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with Vincius Rufinus, Antonius Primus, and others, to impose on his aged and wealthy relative, Domitius Balbus, a forged will. Fabianus was degraded from the senatorian order by the Lex Cornelia Testamentaria or De Falsis. (Tac. Ann. xiv. 40; comp. Instit. iv. 18. § 7; Paulus, Recept. Sententiarum, v. tit. 25.) [W. B. D.] FABI'LIUS, or FABILLUS, a professor of literature in the third century A. D., who instructed the younger Maximinus in the Greek language, and was the author of several Greek epigrams, which were mostly inscriptive lines for the statues and portraits of his youthful pupil. (Capitolin. Marimin. Jun. 1.) [W. B. D.] FA'BIUS DOSSENNUS. [DossENNUs.] FA'BIUS FABULLUS. [FABULLUs.] FA’BIUS HADRIA’NUS. [HAdRIANUs.] FA/BIUS LABEO. [LABEo.] FA'BIUS MELA. [MELA.] FA’BIUS PLANCI’ADES FULGE'NTIUS, [FULGENTIUs.] FA’BIUS PRISCUS. FA'BIUS RUSTICU.S. [Rusticus.) FA(BIUS SABI'NUS. [SABINUs.] FA'BIUS SANGA. [SANGA.] FA(BIUS, VERGILIANUS. LIANUs.) FABRI'CIA GENS, seems to have belonged originally to the Hernican town of Aletrium, where Fabricii occur as late as the time of Cicero (pro Cluent. 16, &c.) The first Fabricius who occurs in history is the celebrated C. Fabricius Luscinus, who distinguished himself in the war against Pyrrhus, and who was probably the first of the Fabricii who quitted his native place and settled at Rome. We know that in B. c. 306, shortly before the war with Pyrrhus, most of the Hernican towns revolted against Rome, but were subdued and compelled to accept the Roman franchise without the suffrage : three towns, Aletrium, Ferentinum, and Verulae, which had remained faithful to Rome, were allowed to retain their former constitution ; that is, they remained to Rome in the relation of isopolity. (Liv. ix. 42, &c.) Now it is very probable that C. Fabricius Luscinus either at that time or soon after left Aletrium and settled at Rome, where, like other settlers from isopolite towns, he soon rose to high honours. Besides this Fabricius, no members of his family appear to have risen to any eminence at Rome ; and we must conclude that they were either men of inferior talent, or, what is more probable, that being strangers, they laboured undergreat disadvantages, and that the jealousy of the illustrious Roman families, plebeian as well as patrician, kept them down, and prevented their maintaining the position which their sire had gained. LusciNUs is the only cognomen of the Fabricii that we meet with under the republic: in the time of the empire we find a Fabricius with the cognomen VElKNTo. There are a few without a cognomen. [L. S.] FABRI'CIUS. 1. C. and L. FABRICIUs belonged to the municipium of Aletrium, and were twins. According to Cicero (pro Cluent. 16, &c.), they were both men of bad character; and C. Fabricius, in particular, was charged with having allowed himself to be made use of as a tool of Oppianicus, about B. c. 67, to destroy A. Cluentius. [A. CLUENTIUS, No. 2.] 2. L. FABRICIUS, C. F., perhaps a son of No. 1, was curator viarum in B. c. 62, and built a new

