ページの画像
PDF

sent him to sleep, that she might be able to kiss him without being observed by him. (Cic. Tuscul, i. 38.) The stories of the fair sleeper, Endymion, the darling of Selene, are unquestionably poetical fictions, in which sleep is personified. His name and all his attributes confirm this opinion : Endymion signifies a being that gently comes over one ; he is called a king, because he has power over all living creatures; a shepherd, because he slumbered in the cool caves of mount Latmus, that is, “the mount of oblivion.” Nothing can be more beautiful, lastly, than the notion, that he is kissed by the soft rays of the moon. (Comp. Plat. Phaed. p. /2. b ; Ov. Am. i. 13.43.) There is a beautiful statue of a sleeping Endymion in the British Museum. [L. S.] ENI'PEUS (Evitrews), a river-god in Thessaly, who was beloved by Tyro, the daughter of Salmoneus. Poseidon, who was in love with her, assumed the appearance of Enipeus, and thus visited her, and she became by him the mother of twins, Pelias and Neleus. (Apollod. i. 9. § 8.) Ovid (Met. vi. 116) relates that Poseidon, having assumed the form of Enipeus, begot by Iphimedeia two sons, Otus and Ephialtes. Another river-god of the same name occurs in Elis, who is likewise connected with the legend about Tyro. (Strab. viii. p. 356.) [L. S.] ENNIA, called ENNIA THRASYLLA by Dion Cassius, and ENNIA NAEv1A by Suetonius, was the wife of Macro and the mistress of Caligula. Her husband murdered Tiberius in order to accelerate the accession of Caligula; but this emperor, like a true tyrant, disliking to see those to whom he was under obligation, put to death Ennia and her husband. (Dion. Cass. lviii. 28, lix. 10 ; Tac. Ann. vi. 45; Suet. Cal. 12, 26.) EN'NIUS, whom the Romans ever regarded with a sort of filial reverence as the parent of their literature—noster Ennius, our own Ennius, as he is styled with fond familiarity—was born in the consulship of C. Mamilius Turrinus and C. Valerius Falto, B. c. 239, the year inmediately following that in which the first regular drama had been exhibited on the Roman stage by Livius Andronicus. The place of his nativity was Rudiae, a Calabrian village among the hills near Brundusium. He claimed descent from the ancient lords of Messapia; and after he had become a convert to the Pythagorean doctrines, was wont to boast that the spirit which had once animated the body of the immortal Homer, after passing through many tenements, after residing among others in a peacock, and in the sage of Crotona, had eventually passed into his own frame. Of his early history we know nothing, except, if we can trust the loose poetical testimony of Silius and Claudian, that he served with credit as a soldier, and rose to the rank of a centurion. When M. Porcius Cato, who had filled the office of quaestor under Scipio in the African war, was returning home, he found Ennius in Sardinia, became acquainted with his high powers, and brought him in his train to Rome, our poet being at that time about the age of thirty-eight. But his military ardour was not yet quenched; for twelve years afterwards he accompanied M. Fulvius Nobilior during the Aetolian campaign, and shared his triumph. It is recorded that the victorious general, at the instigation probably of his literary friend, consecrated the spoils captured from the Vol. II.

