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on account of its style and its subject. (Plin. Epist. v. 5.) [L. S.] FA(NNIUS CAE/PIO. [CAEPIo.] FA'NNIUS CHAE’REAS. [CHAEREAs.] FA'NNIUS QUADRATUS. [QuADRATus.] FA'SCELIS, a surname of Diana in Italy, which she was believed to have received from the circumstance of Orestes having brought her image from Tauris in a bundle of sticks (fascis, Serv. ad Aen. ii. 116; Solin. i. 2; Sil. Ital. xiv. 260). Fascelis, however, is probably a corruption, for the purpose of making it allude to the story of Orestes bringing her image from Tauris: the original form of the name was probably Facelis or Facelina (from far), as the goddess was generally represented with a torch in her hand. [L. S.] FA'SCINUS, an early Latin divinity, and identical with Mutinus or Tutinus. He was worshipped as the protector from sorcery, witchcraft, and evil daemons; and represented in the form of a phallus, the genuine Latin for which is fascinum, this symbol being believed to be most efficient in averting all evil influences. He was especially invoked to protect women in childbed and their offspring (Plin. Hist. Nat. xxviii. 4, 7); and women wrapt up in the toga praetexta used to offer up sacrifices in the chapel of Fascinus. (Paul. Diac. p. 103.) His worship was under the care of the Vestals; and generals, who entered the city in triumph, had the symbol of Fascinus fastened under their chariot, that he might protect them from envy (medicus invidiae), for envy was believed to exercise an injurious influence on those who were envied. (Plin. l.c.) It was a custom with the Romans, when they praised any body, to add the word praefiscine or praefiscini, which seems to have been an invocation of Fascinus, to prevent the praise turning out injurious to the person on whom it was bestowed. [L. S.] FASTI'DIUS, a British bishop placed, as to time, by Gennadius, between Cyril of Alexandria and Theodotus of Ancyra. One tract by this author, entitled De Vita Christiana, is still extant, but was long ascribed to St. Augustin, or to some unknown writer, until restored to its lawful owner by Holstenius, who published an edition at Rome in 1663, from an ancient MS. in the monastery of Monte Casino. It will be found in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland (vol. ix. p. 481) and a discussion upon Fastidius himself in the Prolegomena (p. xxix.). Gennadius ascribes to him another work, De Viduitate Servanda, which, however, was perhaps incorporated in the piece mentioned above, which contains a chapter De Triplici Viduitale. [W. R.] M. FAU'CIUS, a native of Arpinum, of equestrian rank, at Rome. His life would be undeserving record but for its connection with a letter of Cicero's (Fam. xiii. 11), which incidentally throws light upon the local government and circumstances of the municipium of Arpinum, the birthplace of Marius and Cicero. The Arpinatian community possessed estates in Cisalpine Gaul, the rents of which were their only fund for the repair of their temples and the cost of their sacrifices and festivals. Faucius was one of three commissioners sent to recover the dues of his municipium, which the date of the letter, B. c. 46, renders it not improbable that the civil wars had caused to be withheld. Cicero recommends Faucius and the other commissioners to M. Brutus, who was