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bridge of stone, which connected the city with the island in the Tiber, and which was called, after him, pons Fabricius. The time at which the bridge was built is expressly mentioned by Dion Cassius (xxxvii. 45), and the name of its authoris still seen on the remnants of the bridge, which now bears the name of ponte quattro capi. On one of the arches we read the inscription: “L. FABRICius, C. F. CUR.VIAR. FACIUNDUM coer AviT IDEMQUE PROBAviT;” and on another arch there is the following addition: “Q. LEPIDUs, M. F., M. LoLLIU, M. F., Ex S. C. PROBAVERUNT,” which probably refers to a restoration of the bridge by Q. Lepidus and M. Lollius. The scholiast on Horace (Sat. ii. 3, 36) calls the Fabricius who built that bridge a consul, but this is obviously a mistake. (Becker, Handbuch, d. Röm. Alterthümer, vol. i. p. 699.) There is also a coin bearing the name of L. Fabri. cius. (Eckhel, Doctr. Num. vol. v. p. 210.) 3. Q. FABRICIUs was tribune of the people in B. c. 57, and well disposed towards Cicero, who was then living in exile. He brought before the people a motion that Cicero should be recalled, as early as the month of January of that year. But the attempt was frustrated by P. Clodius by armed force. (Cic. ad Qu. Frat. i. 4, post Red. in Sen. 8, pro Seat. 35, &c., pro Milon. 14.) In the Monumentum Ancyranum and in Dion Cassius (xlviii. 35), he is mentioned as consul suffectus of the year B. c. 36. [L. S.] FABULLUS, painter. [AMULIUs.] FABULLUS, FA/BIUS, one of the several persons to whom the murder of Galba, in A. D. 69, was attributed. He carried the bleeding head of the emperor, which, from its extreme baldness, was difficult to hold, in the lappet of his sagum, until, compelled by his comrades to expose it to public view, he fixed it on a spear and brandished it, says Plutarch, as a bacchanal her thyrsus, in his progress from the forum to the praetorian camp (Plut. Galb. 27; comp. Sueton. Galb. 20). But for the joint statement of Plutarch (l.c.) and Tacitus (Hist. i. 44), that Vitellius put to death all the murderers of Galba, this Fabullus might be supposed the same with Fabius Fabullus, legatus of the fifth legion, whom the soldiers of Vitellius, A. D. 69, chose as one of their leaders in the mutiny against Alienus Caecina [CAECINA, No. 9], when

he prematurely declared for Vespasian. (Tacit. Hist. iii. 14.) [W. B. D.] FACUNDUS, styled “Episcopus Hermia

mensis,” from the see which he held in the province of Byzacium, in Africa Propria, lived about the middle of the sixth century. When Justinian (A. D. 544) published an edict condemning, 1st, the Epistle of Ibas, bishop of Edessa ; 2d, the doctrine of Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia ; and 3d, cer. tain writings of Theodoret, bishop of Cyrus or Cyrrus; and anathematising all who approved of them, his edict was resisted by many, as impugning the judgment of the general council of Chalcedon (held A. D. 451), at which the prelates whose sentiments or writings were obnoxious were not only not condemned, but two of them, Ibas and Theodore, restored to their sees, from which they had been expelled. Facundus was one of those who rejected the Emperor's edict; and was requested by his brethren (apparently the other bishops of Africa) to prepare a defence of the Council on the three points (currently termed by ecclesiastical writers the “tria capitula") on which its judgment was impugned. He was at Constantinople, engaged in this work, when the pope, Vigilius (A. D. 547), arrived, and directed him and all the other bishops who were there, about seventy in number, to give their opinion on the “tria capitula” in writing in seven days. The answer of Facundus consisted of extracts from his unfinished work; but as, from the haste and excitement under which it was prepared, and the inaccuracy of some of its quotations, it did not satisfy its author, he afterwards finished and published his larger work, as being a more moderate and better arranged defence of the council. Vigilius having been induced to approve of the condemnation of Ibas, Theodore, and Theodoret, though with a reservation of the authority of the council of Chalcedon, Facundus, with the bishops of Africa and of some other provinces, refused to have communion with him and with those who joined in the condemnation ; and being persecuted for this, he was obliged to conceal himself. During this concealment, at the request of some persons whom he does not name, he wrote his reply to Mocian, a scholasticus or pleader, who had written against the decision of the council of Chalcedon. Nothing further is known of Facundus. Two of his writings, viz. Pro Defensione Trium Capitulorum Libri XII., and Contra Mocianum Liber, were published with notes by Sirmond (8vo. Paris. 1629). notes, are reprinted in the edition of the works of Optatus, by Philippus Priorius, and in the Bibliotheca Patrum, vol. x. ed. Lyon, A. D. 1677, and vol. xi. ed. Venice, by Gallandius, A. D. 1765. Another work of Facundus, entitled Epistola Fidei Catholicae in Defensione Trium Capitulorum, was first published in the Spicilegium of D'Achery (vol. iii. p. 106 of the first edition, or vol. iii. p. 307. ed. of 1723), chiefly with the view of showing that Facundus continued out of communion with the Pope and the Catholic Church, and so of weakening his authority: for the Protestants had cited a passage from his Defensio Trium Capitulorum against the doctrine of the Real Presence. This letter is reprinted in the Billiotheca Patrum of Gallandius. Cassiodorus (Eagos. in Psalm corruviii. sub fin.) speaks of two books of Facundus De dualus Naturis Domini Christi. By some scholars he is thought to mean the two first books of the Defensio ; but Fabricius thinks that he speaks of a separate work of Facundus now lost. (Facundus, works as above ; Victor Tunnumensis, Chronicon; Isidor. Hisp. De Scrip. Eccles. c. 19. ; Baronius, Annal. ad Ann. 546, 547, and Pagius. Critic. in Baron. ; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. ... p. 520; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. x. p. 543, and Bibl. Med. et Inf. Latin. vol. ii. p. 140, Padua, 1754; Galland. Biblioth. Patrum, vol. xi., Proleg. c. 13.) [J. C. M.] FA'DIA. l. A daughter of Q. Fadius Gallus. She was fraudulently robbed of her paternal inheritance by P. Sextilius Rufus. (Cic. de Fin. ii. 17, &c.) 2. A daughter of C. or Q. Fadius, married to the triumvir M. Antonius, at the time when he was yet a young man. She bore him several children. (Cic. Philipp. ii. 2, xiii. 10, ad Att. xvi. ll.) [L. S.] FADILLA. l. AURELIA FADILLA, a daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina. (Eckhel, vol. vii. 38. P. 2. #. DILLA, a daughter of M. Aurelius and the