enemy to the Muses, and subsequently, when Censor, dedicated a joint temple to Hercules and the Nine. Through the son of Nobilior, Ennius, when far advanced in life, obtained the rights of a citizen, a privilege which at that epoch was guarded with watchful jealousy, and very rarely granted to an alien. From the period, however, when he quitted Sardinia, he seems to have made Rome his chief abode ; for there his great poetical talents, and an amount of learning which must have been considered marvellous in those days, since he was master of three languages, Oscan, Latin, and Greek, -gained for him the respect and favour of all who valued such attainments; and, in particular, he lived upon terms of the closest intimacy with the conqueror of Hannibal and other members of that distinguished family. Dwelling in a humble mansion on the Aventine, attended by a single female slave, he maintained himself in honourable poverty by acting as a preceptor to patrician youths; and having lived on happily to a good age, was carried off by a disease of the joints, probably gout, when seventy years old, soon after the completion of his great undertaking, which he closes by comparing himself to a race-horse, in these prophetic lines:— Like some brave steed, who in his latest race Hath won the Olympic wreath; the contest o'er, Sinks to repose, worn out by age and toil. At the desire of Africanus, his remains were deposited in the sepulchre of the Scipios, and his bust allowed a place among the effigies of that noble house. II is epitaph, penned by himself in the undoubting anticipation of immortal fame, has been preserved, and may be literally rendered thus:– Romans, behold old Ennius! whose lays Built up on high your mighty fathers' praise ! Pour not the wail of mourning o'er my bier, Nor pay to me the tribute of a tear: Still, still I live! from mouth to mouth I fly Never forgotten, never shall I die! The works of Ennius are believed to have existed entire so late as the thirteenth century (A. G. Cramer, Hauschronick, p. 223), but they have long since disappeared as an independent whole, and nothing now remains but fragments collected from other ancient writers. These amount in all to many hundred lines; but a large proportion being quotations cited by grammarians for the purpose of illustrating some rare form, or determining the signification of some obsolete word, are mere scraps, possessing little interest for any one but a philologist. Some extracts of a longer and more satisfactory character are to be found in Cicero, who gives us from the annals, the dream of Ilia (18 lines); the conflicting auspices observed by Romulus and Remus (20 lines); and the speech of Pyrrhus with regard to ransoming the prisoners (8 lines): besides these, a passage from the Andromache (18 lines); a curious invective against itinerant fortune-tellers, probably from the Satires; and a few others of less importance. Aulus Gellius has saved eighteen consecutive verses, in which the duties and bearing of a humble friend towards his superior are bodied forth in very spirited phraseology, forming a picture which it was believed that the poet intended for a portrait of himself, while Macrobius presents us with a battle piece (8 lines), where a tribune is described as gal lantly resisting the attack of a crowd of foes. c

Although under these circumstances it is extremely difficult to form any accurate judgment with regard to his absolute merits as a poet, we are at least certain that his success was triumphant. For a long series of years his strains were read aloud to applauding multitudes, both in the metropolis and in the provinces; and a class of men arose who, in imitation of the Homeristae, devoted themselves exclusively to the study and recitation of his works, receiving the appellation of Ennianistae. In the time of Cicero he was still considered the prince of Roman song (Enmium summum Epicum poetam—de Opt. G. O. l. Summus poeta noster—pro Balb. 22); Virgil was not ashamed to borrow many of his thoughts, and not a few of his expressions; and even the splendour of the Augustan age failed to throw him into the shade. And well did he merit the gratitude of his adopted countrymen ; for not only did he lay the basis of their literature, but actually constructed their language. He found the Latin tongue a rough, meagre, uncultivated dialect, made up of ill-cemented fragments, gathered at random from a number of different sources, subject to no rules which might secure its stability, and destitute of any regular system of versification. He softened its asperities, he emiarged its vocabulary, he regulated its grammatical combinations, he amalgamated into one harmonious whole its various conflicting elements, and he introduced the heroic hexameter, and various other metres, long carefully elaborated by Grecian skill. Even in the disjointed and mutilated remains which have been transmitted to us, we observe a vigour of imagination, a national boldness of tone, and an energy of expression which amply justify the praises so liberally launched on his genius by the ancients; and although we are perhaps at first repelled by the coarseness, clumsiness, and antique fashion of the garb in which his high thoughts are invested, we cannot but feel that what was afterwards gained in smoothness and refinement is a poor compensation for the loss of that freshness and strength which breathe the hearty spirit of the brave old days of Roman simplicity and freedom. The criticism of Ovid, “Ennius ingenio maximus arte rudis,” is fair, and happily worded ; but the fine simile of Quintilian, “Ennium sicut sacros vetustate lucos adoremus, in quibus grandia et antiqua robora, jam non tantam habent speciem, quantam religionem,” more fully embodies our sentiments.

