a strong desire to crush the partisans of Pulcheria, the emperor's sister, who was warmly attached to Flavian. By his influence Theodosius was persuaded to declare himself dissatisfied with the decision of Flavian's synod, and to refer the matter to a general council, to meet at Ephesus, A. D. 449, under the presidency of Dioscurus. This is the celebrated Amatpuri) a svobos, an appellation which it most richly deserved. It was composed almost entirely of partisans of Eutyches. Flavian, and those who had judged him on the former occasion, though allowed to be present, were not to be suffered to vote. Theodoret, the historian, who had been a friend of Nestorius, was not to vote without the permission of Dioscurus; and a number of frantic logyptian monks accompanied their abbot, Barsumas, to whom, as a vigorous opponent of Nestorius, a seat and vote in the council were assigned. For the emperor had avowed, in his letters of convocation, that his great object was Tāraw ötafloxucov čickokai pišav, meaning by this phrase the Nestorian doctrines. When the council met, all opponents of Eutyches were silenced by the outcries of the monks, the threats of the soldiers who were admitted to hear the deliberations. and the overbearing violence of the president. Flavian, Eusebius, and Theodoret were deposed, and the doctrines of Eutyches formally sanctioned; and this was regarded as a victory gained over the Eastern church by its Alexandrian rival, which two bodies often came into conflict from the different dogmatical tendencies prevalent in each. The deposed prelates, however, applied for aid to Leo the Great, bishop of Rome, who had been himself summoned to the council, but, instead of appearing there, had sent Julius, bishop of Puteoli, and three other legates, from whom therefore he obtained a correct account of the scenes which had disgraced it. IIe was ready to interfere, both on general grounds, and from the motion, which had already begun to take root, that to him, as the successor of St. Peter, belonged a sort of oversight over the whole church. Things were changed too at Constantinople: Chrysaphius was disgraced and banished, and Pulcheria restored to her brother's favour. In the year 450. Theodosius II. died; Pulcheria married Marcian, and procured for him the succession to the throne. A new general council was summoned at Nicaea, and afterwards adjourned to Chalcedon, A. D. 451, which 630 bishops attended. The proceedings were not altogether worthy of a body met to decide on such subjects; yet, on the whole, something like decorum was observed. The result was that Dioscurus and Eutyches were condemned, and the doctrine of Christ in one person and two natures finally declared to be the faith of the church. We know nothing of the subsequent fate of Eutyches, except that Leo wrote to beg Marcian and Pulcheria to send him into banishment, with what success does not appear. There are extant a confession of faith presented by Eutyches to the council of Ephesus