These works, with Sirmond's

younger Faustina. (Gruter, p. cclii. 8 : Murato. p. 242. 3, p. 590. 4.) 3. JUNIA FADILLA, a descendant of M. Antominus or M. Aurelius, betrothed to Maximus Caesar. (Capitolin. Marimin. jun. 1.) [W. R.] FA'DIUS, the name of a family of the municpium of Arpinum. Some of the members of it settled at Rome, while others remained in their native place. The Fadii appear in history about the time of Cicero, but none of them rose to any higher office than the tribuneship. The only cognomens that occur in the family, are GALLUs and RUFUs. The following have no surnames:— l. C. or Q. FADIUs, for in one of the two passages in which he is mentioned, he is called Caius, and in the other Quintus. He was a libertinus, and seems to have possessed considerable wealth, for his daughter, who was married to M. Antonius, is called a rich woman. (Cic. Philipp. ii. 2, ad Att xvi. 1].) 2. L. FADIUs, was acdile in his native place of ..) inum, in B. c. 44. (Cic. ad At/. xv. 15. 17, 20. 3. SEx. FADIUs, a disciple of the physician Nicon, but otherwise unknown. (Cic. ad Fam. vii. 20.) [L. S.] FADUS, CUS'PIUS, a Roman eques of the time of the Emperor Claudius. After the death of King Agrippa, in A. D. 44, he was appointed by Claudius procurator of Judaea. During his administration peace was restored in the country, and the only disturbance was created by one Teudas, who came forward with the claim of being a prophet. But he and his followers were put to death by the command of Cuspius Fadus. He was succeeded in the administration of Judaea by Tiberius Alexander. (Joseph. Amt. xix. 9, xx. 5. § 1, Bell. Jud. ii. 11. § 5 ; Tac. Hist. v. 9; Zonar. xii. l l ; Euseb. Hist. Eccl. ii. 11.) [L. S.] FALACER, or, more fully, divus pater Falacer, is mentioned by Varro (de L. L. v. 84, vii. 45) as an ancient and forgotten Italian divinity, whom Hartung (Die Rel, d. Röm. ii. p. 9) is inclined to consider to be the same as Jupiter, since falandum, according to Festus, was the Etruscan name for “heaven.” [L. S.] FALA(NIUS, a Roman eques, one of the first victims of the public accusers in the reign of Tiberius. He was charged. A. D. 15, with profaning the worship of Augustus Caesar, first by admitting a player of bad repute to the rites, and secondly by selling with his garden a statue of the deceased emperor. Tiberius acquitted Falanius, remarking that the gods were quite able to take care of their own honour. (Tac. Ann. i. 73; Dion Cass. lvii. 24. [W. B. D.] P. FALCI'DIUS, tribune of the plebs in B. c. 40, was the author of the Lea Falcidia de Legatis, which remained in force in the sixth century A. D., since it was incorporated by Justinian in the Institutes. It is remarkable that Dion Cassius (xlviii. 33) mistakes its import. He says that the heres, if unwilling to take the hereditas, was allowed by the Falcidian law to refuse it on taking a fourth part only. But the Lex Falcidia enacted that at least a fourth of the estate or property of the testator should be secured to the heres scriptus. (Dict, of Ant. s. v. Legatum.) The Falcidius mentioned by Cicero in his speech for the Manilian law (19), had the praenomen Caius. He had been tribune of the people and legatus, but in what year is unknown. (Schol. Gronov. pro Leg. Man. 19. ed. Orelli). [W. B. D.]