We subjoin a catalogue of the works of Ennius, in so far as their titles can be ascertained.

I. Annalium Libri xviii. The most important of all his productions was a history of Rome in dactylic hexameters, commencing with the loves of Mars and Rhea, and reaching down to his own times. The subject was selected with great judgment. The picturesque fables, romantic legends, and chivalrous exploits with which it abounded, afforded full scope for the exercises of his poetical powers; he was enabled to testify gratitude towards his personal friends, and to propitiate the nobles as a body, by extolling their own lofty deeds and the glories of their sires; and perhaps no theme could have been chosen so well calculated to awaken the enthusiasm of all ranks among a proud, warlike, and as yet unlettered people. His fancy was cramped by none of those fetters imposed by a series of well ascertained

facts; he was left to work his will upon the rude ballads of the vulgar, the wild traditions of the old patrician clans, and the meagre chronicles of the priests. Niebuhr conjectures that the beautiful history of the kings in Livy may have been taken from Ennius. No great space, however, was allotted to the earlier records, for the contest with Hannibal, which was evidently described with great minuteness, commenced with the seventh book, the first Punic war being passed over altogether, as we are told by Cicero. (Brut. 19.) II. Fabulae. The fame of Ennius as a dramatist, was little inferior to his reputation as an epic bard. His pieces, which were very numerous, appear to have been all translations or adaptations from the Greek, the metres of the originals being in most cases closely imitated. Fragments have been preserved of the following tragedies: Achilles, Achilles (Aristarchi), Ajar, Alcmaeon, Alexander, Andromacha, Andromeda, Antiope, Athamas, Cresphontes, Dulorestes, Erectheus, Eumenides, Hectoris Lytra, Hecuba, Iliona (doubtful), Iphigenia, Medea, Medus, Melanippa or Melanippus, Nemea, Neoptolemus, Phoenir, Telamon, Telephus, Thyestes; and of the following comedies, belonging to the class of palliatae: Ambracia, Cupiuncula (perhaps Caprunculus), Celestis (name very doubtful), Pancrotiastes, s. Pancratiastae. For full information as to the sources from whence these were derived, consult the editions of Hesselius and Bothe, together with the dissertations of Osann referred to at the end of this article. III. Satirae. In four (Porphyr. ad Hor. Sat. i. 10), or according to others (Domat. ad Terent. Phorm. ii. 2.25) in six books, of which less than twenty-five scattered lines are extant, but from these it is evident that the Satirae were composed in a great variety of metres, and from this circumstance, in all probability, received their appellatlon. IV. Scipio. A panegyric upon the public career of his friend and patron, Africanus. The measure adopted seems to have been the trochaic tetrameter catalectic, although a line quoted, possibly by mistake, in Macrobius (Sat. vi. 4) is a dactylic hexameter. The five verses and a half which we possess of this piece do not enable us to decide whether Valerius Maximus was entitled to term it (viii. 14) rude et impolitum praeconium. (Suidas, s. v. “Evvios ; Schol. vet. ad Hor. Sat. ii. 1. 16.) Some scholars have supposed that the Scipio was in reality a drama belonging to the class of the praeteatatae. V. Asotus. Varro and Festus when examining into the meaning of certain uncommon words, quote from “Ennius in Asoto,” or as Scaliger, very erroneously, insists “in Sotadico.” The subject and nature of this piece are totally unknown. Many believe it to have been a comedy. VI. Epicharmus. From a few remnants, amounting altogether to little more than twenty lines, we gather that this must have been a philosophical didactic poem in which the nature of the gods, the human mind and its phaenomena, the physical structure of the universe and various kindred topics, were discussed. From the title we conclude, that it was translated or imitated from Epicharmus the comic poet, who was a disciple of Pythagoras and is known to have written De Rerum Natura.