(the BovXà Anotpuko), and two petitions to the em. peror Theodosius (Concil. vol. iv. pp. 134, 241, 250); but no works of his are in existence. schism was continued among the monks by Eudocia, widow of Theodosius, and to such an extent, that Marcian was obliged to send an armed force to put it down. The followers of Eutyches, however, under the name of Monophysites, continued to propagate their opinions, though with little success, till the 6th century, when a great revival of those doctrines took place under the auspices of Jacob Baradaeus, who died bishop of Edessa, A. D. 588. From him they were called Jacobites, and under this title still constitute a very numerous church, to which the Armenians and Copts belong. (Evagrius, IIist. Eccles. i. 9; Theodoret, Ep. 79, 82, 92, &c.; Cave, Script. Eccles. Isist. Lit. vol. i. ; Neander, Airchengesch. iii. p. 1079, &c.) [G. E. L. C.] EUTY CHIAN US. [CoMAzoN.] EUTY CHIA'NUS (ETuxtavós). There are two persons of this name in the history of Constantinople: the one is called an historian, and must have lived at the time of Constantine the Great. He is styled chief secretary of the emperor, and a sophist; but nothing further is known. (Georg. Codinus, Select. de Orig. Constant. 17.) The second was a friend of Agathius the historian, who undertook to write the history of his own time on the advice of Eutychianus. (Agath. Prooem.) [L. S.] EUTY CHIA'NUS (EörvXiavós), a physician who lived probably in or before the fourth century after Christ, as one of his medical formulae is quoted by Marcellus Empiricus (De Medicam. c. 14. p. 303), who calls him by the title of “Archiater.” He may perhaps be the same physician who is called Terentius Eutychianus by Theodorus Priscianus (De Medic. iv. 14.) [W. A. G.] EUTY/CHIDES, T. CAECI(LIUS, a freedman of Atticus. After his manumission by Atticus, his name naturally was T. Pomponius Eutychides; but when Atticus was adopted by Q. Caecilius, his freedman also altered his name into T. Caecilius Eutychides. (Cic. ad Att. iv. 15.) [L. S.] EUTY'CHIDES (Eotvotöms). 1. Of Sicyon, a statuary in bronze and marble, is placed by Pliny at Ol. 120, B. c. 300. (xxxiv. 8. s. 19.) He was a disciple of Lysippus. (Paus. vi. 2, § 4.) He made in bronze a statue of the river Eurotas, “in quo artem ipso amne liquidiorem plurimi dixere” (Plin. l. c. § 16), one of the Olympic victor Timosthenes, of Elis, and a highly-prized statue of Fortune for the Syrians on the Orontes. (Paus. l. c.) There is a copy of the last-named work in the Vatican Museum. (Visconti, Mus. Pio.-Clem. t. iii. tab. 46.) His statue of Father Liber, in the collection of Asinius Pollio, was of marble. (Plin. xxxvi. 5. S. 4. § 10.) A statue of Priapus is mentioned in the Greek Anthology (Brunck, Anal. ii. p. 3] l; Jacobs, iii. p. 24, No. xlv.) as the work of Eutychides, but it is not known whether Eutychides of Sicyon is meant. Cantharus of Sicyon was the pupil of Eutychides. [CANTHARUs.] 2. A painter of unknown time and country. He painted Victory driving a biga. (Plin. xxxv. ll. s. 40. § 34.) 3. A sculptor, whose name occurs in a sepulchral epigram in the Greek Anthology. (Brunck, Anal. vol. iii. p. 307 ; Jacobs, vol. iv. p. 274, No. DCCXIx.) [P. S.] EUTY'CHIUS, the grammarian. [EUTychrs.]

EUTY'CHIUS (Eörðxios), was originally a monk of the town of Amaseia, whence he was sent by his fellow-citizens to Constantinople, as proxy for their bishop. The great talent he displayed in some theological controversy gained him general admiration, and the emperor in A. D. 553 raised him to the highest dignity in the church at Constantinople. In the same year he accordingly presided at an ecumenical synod, which was held in that city. In A. D. 564, he incurred the anger of the emperor Justinian, by refusing to give his assent to a decree respecting the incorruptibility of the body of Christ previous to his resurrection, and was expelled from his see in consequence. He was at first confined in a monastery, then trans

ported to an island, Princepo, and at last to his original convent at Amaseia. In 578, the emperor Tiberius restored him to his see, which he henceforth retained until his death in 585, at the age of 73. There is extant by him a letter addressed to pope Vigilius, on the occasion of his elevation in A. D. 553. It is printed in Greek and Latin among the Acta Synodi quintae, Concil. vol. v. p. 425, &c. He also wrote some other treatises, which, however, are lost. (Evagr. iv. 38; Gregor. Moral. xiv. 29; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 413, &c.) [L. S.] EUXENIDAE (E&evièat), a noble family among the Aegimetans, celebrated by Pindar in his ode (Nem. vii.) in honour of one of its members, Sogenes, who was victorious in the boys’ pentathlon in the 54th Nemead (according to Hermann's emendation of the Scholia), that is, in B. c. 46}. The poet also mentions the victor's father, Thearion, with whom he seems to have been intimate. The ode contains some considerable difficulties, and has been very differently explained by Böckh, Dissen, and Hermann. (Pindar, l.c.; Schol, and Böckh and Dissen's notes; Hermann, de Sogenis Aeginetae Victoria quinquertii Dissertatio, Lips. 1822, Opuscula, vol. iii. p. 22.) [P. S.] EUXE'NIDAS, a painter, who instructed the celebrated Aristeides, of Thebes. He flourished about the 95th or 100th Olympiad, B. c. 400 or 380. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 10. s. 36. § 7.) [P. S.] EUXE'NIDES. [Everes.] EU'XENUS (Eötevos.) 1. Is mentioned by Dionysius of Halicarnassus (i. 34) as a trointms dpxasos, who wrote upon early Italian traditions. As he is not mentioned anywhere else, and as it is strange to find an ancient Greek writing upon Italian mythi, some critics have proposed to read "Evvios, instead of Eööevos ; but Ennius can scarcely be classed among the mythographers. 2. Of Heracleia, was the instructor of Apollonius of Tyana in Pythagorean philosophy, of which he is said to have possessed a very competent knowledge. (Philostr. Wit. Apoll. i. 7.) [L. S.] EUXI'THEUS (Eöğsdeos), a Pythagorean philosopher, from whom Athenaeus (iv. p. 157) quotes the opinion that the souls of all men were confined by the gods to their bodies and to this world as a punishment, and that unless they remained there for the period appointed by the deity, they would be doomed to still greater sufferings. [L. S.] EXATIUS ('E:48tos), one of the Lapithae, who distinguished himself in the contest at the nuptials of Peirithous. (Hes. Scut. Herc. 180; Ov. Met. xii. 266, &c.) [L. S.] EXAE'NETUS ('Easveros), of Agrigentum,