FALCO, Q. SO'SIUS, a Roman of high birth and great wealth, consul for the year A. D. 193, one of those whom Commodus had resolved to put to death that very night on which he himself was slain. When the Praetorians became disgusted with the reforms of Pertinax, they endeavoured to force the acceptance of the throne upon Falco, and actually proclaimed him emperor. The plot, however, failed, and many of the ringleaders were put to death; but Falco, whose guilt was by no means proved, and who was even believed by many to be entirely innocent, was spared, and, retiring to his property, died a natural death. (Dion Cass. lxxii. 22, lxxiii. 8; Capitolin. Pertin. 8.) [W. R.]

FALCO'NIA PROBA, a poetess, greatly admired in the middle ages, but whose real name, and the place of whose nativity, are uncertain. We find her called Flatonia Veccia, Faltonia Anicia, Valeria Faltonia Proba, and Proba Valeria; while Rome, Orta, and sundry other cities, claim the honour of her birth. Most historians of Roman literature maintain that she was the noble Anicia Fallonia Prola, the wife of Olybrius Probus, otherwise called Hermogenianus Olybrius, whose name appears in the Fasti as the colleague of Ausonius, A. D. 379 ; the mother of Olybrius and Probinus, whose joint consulate has been celebrated by Claudian ; and, according to Procopius, the traitress by whom the gates of Rome were thrown open to Alaric and his Goths. But there seems to be mo evidence for this identification ; and we must fall back upon the testimony of Isidorus, with whose words, “Proba uxor Adelfii Proconsulis,” our knowledge begins and ends, unless we attach weight to a notice found at the end of one of the MS. copies written in the tenth century, quoted by Montfaucon in his Diarium Italicum (p. 36), “Proba uxor Adolphi mater Olibrii et Aliepii cum Constantii bellum adversus Magnentium conscripsisset, conscripsit et hunc librum.”

The only production of Falconia now extant is a Cento Virgilianus, inscribed to the Emperor Honorius, in terms which prove that the dedication must have been written after A. D. 393, containing narratives in hexameter verse of striking events in the Old and New Testament, expressed in lines, half lines, or shorter portions of lines derived exclusively from the poems of Virgil, which are completely exhausted in the process. Of course no praise, except what is merited by idle industry and clever dulness, is due to this patch-work; and we cannot but marvel at the gentle terms employed by Boccacio and Henry Stephens in reference to such trash. We learn from the prooemium that she had published other pieces, of which one upon the civil wars is particularly specified, but of these no trace remains. The Homerocentones, by some ascribed to Falconia, belong in reality to Eudoxia. The Cento Virgilianus was first printed at Wenice, fol. 1472, in a volume containing also the Epigrams of Ausonius, the Consolatio ad Liviam, the pastorals of Calpurnius, together with some hymns and other poems; this was followed, in the same century, by the editions published at Rome, 4to. 1481 ; at Antwerp, 4to. 1489, and at Brixia, 8vo. 1496. The most elaborate are those of Meibomius, Helmst. 4to. 1597, and of Kromayer, Hal. Magd. 8vo. 1719. (See also the Bibliotheca Maw.