VII. Phagetica, Phagesia, Hedyphagetica. These and many other titles have been assigned to a work upon edible fishes, which Ennius may perhaps have translated from Archestratus. [ARCHESTRATUS.] Eleven lines in dactylic hexameters have been preserved by Apuleius exhibiting a mere catalogue of names and localities. They are given, with some preliminary remarks, in Wermsdorf's Poet. Lat. Min. vol. i. pp. 157 and 187. See also Apuleius, Apolog. p. 299 ed. Elmenh. ; P. Pithoeus, Epigramm. vet. iv. fin. ; Parrhas. Epist. 65; Trillerus, Observati. crit. i. 14; Scaliger Catalect. ret. poet. p. 215; Turneb. Advers. xxi. 21; Salmas. ad Solin. p. 794, ed. Traj. ; Burmann, Anthol. Lat. iii. 135; Fabric. Bibl. Lat. lib. iv. c. 1. S 7. VIII. Epigrammata. Under this head we have two short epitaphs upon Scipio Africanus, and one upon Ennius himself, the whole in elegiac verse, extending collectively to ten lines. IX. Protreptica. The title seems to indicate that this was a collection of precepts exhorting the reader to the practice of virtue. We cannot, however, tell much about it nor even discover whether it was written in prose or verse, since one word only is known to us, namely pannibus quoted by Charisius. X. Praecepta. Very probably the same with the preceding. From the remains of three lines in Priscian we conclude that it was composed in iambic trimeters. XI. Sabinae. Angelo Mai in a note on Cic. De X&p. ii. 8, gives a few words in prose from “ Ennius in Sabinis” without informing us where he found them. Columna has pointed out that in Macrobius, Sat. vi. 5, we ought to read “Ennius in libro Satirarum quarto " instead of Sabinarum as it stands in the received text. XII. Euhemerus, a translation into Latin prose of the sepa dvaypáqm of Euhemerus [EUHEMERUs.] Several short extracts are contained in Lactantius, and a single word in the De Re Rustica of Warro. Censorinus (c. 19) tells us, that according to Ennius the year consisted of 366 days, and hence it has been conjectured that he was the author of seme astronomical treatise. But an expression of this sort may have been dropped incidentally, and is not sufficient to justify such a supposition without further evidence. The first general collection of the fragments of Ennius is that contained in the “Fragmenta veterum Poetarum Latinorum” by Robert and Henry Stephens, Paris, 8vo. 1564. It is exceedingly imperfect and does not include any portion of the Euhemerus, which being in prose was excluded from the plan. Much more complete and accurate are “Q. Ennii poetae vetustissimi, quae supersunt, fragmenta,” collected, arranged, and expounded, by Hieronymus Columna, Neapol. 4to. 1590, reprinted with considerable additions, comprising the commentaries of Delrio and G. J. Voss, by Hesselius, professor of history and eloquence at Rotterdam, Amstel. 4to. 1707. This must be considered as the best edition of the collected fragments which has yet appeared. Five years after Columna's edition a new edition of the Annales was published at Leyden (4to. 1595) by Paullus Merula, a Dutch lawyer, who professed not only to have greatly purified the text, and to have introduced many important corrections in the arrangement and distribution of