praetor of Cisalpine Gaul. It appears from the letter that the only magistracy in Arpinum was an aedileship, and this fact adds to our acquaintance with the internal government of Italy under the dominion of Rome. Thus, Lavinium had a dictator (Cic. pro Mil. 10), Tusculum a dictator (Liv. iii. 18); Corfinium, Duumviri (Caesar, B. C. i. 23); Neapolis, Cumae, Larinum, Quatuorviri (Cic. ad Att. x. 13, pro Cluent. 8); Sidicinum and Ferentum a quaestor (Gell. x. 3). For the Faucia Curia see Liv. ix. 38. [W. B. D.] FAVENTI'NUS, CLAU'DIUS, a centurion dismissed with ignominy by the emperor Galba from the service, who afterwards, A. D. 69, by exhibiting forged letters, induced the fleet at Misenum to revolt from Vitellius to Vespasian. (Tac. Hist. iii. 57.) From his influence with the fleet, Faventinus may have been one of the classiarii milites, or legio classica, whom Nero, A. D. 68, drafted from the seamen, and Galba reduced to their former station. (Suet. Galb. 12; Plut. Galb. 15 ; Tac. Hist. i. 6, 31, 37; Dion Cass. lxiv. 3.) [W. B. D.] FAULA or FAUNA was, according to some, a concubine of Heracles in Italy; while, according to others, she was the wife or sister of Faunus. Latinus, who is called a son of Heracles by a concubine, was probably considered to be the son of Faula ; whereas the common tradition describes him as a son of Faunus. Faula was identified by some of the ancients with the Greek Aphrodite (Verr. Flacc. ap. Lactant. de Fals. Relig. i. 20, Inst. Eo. ad Pentad. 20; comp. FAUN Us.) [L. S.] FAUN US, the son of Picus and father of Latinus, was the third in the series of the kings of the Laurentes. In his reign Faunus, like his two predecessors, Picus and Saturn, had promoted agriculture and the breeding of cattle among his subjects, and also distinguished himself as a hunter. (Plin. H. N. ix. 6; Propert. iv. 2. 34.) In his reign likewise the Arcadian Evander and Heracles were believed to have arrived in Latium. (Plut. Parall. Gr. et Rom. 38.) Faunus acts a very prominent part in the mythical history of Latium, for, independent of what he did for agriculture, he was regarded as one of the great founders of the religion of the country; hence Lactantius (i. 24, § 9) places him on an equality with Numa. He was therefore in later times worshipped in two distinct capacities: first, as the god of fields and shepherds, and secondly, as an oracular and prophetic divinity. The festival of the Faunalia, which was celebrated on the 5th of December, by the country people, with great feasting and merriment, had reference to him as the god of agriculture and cattle. (Horat. Carm. iii. 18.) As a prophetic god, he was believed to reveal the future to man, partly in dreams, and partly by voices of unknown origin. (Virg. Aen. vii. 81, &c.; Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 2, iii. 6, de Divin. i. 45.) What he was in this respect to the male sex, his wife Fauna or Faula was to the female, whence they bore the surnames Fatuus, Fatua, or Fatuellus, Fatuella, derived from fari, fatum. (Justin, xliii. 1; Lactant. i. 22.) They are said to have given their oracles in Saturnian verse, whence we may perhaps infer that there existed in Latium collections of oracles in this metre. (Varro, de L. L. vii. 36.) The places where such oracles were given were sacred groves, one near Tibur, around the well Albunea, and another

on the Aventine, near Rome. (Virg. l.c.; Ov. Fast. iv. 649, &c.) The rites observed in the former place are minutely described by Virgil: a priest offered up a sheep and other sacrifices; and the person who consulted the oracle had to sleep one night on the skin of the victim, during which the god gave an answer to his questions either in a dream or in supernatural voices. Similar rites are described by Ovid as having taken place on the Aventine. (Comp. Isidor. viii. 11, 87.) There is a tradition that Numa, by a stratagem, compelled Picus and his son Faunus to reveal to him the secret of calling down lightning from heaven [Elicius], and of purifying things struck by lightning. (Arnob. v. 1; Plut. Num. 15 ; Ov. Fast. iii. 291, &c.) At Rome there was a round temple of Faunus, surrounded with columns, on Mount Caelius ; and another was built to him, in B. c. 196, on the island in the Tiber, where sacrifices were offered to him on the ides of February, the day on which the Fabii had perished on the Cremera. (Liv. xxxiii. 42, xxxiv. 53; P. Vict. Reg. Urb. 2; Vitruv. iii. 1; Ov. Fast. ii. 193.) In consequence of the manner in which he gave his oracles, he was looked upon as the author of spectral appearances and terrifying sounds (Dionys. v. 16); and he is therefore described as a wanton and voluptuous god, dwelling in woods, and fond of nymphs. (Horat. l.c.) The way in which the god manifested himself seems to have given rise to the idea of a plurality of fauns (Fauni), who are described as monsters, half goat, and with horns. (Ov. Fast. v. 99, Heroid. iv. 49.) Faunus thus gradually came to be identified with the Arcadian Pan, and the Fauni as identical with the Greek satyrs, whence Ovid (Met. vi. 392) uses the expression Fauni et Salyri fratres. As Faunus, and afterwards the Fauni, were believed to be particularly fond of frightening persons in various ways, it is not an improbable conjecture that Faunus may be a euphemistic name, and connected with faveo. (Hartung, Die Relig. d. Röm. vol. ii. p. 183, &c.) [L. S.] M. FAVO’NIUS is mentioned for the first time in B. c. 61, during the transactions against P. Clodius for having violated the sacra of the Bona Dea. On that occasion he joined Cato, whose sternness he imitated throughout life, in his attacks upon the consul Piso for defending Clodius, and displayed great zeal in the matter. The year after, he accused Metellus Scipio Nasica, probably of bribery. Cicero defended the accused, at which Favonius was somewhat offended. In the same year he sued, a second time, for the tribuneship, but he does not appear to have succeeded, for there is no evidence to prove that he was invested with that office, and Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, who at the end of the year concluded their treaty, and were well aware that Favonius, although he was harmless, might yet be a very troublesome opponent, probably exerted their influence to prevent his gaining his end. About that time Pompey was suffering from a bad foot, and when he appeared in public with a white bandage round his leg, Favonius, in allusion to his aiming at the supremacy in the Roman republic, remarked that it was indifferent in what part of the body the royal diadem (bandage) was worn. It should be remarked that Favonius, although he belonged to the party of the Optimates, was yet a personal enemy of Pompey. In B. c. 59, when J. Caesar and Bibulus were consuls, Favonius is said to