Patrum, Lugdun. 1677, vol. v. p. 1218 ; Isidor. Orig. i. 38, 25, de Script. Eccles. 5.) [W. R.) FA'LCULA, C. FIDICULA(NIUS, a Roman senator, was one of the judices at the trial of Statius Albius Oppianicus, who in B. c. 74 was accused of attempting to poison his step-son, A. Cluentius. The history of this remarkable trial is given elsewhere [CLUENTIUs]. Falcula was involved in the general indignation that attended the conviction of Oppianicus. The majority of judices who condemned Oppianicus was very small. Falcula was accused by the tribune, L. Quintius, of having been illegally balloted into the concilium by C. Verres, at that time city praetor, for the express purpose of convicting Oppianicus, of voting out of his proper decuria, of giving sentence without hearing the evidence, of omitting to apply for an adjournment of the proceedings, and of receiving 40,000 sesterces as a bribe from the prosecutor, A. Cluentius. He was, however, acquitted, since his trial did not take place until after the excitement that fol. lowed the Judicium Albianum had in some measure subsided. But eight years later, B. c. 66, Falcula was again brought to public notice by Cicero, in his defence of Cluentius. After recapitulating the circumstances of the Judicium Albianum, Cicero asks, if Falcula were innocent, who in the concilium at Oppianicus's trial could be guilty? an equivocal plea that inferred without asserting the guilt of Falcula, in B. c. 74. In his defence of A. Caecina, in B. c. 69, Cicero ushers in the name of Falcula, a witness against the accused, with ironical pomp, and proceeds to point out gross inconsistencies in Falcula's evidence. Great uncertainty is thrown over the history of Falcula by the circumstance that it suited Cice ", from whose speeches alone we know any thing of him, to represent at different times, in different lights, the Judicium Albianum. When Cicero was pleading against C. Verres, Oppianicus was unjustly condemned, and Falcula was an illegal corrupt judge; when he defended Cluentius, it was necessary to soften the details of the Albianum Judicium ; when he spoke for Caecina, it was his interest to direct public feeling against Falcula. (Cic. pro Cluent. 37, 41, pro Caecin. 10; Pseudo-Ascom. in Act. I. Verr. p. 146; Schol. Gronov. in Act. I. in Verr. p. 396. ed. Orelli.) [W. B. D.] FALISCUS, GRATIUS, the author of a poem upon the chase, of whom only one undoubted notice is to be found in ancient writers. This is contained in the Epistles from Pontus (iv. 16, 33), where Ovid speaks of him as a contemporary in the same couplet with Virgil:—

“Tityrus antiquas et erat qui pasceret herbas, Aptaque venanti Gratius arma daret.”