the different portions, but to have made considerable additions to the relics previously discovered. The new verses were gathered chiefly from a work by L. Calpurnius Piso, a contemporary of the younger Pliny, bearing the title De Continentia Veterum Poetarum ad Trajanum Principem, a MS. of which Merula tells us that he examined hastily in the library of St. Victor at Paris, accompanying this statement with an inexplicable and most suspicious remark, that he was afraid the volume would be stolen. It is certain that this codex, if it ever existed, has long since disappeared, and the lines in question are regarded with well-merited suspicion. (Niebuhr, Lectures on Roman History, edited by Dr. Schmitz, Introd. p. 35; Hoch, De Ennianorum Annalium Fragmentis a P. Merula auctis, Bonn, 1839.) The Annales from the text of Merula were reprinted, but not very accurately, with some trifling additions, and with the fragments of the Punic war of Naevius, by E. S. (Ernst Spangenberg), 8vo. Lips. 1825. The fragments of the tragedies were carefully collected and examined by M. A. Delrio in his Syntagma Tragoediae Latinae, vol., i. Antv. 4to, 1593; reprinted at Paris in 1607 and 1619; they will be found also in the Collectanea veterum Tragicorum of Scriverius, to which are appended the emendations and notes of G. J. Vossius, Lug. Bat. 8vo, 1620. The fragments of both the tragedies and comedies are contained in Bothe, Poetarum Latii scenicorum fragmenta, Halberst. 8vo. 1823. The fragments of the Medea, with a dissertation on the origin and nature of Roman tragedy, were published by H. Planck, Götting. 4to. 1806, and the fragments of the Medea and of the Hecuba, compared with the plays of Euripides bearing the same names, are contained in the Analecta Critica Poesis Romanorum scenicae reliquias illustrantia of Osann, Berolin. 8vo. 1816. (See the prefaces and prolegomena to the editions of the collected fragments by Hesselius, and of the annals by E. S. where the whole of the ancient authorities for the biography of Ennius are quoted at full length ; Caspar Sagittarius, Commentatio de vita et scriptis Livii Andronici, Naevi, Ennii, Caecilii Statii, &c., Altenburg. 8vo. 1672; G. F. de Franckenau, Dissertatio de Morbo Q. Ennii, Witt. 4to. 1694; Domen. d’Angelis, della patria d'Ennio dissertazione, Rom. 8vo. 1701, Nap. 8vo. 1712; Henningius Forelius, De Ennio diatribe, Upsal. 8vo. 1707; W. F. Kreidmannus, de Q. Ennio Oratio, Jen. 4to, 1754; Cr. Cramerus, Dissertatio sistens Horatii de Ennio offatum, Jen. 4to. 1755; C. G. Kuestner Chrestomathia juris Enniani, &c., Lips. 8vo. 1762.) [W. R.] ENNO'DIUS, MAGNUS FELIX, was born at Arles about A. D. 476, of a very illustrious family, which numbered among its members and connexions many of the most illustrious personages of that epoch. Having been despoiled while yet a boy of all his patrimony by the Visigoths, he was educated at Milan by an aunt, upon whose death he found himself at the age of sixteen again reduced to total destitution. From this unhappy position he was extricated by a wealthy marriage, but having been prevailed upon by St. Epiphanius to renounce the pleasures of the world, he received ordination as a deacon, and induced his wife to enter a convent. His labours in the service of the Church were so conspicuous that he was chosen C &