have been the last of all the senators that was prevailed upon to sanction the lex agraria of Caesar, and not until Cato himself had yielded. In B. c. 57, when Cicero proposed that Pompey should be entrusted with the superintendence of all the supplies of corn, Favonius was at the head of the opposition party, and became still more indignant at the conduct of the tribune Messius, who claimed almost unlimited power for Pompey. When Ptolemy Auletes, the exiled king of Egypt, had caused the murder of the ambassadors whom the Alexandrians had sent to Rome, Favonius openly charged him in the senate with the crime, and at the same time unmasked the disgraceful conduct of those Romans who had been bribed by the king. In the year following, when Pompey was publicly insulted during the trial of Milo, Favonius and other Optimates rejoiced in the senate at the affront thus offered to him. In the second consulship of Pompey and Crassus, in B. c. 55, the tribune Trebonius brought forward a bill that Spain and Syria should be given to the consuls for five years, and that Caesar's provonsulship of Gaul should be prolonged for the same period. Cato and Favonius opposed the bill, but it was carried by force and violence. In B. c. 54, Favonius, Cicero, Bibulus, and Calidius spoke in favour of the freedom of the Tenedians. In the year following Favonius offered himself as a candidate for the aedileship, but was rejected. Cato, however, observed, that a gross deception had been practised in the voting, and, with the assistance of the tribunes, he caused a fresh election to be instituted, the result of which was that his friend was invested with the office. During the year of his aedileship, he left the administration of affairs and the celebration of the games to his friend Cato. Towards the end of the year, he was thrown into prison by the tribune, Q. Pompeius Rufus, for some offence, the nature of which is unknown ; for according to Dion Cassius, Rufus imprisoned him merely that he might have a companion in disgrace, having himself been imprisoned a short time before ; but some think, and with greater probability, that it was to deter Favonius from opposing the dictatorship of Pompey, which it was intended to propose. In B. c. 52, Cicero, in his defence of Milo, mentions Favonius as the person to whom Clodius was reported to have said, that Milo in three or four days would no longer be among the living. The condemnation of Milo, however, took place, notwithstanding the exertions to save him, in which Cato and Favonius probably took part. In 51 Favonius sued for the praetorship, but in vain; as, however, in 48 he is called praetorius, it is possible that he was candidate for the same office in the year 50 also, and that in 49 he was invested with it. In this year he and Cato opposed the proposal that a supplicatio should be decreed in honour of Cicero, who was well disposed towards both, and who appears to have been greatly irritated by this slight. The civil war between Caesar and Pompey broke out during the praetorship of Favonius, who is said to have been the first to taunt Pompey by requesting him to call forth the legions by stamping his foot on the ground. He fled at first with the consuls and several senators to Capua, and was the only one who would not listen to any proposals for reconciliation between the two rivals ; but notwithstanding his personal avers on to Pompey, he