gained victories in the foot race at Olympia, in B. c. VOL. II.

416 (Ol. 91) and B. c.412 (Ol. 92.) On his return from Olympia, Exaenetus was escorted into the city by a magnificent procession of 300 chariots, each drawn by two white horses. (Diod. xiii. 34, 82; Aelian, V. H. ii. 8.) [L. S.] EXEDARES. [ARsAcid AE, p. 363, a.] EXITIUS, quaestor in B. c. 43, and one of Antony's supporters, is called by Cicero (Philipp. xiii. 13) the frater (probably the cousin-german) of Philadelphus, by which name he means to indicate C. Annius Cimber. [Comp. CIMBER, ANNIUs.] EXSUPERA'NTIUS, JU'LIUS, a Roman historian, with regard to whom we possess no information, but who, from the character of his style, is believed to have flourished in the fifth or sixth century. Under his name we have a short tract, entitled De Marii, Lepidi, ac Sertorii bellis civilibus, which many suppose to have been abridged from the Histories of Sallust. It will be found appended to the editions of Sallust by Wasse, Cantab. 4to. 1710; by Corte, Lips. 4to. 1724; by Havercamp, Amstel. 4to. 1742; and by Gerlach, Basil. 4to. 1823. (Mollerus, Disp. de Julio Easuperantio. Allorf. 4to. 1690.) [W. R.] EXSUPERATO'RIUS, one of the twelve titles assumed by the Emperor Commodus, who ordained that the month of December should be distinguished by this name. [CoMModus.] (Dion Cass. lxxii. 15; Zonar. xii. 5; Lamprid. Commod. 11 : Aurel. Vict. de Caes. xvii.; Eutrop. viii. 7; Suidas, s. v. Köuoôos.) [W. R.] EXSUPERIUS, descended from a family of Bordeaux, was professor of rhetoric first at Toulouse, and subsequently at Narbonne, where he became the preceptor of Flavius Julius Delmatius. and of his brother Hannibalianus, who, after their elevation, procured for their instructor the dignity of Praeses Hispaniae. Having acquired great wealth, he retired to pass the remainder of his life in tranquillity at Cahors (Cadurca). He is knowy to us only from a complimentary address by Auso nius, who calls upon him to return and shed a lustre upon the city of his ancestors. (Auson. Prof. xvii.) W. R.] EZEKIE'LUS ('Eoekūxos), the author of a work in Greek entitled ěčaywys, which is usually called a tragedy, but which seems rather to havo been a metrical history, in the dramatic form, and in iambic verse, written in imitation of the Greek tragedies. The subject was the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. The author appears to have been a Jew, and to have lived at the court of the Ptolemies, at Alexandria, about the second century B. c. Considerable fragments of the work are preserved by Eusebius (Praep. Evang. ix. 28, 29), Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom. i. p. 344, fol.), and Eustathius (ad Heračm. p. 25). These fragments were first collected, and printed with a Latin version, by Morell, Par. 1580 and 1590, 8vo., and were reprinted in the Poetae Christ. Graec., Par. 1609, 8vo., in Lectius's Corpus Poet. Graec. Trag. et Com., Col. Allobr. 1614, fol., in Bignius's Collect. Poet. Christ., appended to the Biblioth. Patr. Graec., Par. 1624, fol., in the 14th volume of the Bibl. Patr. Graec., Par. 1644– 1654, fol., and in a separate form, with a German translation and notes, by L. M. Philippson, Berlin, 1830, 8vo. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 505-6; Welcker, die Griech. Tragöd. p. 1270.) [P. S.]