(Comp. Cyneget. 23.) Some lines in Manilius have been supposed to allude to Gratius, but the terms in which they are expressed (Astron. ii. 43) are too vague to warrant such a conclusion. Wernsdorf, arguing from the name, has endea. voured, not without some shadow of reason, to prove that he must have been a slave or a freedman, but the rest of his conjectures are mere fantasies. The cognomen, or epithet, Faliscus, was first introduced by Barth, on the authority of a MS. which no one else ever saw, and probably originated in a forced and false interpretation of * of the lines in the poem, “At contra nostris tmbellia’lina Faliscis" (v. 40), where, upon referring to the context, it will at once be seen that nostris here denotes merely Italian, in contradistinction to the various foreign tribes spoken of in the preceding verses. T. work itself, which consists of 540 hexameters, is entitled Cynegelicon Liber, and professes to set forth the apparatus (arma) necessary for the sportsman, and the manner in which the various requisites for the pursuit of game are to be procured, prepared, and preserved (artes armorum). Among the arma of the hunter are included not only nets, ins, snares (retia, pedicae, laquei), darts and spears É. venabula), but also horses and dogs, and a large portion of the undertaking (vv. 150–430) is devoted to a systematic account of the different kinds of hounds and horses. The language of the Cynegetica is pure, and not unworthy of the age to which it belongs; but there is frequently a harshness in the structure of the periods, a strange and unauthorised use of particular words, and a general want of distinctness, which, in addition to a very corrupt text, render it a task of great difficulty to determine the exact meaning of many passages. Although considerable skill is manifested in the combination of the parts, the author did not possess sufficient power to overcome the obstacles which were triumphantly combated by Virgil. The matter and arrangement of the treatise are derived in a great measure from Xenophon, although information was drawn from other ancient sources, such as Dercylus the Arcadian, and Hagnon of Boeotia. It is remarkable, that both the Greek Oppianus, who flourished probably under Caracalla, and the Roman Nemesianus, the contemporary of Numerianus, arrogate to themselves the honour of having entered upon a path altogether untrodden. Whether we believe them to be sincere and ignorant, or suspect them of deliberate dishonesty, their bold assertion is sufficient to prove that the poem of Faliscus had in their day become almost totally unknown. The Cynegetica has been transmitted to modern umes through the medium of a single MS., which was brought from Gaul to Italy by Actius Sannazarius about the beginning of the sixteenth century, and contained also the Cynegetics of Nemesianus, and the Halieutics ascribed to Ovid. A second copy of the first 159 lines was found by Janus Ulitius appended to another MS. of the Halieutics. The Editio Princeps was printed at Venice, 8vo. February, 1534, by Aldus Manutius, in a volume, containing also the Halieutica of Ovid, the Cynegetica and Carmen Bucolicum of Nemesianus, the Bucolica of Calpurnius Siculus, together with the Venatio of Hadrianus; and reprinted at Augsburg in the July of the same year. The best editions are those contained in the Poetae Latini Minores of Burmann (vol. i. Lug. Bat. 1731), and of Wernsdorf, vol. i. p. 6, 293, ii. p. 34, iv. pt. ii. p. 790, 806, v. pt. iii. p. 1445), whose prolegomena embrace all the requisite preliminary information. A translation into English verse with notes, and the Latin text, by Christopher Wase, was published at London in 1654, and a translation into German, also metrical, by S. E. G. Perlet, at Leipzig, in 1826. [W. R.] FALTO, the name of a family of the Valeria eils. g 1. Q. V At eitius Q. f. P. N. FAlto, was the