joined him and the Optimates, when they went over to Greece. In B. c. 48, we find him engaged in Macedonia, under Metellus Scipio, and during the latter's absence in Thessaly, Favonius, who was left behind on the river Haliacmon with eight eohorts, was taken by surprise by Domitius Calvinus, and was saved only by the speedy return of Metellus Scipio. Up to the last moment Favonius would not hear of any reconciliation. After the unfortunate issue of the battle of Pharsalus, Favonius, however, acted as a faithful friend towards Pompey: he accompanied him in his flight, and shewed him the greatest kindness and attention. After the death of Pompey, he returned to Italy, and was pardoned by J. Caesar, in whose supremacy he acquiesced, having gained the conviction that monarchy was better than civil war. For this reason the conspirators against the life of Caesar did not attempt to draw him into their plot ; but after the murder was accomplished, he openly joined the conspirators, and went with them to the Capitol. When Brutus and Cassius were obliged to leave Rome, he followed them, and was accordingly outlawed in B. c. 43, by the lex Pedia, as their accomplice. He was, however, a troublesome and importunate ally to the republicans, and in 42, when he presumed to influence Brutus and Cassius at their meeting at Sardis, Brutus thrust the intruder out of the house. In the battle of Philippi Favonius was taken prisoner, and on being led in chains before the conquerors, he respectfully saluted Antony, but indulged in bitter invectives against Octavianus, for having ordered several republicans to be put to death. The consequence was, as he might have expected, that he met with the same fate. M. Favonius was not a man of strong character or principle: his sternness of manner and of conduct was mere affectation and imitation of Cato, in which he went so far as to receive and deserve the nickname of the ape of Cato. The motives for his actions, in all cases where we can trace them, were passion, personal animosity, and a desire to please Cato, the consideration of the public good having no share in them. His only honourable action is the conduct he showed towards Pompey after his defeat. He and L. Postumius are admirably characterised by the Pseudo-Sallust (ad Caes. 2. p. 275, ed Gerlach) as quasi magnae navis supervacua onera. He seems to have had some talent as an orator, at least we know from Cicero that he spoke in public on several occasions, but no specimen of his oratory has come down to us. (Cic. ad Att. i. 14, ii. 1, 4, vii. 1, 15. xv. 11, ad Qu. Fr. ii. 3, ll, ad Fam. viii. 9, 11, pro Mil. 9, 16 ; Val. Max. vi. 2. § 7; Plut. Cat. Min. 32, 46, Pomp. 60, 67, Brut. 12, 34, Caes. 41; Dion Cass. xxxviii. 7, xxxix. 14, 34, &c. xl. 45, xlvi. 48, xlvii. 49; Caes. B.C. iii. 36; Well. Pat. ii. 53; Appian, B. C. ii. 119, &c.; Suet. Octav. 13.) [L. S.] FAVO'NIUS EULO'GIUS. [EULogIUs.] FAVORI'NUS, a Latin orator, of whom nothing is known, except that Gellius (xv. 8) has preserved a fragment of one of his orations in support of a lea. Licinia de sumtu minuendo. The question as to who this Favorinus, and what this Licinian law was, deserves some attention. A Roman orator of the name of Favorinus is altogether unknown, and hence critics have proposed to change the name in Gellius into Fannius, Augurinus, or Favonius; but as all the MSS. agree in

Favorinus, it would be arbitrary to make any such alteration, and we must acquiesce in what we learn from Gellius. As for the lex Licinia here spoken of Macrobius (ii. 13), in enumerating the sumptuary laws, mentions one which was carried by P. Licinius Crassus Dives, and which is, in all probability, the one which was supported by Favorinus. The exact year in which this law was promulgated is uncertain ; some assign it to the censorship of Licinius Crassus, B. c. 89, others to his consulship in B. c. 97, and others, again, to his tribuneship, B. c. 110, or his praetorship, B. c. 104. The poet Lucilius is known to have mentioned this law in his Satires; and as that poet died in B. c. 103, it is at any rate clear that the law must have been carried previous to the consulship of Licinius Crassus, i. e. previous to B. c. 97. (H. Meyer, Fragm. Orat. Rom. p. 207, &c., 2d edit.) [L. S.]