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F.

FABA"TUS, CALPU'RNIUS, a Roman Knight, accused by suborned informers in A. D. 64, of being privy to the crimes of adultery and magical arts which were alleged against Lepida, the wife of C. Cassius. By an appeal to Nero, judgment against Fabatus was deferred, and he eventually eluded the accusation. (Tac. Ann. xvi. 8.) Fabatus was grandfather to Calpurnia, wife of the younger Pliny. (Plin. Ep. viii. 10.) He possessed a country house, Villa Camilliana, in Campania. (Id. vi. 30.) He long survived his son, Pliny's father-in-law, in memory of whom he erected a portico at Comum, in Cisalpine Gaul. (v. 12.) According to an inscription (Gruter, Inscript. p. 382), Fabatus died at Comum. The following letters are addressed by Pliny to Fabatus, his prosocer (iv. 1, v. 12, vi. 12, 30, vii. 11, 16, 23, 32, viii. 10). - [W. B. D.]

FABATUS, L. R.O'SCIUS, was one of Caesar's lieutenants in the Gallic war, and commanded the thirteenth legion on the Lower Rhine, in the winter of B. c. 54. It was during this winter that Ambiorix [AMBIORIx] induced the Eburones and Nervii to attack in detail the quarters of the Roman legions, but in the operations consequent on their revolt Fabatus seems to have taken no part, since the district in which he was stationed remained quiet. (Caes. B. G. v. 24.) He apprised Caesar, however, of hostile movements in Armorica in the same winter. (Ibid. 53.) Fabatus was one of the praetors in B. c. 49, and was sent by Pompey from Rome to Caesar at Ariminum, with proposals of accommodation, both public and private. He was charged by Caesar with counter-proposals, which he delivered to Pompey and the consuls at Capua. (Cic. ad Att. viii. 12; Caes. B. C. i. 8, 10; Dion Cass. xli. 5.) Fabatus was despatched on a second mission to Caesar by those members of the Pompeian party who were anxious for peace. (Dion Cass. l.c.) As Cicero mentions his meeting with L. Caesar at Minturnae on his return from Ariminum, and as L. Caesar was the companion of Fabatus, at least on their first journey to and from C. Caesar, Fabatus, though not expressly named by him, probably met Cicero at Minturnae also, and communicated Caesar's offers, January 22. B. c. 49. (Cic, ad Att. vii. 13.) According to Cicero (ad Att. vii. 14), Fabatus and L. Caesar, on their return from Ariminum, delivered Caesar's offer to Pompey, not at Capua, but at Teanum. Fabatus was killed April 14th or 15th, B. c. 43, in the first of the battles in the neighbourhood of Mutina, between M. Antony and the legions of the senate. (Cic. ad Fam. x. 33.) [W. B. D.]

Whether the annexed coin, which bears the name of L. Roscius Fabatus, belongs to the Fabatus

above mentioned, is doubtful. It represents on the obverse the head of Juno Sospita, and the re