bishop of Pavia in A. D. 511, and in 514 was sent, along with Fortunatus, bishop of Catania, and others, by Pope Hormisda to Constantinople in order to combat the progress of the Eutychian heresy. The embassy having proved unsuccessful in consequence of the emperor, who was believed to be favourable to the opinions in question, having refused to acknowledge the authority of the Roman pontiff, Ennodius was despatched a second time in 517, along with Peregrinus, bishop of Misenum, bearing a confession of faith, which the eastern churches were invited or rather required to subscribe. On this occasion the envoy was treated with great harshness by Anastasius, who not only dismissed him with ignominy, but even sought his life, by causing him to embark in a crazy vessel, which was strictly forbidden to touch at any Grecian port. Having escaped this danger, Enuodius returned to his diocese, where he occupied himself with religious labours until his death in A. D. 521, on the 17th of July, the day which after his canonization was observed as his festival. The works of this prelate, as contained in the edition of Sirmond, are the following:— 1. Epistolarum ad Diversos Libri IX. A collection of 497 letters, including one composed by his sister, the greater number of them written during the pontificate of Symmachus (493–514). They for the most part relate to private concerns and domestic occurrences, and hence possess little general interest. They are remarkable for gentlemess and piety of tone, but some persons have imagined that they could detect a leaning towards semipelagianism. The charge, however, has not been by any means substantiated. 2. Panegyricus Theodorico regi dictus. A complimentary address delivered in the presence of the Gothic monarch at Milan, or at Ravenna, or at Rome, probably in the year A. D. 507. It is sometimes included in the collections of the “Panegyrici Veteres,” and is considered as one of the principal sources for the history of that period, although obviously no reliance can be placed on the statements contained in an effusion of such a character. [DREPANIUS.] It will be found, with notes, in Manso, Geschichte des Oslgoth. Reichs, . 433. p 3. Libellus adversus eos qui contra synodum scribere praesumserunt. A powerful and argumentative harangue, read before the fifth Roman synod held in A. D. 503, and adopted as part of their proceedings, in defence of the measures sanctioned by the synod of the previous year, against schismatics, and in support of the jurisdiction of the Roman pontiff generally. 4. Vita beatissimi viri Epiphanii Ticinensis episcopi. A biography of St. Epiphanius, his predecessor in the see of Pavia, who died in A. D. 496. This piece is valued on account of the light which it throws upon the history of the times, and is considered one of the most interesting and agreeable among the works of Ennodius, which, to say the truth, are for the most part rather repulsive. It will be found in the collections of Surius and the Bollandists under the 22nd of January. 5. Vita beati Antonii monachi Livinensis, a panegyric upon a holy man unknown save from this tract. 6. Eucharisticum de vila, a thanksgiving for recovery from a dangerous malady, during which the

eventually prompted him to devote his life to the service of God. It is dedicated to Elpidius, a deacon and physician. 7. Paraenesis didascalica ad Ambrosium et Beatum, an exhortation, in which poetry is combined with prose, urging two youths to the practice of Virtue. 8. Praeceptum de cellulanis episcoporum. The cellulani were the contubernales whom bishops, presbyters, and deacons were required to retain as constant companions “ad amoliendas maledicorum calumnias.” (See Ducange, Glossar.) In this tract they are called concellanei. 9. Petitorium quo Gerontius puer Agapiti absolutus est. On the manumission of a slave by his master in the church. 10. Cerei paschalis benedictiones duae. ll. Orationes. A series of short essays or declamations, twenty eight in number, which the author himself names dictiones, classified according to their subjects. Of these six are sacrae, seven scholasticae, ten controversiae, five ethicae. 12. Carmina. A large collection of poems, most of them short occasional effusions, on a multitude of different topics, sacred and profane. Fourteen are to be found interspersed among his epistles and other prose works, and one hundred and seventytwo form a separate collection. The writings of Ennodius might serve as an exemplification of all the worst faults of a corrupt style. Nothing can be more affected than the form of expression, nothing more harsh than the diction. They are concise without being vigorous, obscure without being deep, while the use of figurative language, metaphors, and allegories, is pushed to such extravagant excess that whole pages wear the aspect of a long dull enigma. A considerable number of the works of this. father appeared in the “Monumenta S. Patrum Orthodoxographa,” Basil. fol., 1569; they were first published separately by Andr. Schottus, Tornac. 8vo. 1611, but will be found in their most completeand best form in the edition of Sirmond, Paris. 8vo. 1611, and in his Opera, vol. i. fol., Paris. 1696, and Venet. 1729 ; also in the Bibl. Patr. Maa., Lugdun. 1677, vol. ix., and in other large collections of the fathers. Martemne and Durand (Collect. Monumm. vol. v. p. 61) have added a new oration and a short

'letter to Venantius.