FAVORI'NUS. (baéapivos.) 1. A philosopher and sophist of the time of the emperor Hadrian. He was a native of Arles, in the south of Gaul, and is said to have been born an Hermaphrodite or an eunuch. (Philostr. Wit. Soph. i. 8. § 1 ; Lucian, Eunuch. 7; Gell. ii. 22.) On one occasion, however, a Roman of rank brought a charge of adultery against him. He appears to have visited Rome and Greece at an early age, and he acquired an intimate acquaintance of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. These attainments combined with great philosophical knowledge, very extensive learning, and considerable oratorical power, raised him to high distinctions both at Rome and in Greece. For a time he enjoyed the friendship and favour of the emperor Hadrian, but on one occasion he offended the emperor in a dispute with him, and fell into disgrace, whereupon the Athenians, to please the emperor, destroyed the bronze statue which they had previously erected to Favorinus. He used to boast of three things: that being a eunuch he had been charged with adultery, that although a native of Gaul he spoke and wrote Greek, and that he continued to live although he had offended the emperor. (Philostr. l.c.; Dion Cass. lxix. 3; Spartian. Hadr. 16.) Favorinus was connected by intimate friendship with Demetrius of Alexandria, Demetrius the Cynic, Cornelius Fronto, and especially with Plutarch, who dedicated to him his treatise on the principle of cold (trepi too sparov Wuxpo5), and among whose lost works we have mention of a letter on friendship, addressed to Favorinus. Herodes Atticus, who was likewise on intimate terms with him, looked up to him with great esteem, and Favorinus bequeathed to him his library and his house at Rome. Favorinus for some time resided in Asia Minor ; and as he was highly honoured by the Ephesians, he excited the envy and hostility of Polemon, then the most famous sophist at Smyrna. The two sophists attacked each other in their declamations with great bitterness and animosity. The oratory of Favorinus was of a lively, and in his earlier years of a very passionate kind. He was very fond of displaying his learning in his speeches, and was always particularly anxious to please his audience. His extensive knowledge is further attested by his numerous works, and the variety of subjects on which he wrote. None of his works, however, has come down to us, unless we suppose with Emperius, the late editor of Dion Chrysostomus (in a dissertation de Oratione Corinthiaca falso Dioni Chrys, adscripta, p. 10, &c. Brunsvig. 1832), that the oration on Corinth, commonly printed among those of Dion Chrysostomus, is the work of Favorinus. The following are the titles of the principal works ascribed to him: l. IIepl ris kataAmrtukis pavTarías, probably consisting of three books, which were dedicated respectively to Hadrian, Dryson, and Aristarchus. (Galen, vol. i. p. 6.) 2. 'AAktSláðms. (Galen, iv. p. 367.) 3. A work addressed to Epictetus, which called forth a reply from Galen (iv. p. 367). 4. A work on Socrates, which was likewise attacked by Galen (iv. p. 368). 5. TIAoûrapyos is repl ris 'Akaëmukis Atafférews. (Galen, i. p. 6.) 6. IIepł IIA&ravos. (Suidas.) 7. IIepl ris"Oulipov fixooroopsas. (Suidas.) 8. IIvášćvelot Tpôtrol, in ten books, seems to have been his principal work. (Philostr. Wit. Soph. i. 8. § 4 ; Gell. xi. 5.) Favorinus in this work showed that the philosophy of Pyrrhon was useful to those who devoted themselves to pleading in the courts of justice. 9. TIavroöairm ‘IoTopia, consisting of at least eight books, probably contained historical, geographical, and other kinds of information. (Diog. Laërt. iii. 24, viii. 12, 47.) 10. ATouwmuovečwara, of which the third book is quoted. (Diog. Laërt. iii. 40.) 11. Tvøuoxoyuká. Philostratus (comp. Gell. xvii. 12) mentions several orations, but we have no means of judging of their merit. Besides the two principal sources, Philostratus and Suidas, see J. F. Gregor, Commentatio de Favorino, Laub. 1755, 4to ; Forsmann, Dissertatio de Favorino, Abo, 1789, 4to. 2. A follower of Aristotle and the peripatetic school, who is mentioned only by Plutarch (Sympos. vii. 10). He is otherwise unknown, but must at all events be distinguished from Favorinus, the friend of Herodes Atticus. [L. S FAUSTA. Some very rare coins in third brass are extant bearing upon the obverse a female head, with the words FAUSTA N. F.; on the reverse a star within a wreath of laurel, and beiow the letters TSA. Who this Nobilissima Femina may have been is quite unknown. Some have imagined that she was the first wife of Constantius; but this and every other hypothesis hitherto proposed rests upon pure conjecture. Numismatoligists seem to agree that the medal in question belongs to the age of Constantine, and it bears the clearest resemblance to that struck in honour of the Helena supposed to have been married to Crispus [HELENA]. (Eckhel, vol. viii. p. 118.) In 1823, the coin figured below was dug up near Douai. It differs in its details from that described by Eckhel, but evidently belongs to the same personage. [W. R.]