verse refers to the worship of that goddess at Lanuvium. (Eckhel, vol. v. p. 292, &c.) FABE’RIUS. 1. Seems to have been a debtor of M. Cicero's, since in several of his letters to Atticus (ad Att. xii. 21, 25, 51, xiii. 8), Cicero speaks of him as a person from whom a certain sum was due, and should be demanded, in case of the purchase of some gardens in Rome (Horti Drusiani, Lamiani, &c.), which Cicero wished to buy. He was however, after a time, disposed to be lenient with Faberius (ad Att. xv. 13). If by Meto (in Epist. ad Att. xii. 51) Caesar be meant, in allusion to his reformation of the calendar (Suet. Caes. 40), the interest on the money owed by Faberius to Cicero may have been affected by the extension of the current year B. c. 46. Cicero seems to have been cautious of giving offence to Faberius; and if he were the same person with Caesar's private secretary, mentioned below, and the transaction between them, as has been supposed, referred to property sold or confiscated during the civil wars, Cicero's reluctance to enforce payment may in B. c. 45 have been prudent as well as lenient. 2. One of the private secretaries of C. Julius Caesar. After Caesar's assassination, in B. c. 44, Antony attached to himself Faberius, by whose aid he inserted whatever he chose into the late dictator's papers. Since a decree of the senate had previously declared all Caesar's acts, and his will, valid and binding on the state, Antony, by employing one of Caesar's own secretaries, could insert, without danger of detection, whatever he wished into the papers (útouvijuata), since the autograph of Faberius made it difficult to distinguish the genuine from the spurious memoranda. (Appian, B.C. iii. 5.) Dion Cassius (xliv. 3) says that Antony secured the services of Caesar's secretaries, but he does not name Faberius. [W.B.D.] FA(BIA, the name of two daughters of the patriciam M. Fabius Ambustus. The elder was married to Ser. Sulpicius, a patrician, and one of the military tribunes of the year B. c. 376, and the younger to the plebeian C. Licinius Stolo, who is said to have been urged on to his legislation by the vanity of his wife. Once, so the story runs, while the younger Fabia was staying with her sister, a lictor knocked at the door to announce the return of Ser. Sulpicius from the forum. This noise frightened the younger Fabia, who was unaccustomed to much things, and her elder sister ridiculed her for her ignorance. This, as well as the other honours which were paid to Servilius, deeply wounded the vanity of the younger Fabia, and her jealousy and envy made her unhappy. Her father perceived that she was suffering from something, and contrived to elicit the cause of her grief. He then consoled her by telling her that shortly she should see the same honours and distinctions conferred upon her own husband, and thereupon he consulted with C. Licinius Stolo about the steps to be taken for this purpose; and L. Sextius being let into the secret, a plot was formed of which the legislation of C. Licinius and L. Sextius was the result. (Liv. vi. 34; Zonar. vii. 24; Aur. Vict. de Vir. Illustr. 20.) The improbability and inconsistency of this story has long since been exploded, for how could the younger Fabia have been ignorant of or startled by the distinctions enjoyed by her sister's husband, as her own father had been invested with the same office in B. c. 381 P The story must therefore be cousidered as one of those inventions by which a defeated party endeavours to console itself, namely, by tracing the conqueror's actions to base and ignoble motives. [L. S.] FA'BIA GENS, one of the most ancient patrician gentes at Rome, which traced its origin to Hercules and the Arcadian Evander. (Ov. Fast. ii. 237, ear Pont. iii. 3. 99; Juv. viii. 14; Plut. Fab. Mar. 1; Paul. Diac. s. v. Favii, ed. Müller.) The name is said to have originally been Fodii or Fovii, which was believed to have been derived from the fact of the first who bore it having invented the method of catching wolves by means | of ditches (foreae), whereas, according to Pliny, (H. N. xviii. 3), the name was derived from faba, a bean, a vegetable which the Fabii were said to have first cultivated. The question as to whether the Fabii were a Latin or a Sabine gens, is a disputed point. Niebuhr and, after him, Göttling (Gesch. der Röm. Staatsv. pp. 109, 194,) look upon them as Sabines. But the reason adduced does not seem satisfactory; and there is a legend in which their name occurs, which refers to a time when the Sabines were not yet incorporated in the Roman state. This legend, it is true, is related only by the pseudo-Aurelius Victor (de Orig. Gent. Rom. 22); but it is alluded to also by Plutarch (Romul. 22) and Valerius Maximus (ii. 2, § 9). When Romulus and Remus, it is said, after the death of Amulius, offered up sacrifices in the Lupercal, and afterwards celebrated a festival, which became the origin of the Lupercalia, the two heroes divided their band of shepherds into two parts, and each gave to his followers a special name: Romulus called his the Quinctilii, and Remus his the Fabii. (Comp. Ov. Fast. ii. 361, &c., 375, &c.) This tradition seems to suggest, that the Fabii and Quinctilii in the earliest times had the superintendence of the sacra at the Lupercalia, and hence the two colleges of the Luperci retained these names even in much later times, although the privilege had ceased to be confined to those two gentes. (Cic. Phil. ii. 34, xiii. 15, pro Cael. 26; Propert. iv. 26; Plut. Caes. 61.) It was from the Fabia gens that one of the Roman tribes derived its name, as the Claudia, in later times, was named after the Claudia gens. The Fabii do not act a prominent part in history till after the establishment of the commonwealth ; aud three brothers belonging to the gens are said to have been invested with seven successive consulships, from B. c. 485 to 479. The house derived its greatest lustre from the patriotic courage and tragic fate of the 306 Fabii in the battle on the Cremera, B. c. 477. [WIBULANUs, K. FABIUs, No. 3..] But the Fabii were not distinguished as warriors alone: several members of the gens act an important part also in the history of Roman literature and of the arts. The name occurs as late as the second century after the Christian aera. The family-names of this gens under the republic are:—AMBustus, Buteo, DoRSO, LABEo, LICINUs, MAXIMUs (with the agnomens Aemilianus, Allobrogicus, Eburnus, Gurges, Rullianus, Servilianus, Verrucosus), Pictor, and WIBULANUs. The other cognomens, which do not belong to the gens, are given below. [L.S.] The only cognomens that occur on coins are Hispaniensis [see Vol. I. p. 180, a.], Labeo, Maaimus, and Pictor. The two coins represented below have no cognomen upon them, and it is doubtful to whom they are to be referred. The former has