(See the Vita Ennodii prefixed to the edition. of Sirmond. A very full biography is given by Funceius also, De inerti ac decrepita L. L. senectute, c. iii. S xx., c. vi. S. viii., c. viii. S X., c. 11. S xxxi.) [W. R.] ENNOMUS ("Evvowos), a Mysian and ally of the Trojans, who was killed by Achilles. (Hom. Il. ii. 858, xvii. 218.) Another person of this name occurs in the Odyssey (xi. 422). [L. S.] ENORCHES ('Evépxms), a son of Thyestes by his sister Daeta, was born out of an egg, and built. a temple to Dionysus, who was hence called Dionysus Enorches, though Enorches may also describe. the god as the dancer. (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 212; Hesych. s. v.) [L. S.] ENTELLUS, a Trojan, or a Sicilian hero from whom the town of Entella, in Sicily, was believed to have received its name. (Virg. Aen. v. 389, with Servius.) Tzetzes (ad Lycoph. 953) states, that Entella was so called from Entella, the wife of F'NTOCHUS, a sculptor, whose Oceanus and 3upiter were in the collection of Asinius Pollio. (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 4. § 10.) [P. S.] ENTO'RIA ("Evropsa), the daughter of a RoAman countryman. Cronos (Saturn) who was once bospitably received by him, became, by his fair daughter, the father of four sons, Janus, Hymnus, Faustus, and Felix. Cronos taught the father the cultivation of the vine and the preparation of wine, enjoining him to teach his neighbours the same. This was done accordingly, but the country people, who became intoxicated with their new drink, thought it to be poison, and stoned their neighbour to death, whereupon his grandsons hung themselves in their grief. At a much later time, when the Romans were visited by a plague, they were told by the Delphic oracle, that the plague was a punishment for the outrage committed on Entoria's father, and Lutatius Catulus caused a temple to be erected to Cronos on the Tarpeian rock, and in it an altar with four faces. (Plut. Parall. Gr. et Rom. 9.) [L.S.] ENYALIUS (Evváxios), the warlike, frequently occurs in the Iliad (never in the Odyssey) either as an epithet of Ares, or as a proper name instead of Ares. (xvii. 211, ii. 651, vii. 166, viii. 264, xiii. 519, xvii. 259, xviii. 309, xx. 69; comp. Pind. Ol. xiii. 102, Nem. ix. 37.) At a later time, however, Enyalius and Ares were distinguished as two different gods of war, and Enyalius was looked upon as a son of Ares and Enyo, or of Cronos and Rhea. (Aristoph. Par, 457; Dionys. A. R. iii. 48; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 944.) The name is evidently derived from Enyo, though one tradition derived it from a Thracian Enyalius, who received into his house those only who conquered him in single combat, and for the same reason refused to receive Ares, but the latter slew him. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 673.) The youths of Sparta sacrificed young dogs to Ares under the name of Enyalius YPaus. iii. 14. § 9), and near the temple of Hipposthenes, at Sparta, there stood the ancient fettered statue of Enyalius. (Paus. iii. 15, S 5; comp. AREs.) Dionysus, too, is said to have been surnamed Enyalius. (Macrob. Sat. i. 19.) [L. S.] E’NYO ("Evvd.), the goddess of war, who delights in bloodshed and the destruction of towns, and accompanies Mars in battles. (Hom. Il. v. 333, 592; Eustath. p. 140.) At Thebes and Orchomenos, a festival called 'Ouoxdia was celebruted in honour of Zeus, Demeter, Athena and Enyo, and Zeus was said to have received the surname of Homoloius from Homolois, a priestess of Elyo. (Suid. s. v.; comp. Müller, Orchom. p. 229, 2nd edit.) A statue of Enyo, made by the sons of Praxiteles, stood in the temple of Ares at Athens. (Paus. i. 8. § 5.) Among the Graeae in Hesiod (Theog. 273) there is one called Enyo. Respecting the Roman goddess of war see BELI.O.N.A. [L. S.] EOS ("Høs), in Latin Aurora, the goddess of the morning red, who brings up the light of day from the east. She was a daughter of Hyperion and Theia or Euryphassa, and a sister of Ilelios and Selene. (Hes. Theog. 371, &c.; Hom. Hymn in Sol. ii.) Ovid (Met. ix. 420, Fast. iv. 373) calls her a daughter of Pallas. At the close of night she rose from the couch of her beloved Tithonus, and on a chariot drawn by the swift horses Lampus and Phaëton she ascended up to

author was first led to those thoughts which Aegestes. [L. S.]