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nobles who supplicated the judges on behalf of Scaurus in B. c. 54. After being divorced by her first husband, she married, towards the latter end of B. c. 55, T. Annius Milo, and accompanied him on his journey to Lanuvium, when Clodius was murdered, B. c. 52. (Plut. Sull. 34; Cic. ad Att. v. 8; Ascon. in Scaur. p. 29, in Milon. p. 33, ed. Orelli.) Fausta was infamous for her adulteries, and the historian Sallust is said to have been one of her paramours, and to have received a severe flogging from Milo, when he was detected on one occasion in the house of the latter in the disguise of a slave. (Gell. xvii. 18; Serv. ad Virg. Aen. vi. 612.) The “Willius in Fausta Sullae gener” (Hor. Sat. i. 2. 64), who was another of her favourites, was probably the Sex. Willius who is mentioned by Cicero (ad Fam. ii. 6.) as a friend of Milo ; and the names of two more of her gallants are handed down by Macrobius (Saturn. ii. 2) in a bon mot of her brother Faustus. FAUSTA, FLA'VIA MAXIMIANA, the daughter of Maximianus Herculius and Eutropia, was married in A. D. 307 to Constantine the Great, to whom she bore Constantinus, Constantius, and Constans. She acquired great influence with her husband in consequence of having saved his life by revealing the treacherous schemes of her father, who, driven to despair by his failure, soon after died at Tarsus. But although, on this occasion at least, she appeared in the light of a devoted wife, she at the same time played the part of a most cruel stepmother, for, in consequence of her jealous machinations, Constantine was induced to put his son Crispus to death. When, however, the truth was brought to light by Helena, who grieved deeply for her grandchild, Fausta was shut up in a bath heated far above the common temperature, and was thus suffocated, probably in A. D. 326. Zosimus seems inclined to throw the whole blame in both instances on Constantine, whom he accuses as the hypocritical perpetrator of a double murder, while others assign the promiscuous profligacy of the empress as the true origin of her destruction, but in reality the time, the causes, and the manner of her death are involved in great obscurity in consequence of the vague and contradictory representations of our historical authorities. (CoNSTANTINUs, p. 835; CRISPUs, p. 892; Zosim. ii. 10, 29; Julian, Orat. ii Auctor, de Mort. persec. 27 ; Eutrop. x. 2, 4: Victor. Epit. 40, 4 l ; Philostorg. H. E. ii. 4; Tillemont, IIistoire des Empereurs, vol. iv. art. lxii. p. 224, and Notes sur Constantin, xvii.; Eckhel, vol. viii. p. 98.) [W. R.]

COIN OF FLAVIA MAXIM1ANA FAUSTA.

FAUSTI’NA. l. ANNIAGALERIA FAustiNA, commonly distinguished as Faustina Senior, whose descent is given in the genealogical table prefixed to the life of M. AURELIUs, married Antoninus Pius, while he was yet in a private station, and, when he became emperor, in A. D. 138, received the title of Augusta. She did not, however, long enjoy

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her honours, for she died, A. D. 141, in the thirtyseventh year of her age. The profligacy of her life, and the honours with which she was loaded both before and after her decease, have been noticed under ANToNINUs Pius. The medals bearing her name and effigy exceed, both in number and variety of types, those struck in honour of any other royal personage after death. One of these represents the temple dedicated to her memory in the Via Sacra, which still remains in a very perfect state. (Capitolin. Anton. Pius, 3, 5; Eckhel, vol. vii. p. 37.)

CoIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR, commemorating the institution of the Puellae Alimentariae Fausfinae. See ANToNINUs Pius, p. 212.