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on the obverse the two-faced head of Janus, and on the reverse the prow of a ship: the latter ex

reverse Victory in a biga ; the letters Ex A. Pv. denote Er Argento Publico. (Eckhel, vol. v. p. 209, &c.) FABIA'NUS, PAPI'RIUS, a Roman rhetorician and philosopher in the time of Tiberius and Caligula. He was the pupil of Arellius Fuscus and of Blandus in rhetoric, and of Sextius in philosophy: and although much the younger of the two, he instructed Albutius Silas in eloquence. (Senec. Controv. ii. prooem. pp. 134–6, iii. p. 204, ed. Bipont.) The rhetorical style of Fabianus is described by the elder Seneca (Controv. iii. proem.), and he is frequently cited in the third book of Controversiac, and in the Suasoriae. IIis early model in rhetoric was his instructor Arellius Fuscus; but he afterwards adopted a less ornate form of eloquence, though he never attained to perspicuity and simplicity. Fabianus soon, however, quitted rhetoric for philosophy : and the younger Seneca places his philosophical works next to those of Cicero, Asinius Pollio, and Livy the historian. (Senec. Epist. 100.) The philosophical style of Fabianus is described in this letter of Seneca's, and in some points his description corresponds with that of the elder Seneca. (Controv. ii. prooem.) Both the Senecas seem to have known, and certainly greatly esteemed Fabianus. (Cf. Controv. iii. prooem. with Epist. 11.) Fabianus was the author of a work entitled [Rerum ?] Civilium; and his philosophical writings exceeded Cicero's in number. (Senec. Epist. 100.) He had also paid great attention to physical science, and is called by Pliny (H. N. xxxvi. 15, s. 24) rerum naturae peritissimus. From Seneca (Natur. Quaest. iii. 27), he appears to have written on Physics; and his works entitled De Animalibus and Causarun Naturalium Libri are frequently referred to by Pliny (H. N. generally in his Elenchos or summary of materials, i. ii. vii. ix. xi. xii. xiii. xiv. xv. xvii. xxiii. xxviii. xxxvi., and specially, but without mention of the particular work of Fabianus, ii. 47. § 121, ii. 102. § 223, ix. 8. § 25, xii. 4. § 20, xv. 1. § 4, xxiii. 11. § 62, xxviii. 5. § 54). [W. B. D.] FABIA'NUS, WALE’RIUS, a Roman of rank sufficient to aspire to the honours of the state, was convicted before the senate in A. D. 62, of conspiring o

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