mortals. (Hom. Od. v. 1, &c., xxiii. 244; Virg. Aen. iv. 129, Georg. i. 446 ; Hom. Hymn in Merc, 185 ; Theocrit. ii. 148, xiii. 11.) In the Homeric poems Eos not only announces the coming Helios, but accompanies him throughout the day, and her career is not complete till the evening; hence she is sometimes mentioned where one would have expected Helios (Od. v. 390, x. 144); and the tragic writers completely identify her with Hemera, of whom in later times the same myths are related as of Eos. (Paus. i. 3. § 1, iii. 18. § 7.) The later Greek and the Roman poets followed, on the whole, the notions of Eos, which IIomer had established, and the splendour of a southern aurora, which lasts much longer than in our climate, is a favourite topic with the ancient poets. Mythology represents her as having carried off several youths distinguished for their beauty. Thus she carried away Orion, but the gods were angry at her for it, until Artemis with a gentle arrow killed him. (Hom. Od. v. 121.) According to Apollodorus (i. 4. § 4) Eos carried Orion to Delos, and was ever stimulated by Aphrodite. Cleitus, the son of Mantius, was carried by Eos to the seats of the immortal gods (Od. xv. 250), and Tithonus, by whom she became the mother of Emathion and Memnon, was obtained in like manner. She begged of Zeus to make him immortal, but forgot to request him to add eternal youth. So long as he was young and beautiful, she lived with him at the end of the earth, on the banks of Oceanus; and when he grew old, she nursed him, until at length his voice disappeared and his body became quite dry. She then locked the body up in her chamber, or metamorphosed it into a cricket. (Hom. IIymn. in Ven. 218, &c.; Horat. Carm, i. 22. 8, ii. 16. 30 ; Apollod. iii. 12. § 4 ; Hes. Theog. 984; Serv. ad Pirg, Georg. i. 447, iii. 328, Aen. iv. 585.) When her son Memnon was going to fight against Achilles, she asked Hephaestus to give her arms for him, and when Memnon was killed, her tears fell down in the form of morning dew. (Virg. Aen. viii. 384.) By Astraeus Eos became the mother of Zephyrus, Boreas, Notus, Heosphorus, and the other stars. (Hesiod. Theog. 378.) Cephalus was carried away by her from the summit of mount Hymettus to Syria, and by him she became the mother of Phaëton or Tithonus, the father of Phaëton ; but afterwards she restored her beloved to his wife Procris. (Hes. Theog. 984; Apollod. iii. 14. § 3; Paus. i. 3. § 1 ; Ov. Met. vii. 703, &c.; Hygin. Fab 189 ; comp. CEPHALUs.) Eos was represented in the pediment of the kingly stoa at Athens in the act of carrying off Cephalus, and in the same manner she was seen on the throne of the Amyclaean Apollo. (Paus. i. 3. S 1, iii. 18. § 7.) At Olympia she was represented in the act of praying to Zeus for Memnon. (v. 22. § 2.) In the works of art still extant, she appears as a winged goddess or in a chariot drawn by four horses. [L. S.] EPACTAEUS or EPA'CTIUS ('Erakrasos or 'Erártuos), that is, the god worshipped on the coast, was used as a surname of Poseidon in Samos (Hesych. s. v.), and of Apollo. (Orph. Argon. 1296 ; Apollon. Rhod. i. 404.) [L. S.] EPAE'NETUS (Erasvetos), a culinary author frequently referred to by Athenaeus, wrote one work “On Fishes” (IIepl Ix0/wv, Athen. vii.

heaven from the river Oceanus, to announce the p. 328, f), and another “On the Art of Cookcoming light of the sun to the gods as well as to ery” ("Obaptwrikás, Athen. ii. p. 58, b., iii. p. 88,

« 前へ次へ »