2. ANNIA FAUSTINA, or Faustina Junior, was the daughter of the elder Faustina. During the life of Hadrian she was betrothed to the son of Aelius Caesar; but upon the accession of her father, Antoninus Pius, the match was broken off, in consequence of the extreme youth of L. Verus, and it was fixed that she should become the bride of M. Aurelius, although the marriage was not solemnized until A. p. 145 or 146. She died in a village on the skirts of Mount Taurus, in the year A. D. 175, having accompanied the emperor to Syria, when he visited the East for the purpose of restoring tranquillity after the rebellion of Avidius Cassius, which is said to have been excited by her intrigues [M. AURELIUs ; Avidius CASSIUs]. Her profligacy was so open and infamous, that the good nature or blindness of her husband, who cherished her fondly while alive, and loaded her with honours after her death, appear truly marvellous. (Dion Cass. lxxi. 10, 22, 29, 31 ; Capitolin. M. Aurel. 6, 19, 26; Eutrop. viii. 5; Eckhel, vol. vii. p. 76.)

colN OF FAUSTINA JUNIOR.

3. Domiti.A FAUSTINA, a daughter of M. Aurelius and the younger Faustina. (Eckhel, vol. vii. p. 76.)

4. ANNIA FAUSTINA, a grand-daughter or greatgrand-daughter of M. Aurelius, was the third of the numerous wives of Elagabalus. The marriage,

corn of ANNIA FAUSTINA WIFE OF ELAGABALU5.

as we infer from medals, took place about A. D. 221, but a divorce must speedily have followed. (Dion Cass. lxxix. 5; Herodian, v. 14 ; Eckhel, vol. vii. p. 261.) 5. MAXIMA FAUSTINA, the third wise of Constantius, whom he married at Antioch in A. D. 360, a short period before his death. She gave birth to a posthumous daughter, who received the name of Flavia Maxima Constantia, and was eventually united to the emperor Gratian. We know nothing with regard to the family of this Faustina, but she appears again in history along with her child, as one of the supporters of the rebel Procopius, who made good use of the presence of the youthful princess to inflame the zeal of his soldiers by rekindling their enthusiasm for the glories of the house from which she sprung. (Ducange, Fam. Byz. p. 48, 59; Amm. Marc. xxi. 6. § 4, 15. § 6. xxvi. 7. § 10, 9, § 8.) [W. R.] FAUSTI'NUS, a presbyter, who adhered to the sect established by the intemperate Lucifer of Cagliari, flourished towards the close of the fourth century. Of his personal history we know almost nothing, except in so far as it can be gleaned from three tracts which bear his name. 1. Faustini de Trinitate s. De Fide contra Arianos ad Flacillam Imperatricem Labri VII. This treatise, the subject of which is sufficiently explained by the title, has been erroneously ascribed to the Spanish bishop Gregorius. It is divided into seven books, or rather chapters, and must have been composed not later than A. D. 385, since Flacilla, the first wife of Theodosius, died in that year. 2. Faustini Fides Theodosio Imperatori oblata. A short Confession of Faith, written probably between the years 379–38], at which period Faustinus appears to have resided at Eleutheropolis. 3. Libellus Precum, presented to Valentinianus and Theodosius about A. D. 384. It contains a defence of the tenets of the Luciferiani, craves the protection of the emperors, and is believed to have been the joint work of Faustinus and Marcellinus. Attached to it we find a Praefatio, from which we learn that the authors had twenty years before taken a most active part in favour of Ursinus against Damasus [DAMASUs], and had suffered much persecution in consequence. This introduc. tion, which is extremely violent in its representations, appears not to have been drawn up until after the publication of the favourable rescript by Theodosius to the petitions of the Libellus. The De Trinitate was first printed in the Orthodorograph. of Heroldus, fol. Basil. 1555; the Libellus, by Sirmond (8vo. Paris, 1650, and Sirmond, Oper. vol. i. p. 230. fol. Paris, 1696), together with the rescript of Theodosius and ancient testimonies regarding the controversy between Damasus and Ursinus; the Fides by Quesnel in the Canones et Constitut. Eccl. Rom., vol. ii. p. 138, 4to. Paris, 1675. The collected works of Faustinus will be found in the Bibl. Maw. Patrum, Lugdun. 1677, vol. v. p. 637, and under their best form in the Bibl. Patrum of Galland, vol. viii. p. 441. (Gennadius, de Viris Ill, ll.) [W. R.] FAU'STULUS, the royal shepherd of Amulius and husband of Acca Laurentia. He found Romulus and Remus as they were nursed by the shewolf, and carried the twins to his wife to be brought up. (Liv. i. 5.) He was believed to have been killed, like Remus, by near relatives, while he was endeavouring to settle a dispute between

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