first Praetor Peregrinus at Rome (Dict. of Ant. s. v. Praetor). The occasion for a second praetorship was, that the war with Carthage required two commanders, and A. Postumius Albinus, one of the consuls for the year B. c. 242, being at the time priest of Mars, was forbidden by the Pontifex Maximus to leave the city. Falto was second in command of the fleet which, in that year, the last of the first Punic war, the Romans dispatched under C. Lutatius Catulus [CATULUs] against the Carthaginians in Sicily. After Catulus had beer disabled by a wound at the siege of Drepanum, the active duties of the campaign devolved on Falto. His conduct at the battle of the Aegates so much contributed to the victory of the Romans that, on the return of the fleet, Falto demanded to share the triumph of Catulus. His claim was rejected, on the ground that an inferior officer had no title to the recompense of the chief in command. The dispute was referred to arbitration; and the arbiter, Atilius Calatinus, decided against Falto, alleging that, as in the field the consul's orders took precedence of the praetor's, and as the praetor's auspices, in case of dispute, were always held inferior to the consul's, so the triumph was exclusively a consular distinction. The people, however, thought that Falto merited the honour, and he accordingly triumphed on the 6th of October, B. c. 241. Falto was consul in B. c. 239. (Liv. Epit. xix. ; Fast. Capit. ; Val. Max. i. 1. § 2, ii. 8. § 2.) 2. P. VALERTUs Q. F. P. N. FALto, brother of the preceding, was consul in B. c. 238. The Boian Gauls, after having been at peace with Rome for nearly half a century, in this year resumed hostilities, and formed a league with their kindred tribes on the Po, and with the Ligurians. Falto was despatched with a consular army against them, but was defeated in the first battle with great loss. The senate, on the news of his defeat, ordered one of the praetors, M. Genucius Cipus [CIPUs], to march to his relief. Falto, however, regarded this as an intrusion into his province, and, before the reinforcement arrived, attacked the Boians a second time and routed them. But on his return to Rome he was refused a triumph, not merely on account of his defeat, but because he had rashly sought with a beaten army without awaiting the arrival of the praetor. (Zonar. viii. 18; Oros. iv. 12.) 3. M. VALERIUs FALTo, one of the envoys sent by the senate, B. c. 205, to Attalus I. king of Pergamus. Their mission was to fetch the Idaean mother to Italy, according to an injunction of the Sibylline Books. Falto was of quaestorian rank at this time, but the date of his quaestorship is not known. On the return of the envoys to Rome Falto was sent forward to announce the message of the Delphic oracle, which they had consulted on their journey, to the senate—“The best man in the state must welcome the goddess or her representative on her landing.” (Liv. xxix. 11.) Falto was one of the curule aediles, B. c. 203, when a supply of Spanish grain enabled those magistrates to sell corn to the poor at a sesterce the bushel. (xxx. 26.) Falto was praetor B. c. 201. His province was Bruttium, and two legions were allotted to him. (xxx. 40, 41.) [W. B. D.] FANGO, or PHANGO, C. FUFI'CIUS, originally a common soldier, and probably of African blood, whom Julius Caesar raised to the rank of senator. When, in B. c. 40, Octavianus annexed Numidia and part of the Roman Africa to his share of the triumviral provinces, he appointed Fango his prefect. But his title in Numidia was opposed by T. Sextius, the prefect of M. Antonius. They appealed to arms, and after mutual defeats and victories, Fango was driven into the hills that bounded the Roman province to the north-west. There, mistaking the rushing of a troop of wild buffaloes for a night attack of Numidian horse, he slew himself. (Dion Cass. xlviii. 22–24; Appian, B. C. v. 26.) In Cicero's epistles to Atticus (xiv. 10.), Frangones is probably a misreading for Fangones, and refers to C. Fuficius. [W. B. D.] FA'NNIA. l. A woman of Minturnae, of bad repute. C. Titimius married her, nevertheless, because she had considerable property. Soon after he repudiated her for her bad conduct, and at the same time attempted to rob her of her dowry. C. Marius, who was to decide between them, requested Titinius to restore the dowry; but when this was refused, C. Marius pronounced sentence, declaring the woman guilty of adultery, but compelling her husband to restore her dowry, because he had married the woman although he knew what she was. The woman gratefully remembered the service thus done to her, and, when Marius, in B. c. 88, on his escape from the marshes, came to Minturnae, Fannia received him into her house, and took care of him as well as she could. (Val. Max. viii. 2. § 3; Plut. Mar. 38, who erroneously calls her husband Tinnius.) 2. The second wife of Helvidius Priscus. In the reign of Nero, when her husband was exiled, she accompanied him to Macedonia. In the reign of Vespasian she accompanied him a second time into exile. After the death of her husband she persuaded Herennius Senecio to write the life of Helvidius Priscus. The biographer was put to death by Domitian, and Fannia was punished for her suggestion by being sent into exile. (Plin. Epist. i. 5, vii. 19 ; Suet. Vesp. 15.) [L. S.] FA(NNIA GENS, plebeian. No members of it are mentioned in Roman history previous to the second century B. c., and the first of them who obtained the consulship was C. Fannius Strabo, in B.C. 161. The only family-name which occurs in this gens under the republic is STRABO: the others are mentioned without a cognomen. There are a few coins belonging to this gens: one of them is given under CRItoN1Us; another figured below bears on

the obverse a head of Pallas, and on the reverse Victox in a quadriga, with M. FAN. C. F. [L.S.] FA'NNIUS. 1. C. FANNIUS was tribune of the people in B. c. 187. When L. Scipio Asiaticus was sentenced to pay a large sum of money to the treasury, the praetor, Q. Terentius Culleo, declared, that he would arrest and imprison Scipio, if he refused to pay the money. On that occasion C. Fannius declared in his own name and that of his colleagues (with the exception of Tib. Gracchus), that they would not hinder the praetor in carrying his threat into effect. (Liv. xxxviii. 60.) 2. C. FANNIUS, a Roman eques, is called a frater

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germanus of Titinius, and had some transactions with C. Verres in B. c. 84. (Cic. in Verr. i. 49. 3. M. FANNIUS, was one of the judices in the case (Quaestio de Sicariis) of Sex. Roscius of Ameria, in B. c. 80. (Cic. pro Sea. Rosc. 4; Schol. Gronov. ad Roscian. p. 427, ed. Orelli.) 4. L. FANNIUs and L. Magius served in the army of the legate Flavius Fimbria, in the war against Mithridates, in B. c. 84; but they deserted and went over to Mithridates, whom they per suaded to enter into negotiations with Sertorius in Spain, through whose assistance he might obtain the sovereignty of Asia Minor and the neighbouring countries. Mithridates entered into the scheme, and sent the two deserters, in B. c. 74, to Sertorius to conclude a treaty with him. Sertorius promised Mithridates Bithynia, Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, and Gallograecia, as rewards for assisting him against the Romans. Sertorius at once sent M. Varius to serve Mithridates as general, and L. Fannius and L. Magius accompanied him as his councillors. On their advice Mithridates began his third war against the Romans. In consequence of their desertion and treachery Fannius and Magius were declared public enemies by the senate. We afterwards find Fannius commanding a detachment of the army of Mithridates against Lucullus. (Appian, Mithrid. 68 ; Plut. Sertor. 24; Oros. vi. 2, Cic. in Verr. i. 34 ; Pseudo-Ascon. in Verrin. p. 183, ed. Orelli.) 5. C. FANNIUs, one of the persons who signed the accusation which was brought against P. Clodius in B. c. 61. A few years later, B. c. 59, he was mentioned by L. Wettius as an accomplice in the alleged conspiracy against Pompey. (Cic, ad Att. ii. 24.) Orelli, in his Onomasticon, treats him as identical with the C. Fannius who was tribune in B. c. 59 ; but if this were correct, Cicero (l.c.) would undoubtedly have described him as tribune. He may, however, be the same as the Fannius who was sent in B. c. 43 by M. Lepidus as legate to Sex. Pompeius, and who, at the close of the same year, was outlawed, and took refuge with Sex. Pompeius in Sicily. In B. c. 36, when Sex. Pompeius had gone to Asia, Fannius and others deserted him, and went over to M. Antonius. (Cic. Philipp. xiii. 6; Appian, B. C. iv. 84, v. 139.) 6. C. FANNIUs, tribune of the people in B. c. 59, when C. Julius Caesar and Bibulus were consuls. Fannius allowed himself to be made use of by Bibulus in opposing the lea agraria of J. Caesar. He belonged to the party of Pompey, and in B. c. 49 he went as praetor to Sicily. The fall of Pompey in the year after seems to have brought about the fall of Fannius also. (Cic. pro Seat. 53, in Vatin. 7, ad Att. vii. 15, viii. 15, xi. 6.) 7. FANNIUS, one of the commanders under Cassius, in B. c. 42. (Appian, B. C. iv. 72.) He may be the same as the C. Fannius mentioned by Josephus (Ant. Jud. xiv. 10. S 15), who, however, describes him as otpatmyds Šmatos, the last of which words is probably incorrect. 8. C. FANNIUS, a contemporary of the younger Pliny, who was the author of a work on the deaths of persons executed or exiled by Nero, under the title of Eritus Occisorum aut Relegatorum. It consisted of three books, but more would have been added if Fannius had lived longer. The work seems to have been very popular at the time, both

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