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attempting to write a history of the period previous to the return of the Heracleidae; but the history of the subsequent time is still greatly intermixed with fables and mythical traditions; and it must be acknowledged that his attempts to restore a genuine history by divesting the traditions from what he considered mythical or fabulous, were in most cases highly unsuccessful, and sometimes even absurd and puerile. He exercised a sort of criticism which is anything but that of a real historian (Strab. xii. p. 550), and in some instances he forced his authorities to suit his own views. For the early times he seems to have preferred the logographers to the epic poets, though the latter, too, were not neglected. Even the later portions of his history, where Ephorus had such guides as Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon, contained such discrepancies from his great predecessors, and on points on which they were entitled to credit, that Ephorus, to say the least, cannot be regarded as a sound and safe guide in the study of history. The severest critic of Ephorus was Timaeus, who never neglected an opportunity of pointing out his inaccuracies; several authors also wrote separate books against Ephorus, such as Alexinus, the pupil of Eubulides (Diog. Laërt. ii. 106, 110), and Strato the Peripatetic. (Diog. Laërt. v. 59.) Porphyrius (ap. Euseb. Praep. Evang. x. 2) charges Ephorus with constant plagiarisms; but this accusation is undoubtedly very much exaggerated, for we not only find no traces of plagiarism in the fragments extant, but we frequently find Ephorus disputing the statements of his predecessors. (Joseph. c. Apion. i. 3.) Polybius (xii. 25) praises him for his knowledge of maritime warfare, but adds that he was utterly ignorant of the mode of warfare on land; Strabo (viii. p. 332) acknowledges his merits, by saying that he separated the historical from the geographical portions of his work; and, in regard to the latter, he did not confine himself to mere lists of names, but he introduced investigations concerning the origin of nations, their constitutions and manners, and many of the geographical fragments which have come down to us contain lively and beautiful descriptions. (Polyb. ix. 1; Strab. ix. p. 400, &c., x. pp. 465,479, &c.) As regards the style of Ephorus, it is such as might be expected from a disciple of Isocrates: it is clear, lucid, and elaborately polished, but at the same time diffuse and deficient in power and energy, so that Ephorus is by no means equal to his master. (Polyb. xii. 28; Dionys. de Comp. Verb. 26 ; Demetr. IIepl épumv. § 68; Dion Chrysost. Orat. xviii. p. 256, ed. Morel.; Plut. Pericl. 28; Philostr. Wit. Soph. i. 17; Cic. Orat. 51; Phot. Bibl. Cod. 176.) The fragments of the works of Ephorus, the number of which might probably be much increased if Diodorus had always mentioned his authorities, were first collected by Meier Marx, Carlsruhe, 1815, 8vo., who afterwards published some additions in Friedemann and Seebode's Miscellan. Crit. ii. 4, p. 754, &c. They are also contained in C. and Th. Müller's Fragm. Historicor. Graec. pp. 234–277, Paris, 1841, 370. Both editors have prefixed to their editions critical dissertations on the life and writings of Ephorus. 2. Of Cumae, called the Younger, was likewise an historian, but he is mentioned only by Suidas, according to whom he wrote a history of Galienus in twenty-seven books, a work on Corinth, one on the Aleuadae, and a few others. The name

Galienus in this account, it should be observed, is only a correction of Wolaterranus, for the common reading in Suidas is Taxmvoú. (Comp. Marx, Ephor. Fragm. p. 7.) [L. S.] EPHORUS, an Ephesian painter, and teacher of APELLEs. (Suid. s. v. 'AtreWAñs.) [P. S.] EPHRAEM. The name is variously written Ephraem, Ephraemus, Ephraim, Ephraimius, Ephrem, Ephremus, and Euphraimius: it belongs to several ecclesiastical writers of the Greek and Oriental churches. 1. EPHREMUs. To a writer so called, and to whose name no distinctive epithet can be attached, is ascribed the account of Saints Abram and Mary (Acta SS. Abramii et Mariae) in the Acta Sanctorum Martii, vol. ii. p. 436, &c. Papebroche, in his introduction to the account, conjectures that the writer lived about the middle of the sixth century. The account, of which he is the author, is sometimes ascribed (as in the Catalogue of the King's Library at Paris A. D. 1740) but incorrectly to Ephraem the Syrian. It has also been ascribed, but incorrectly, to Ephrem of Caria and Ephrem of Mylasa. [Nos. 3 and 7 below.] 2. EPHRAIMIUs (Eq.patutos), or, as Theophanes writes the name, EUPHRAIMIUs (EUppatatos), patriarch of ANTIoch, or, as it was then called, Theopolis. If the designation given him by Theophanes (6 Autólos) indicates the place of his birth, he was a native of Amida in Armenia, near the source of the Tigris. His first employments were civil: and in the reign of the emperor Justin I. he attained to the high dignity of Count of the East. While in this office he received, according to a curious story, recorded in the Aequováptos, or Pratum Spirituale, written by Joannes Moschus, but erroneously ascribed, by ancient as well as modern writers, to Sophronius patriarch of Jerusalem, an intimation of the ecclesiastical dignity to which he was destined to attain. In the years 525 and 526, Antioch was nearly destroyed by successive shocks of an earthquake, and by a fire which had been occasioned by the overthrow of the buildings. Among the sufferers was Euphrasius the patriarch, who was. buried in the ruins of the falling edifices; and the people, grateful for the compassionate care which Ephraimius manifested for them in their distress, chose him successor to the deceased prelate. His elevation to the patriarchate is generally placed in the year 526, but perhaps did not take place till the year following. His conduct as patriarch is highly eulogized by ecclesiastical writers, who speak especially of his charity to the poor, and of the zeal and firmness with which he opposed heresy. His zeal against heretics was manifested in a curious encounter with an heretical stylite, or pillar-saint, in which the heretic is said to have been converted by the miraculous passing of the patriarch's robes, unconsumed, through the ordeal of fire. He condemned, in a synod at Antioch, those who attempted to revive the obnoxious sentiments of Origen; and wrote various treatises against the Nestorians, Eutychians, Severians, and Acephali, and in defence of the Council of Chalcedon. But, toward the close of his life, he was obliged by the Emperor Justinian, under a threat of deposition, to subscribe the condemnation of three of the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon, which he had hitherto so earnestly supported. Facundus of Hermia, the strenuous advocate of the condemned decrees, reproaches Ephraimius on this occasion, and with justice, as more solicitous for the preservation of his office than for the interests of what he deemed divine and important truth. Ephraimius died soon after this transaction, A. D. 546, or perhaps 545, after a patriarchate, according to Theophanes, of eighteen years, or, according to other calculations, of twenty years. The works of Ephraimius are known to us only by the account of them preserved in the Bibliotheca of Photius, who says that three volumes written in defence of the dogmas of the Church, and especially of the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon, had come down to his day: but he gives an account only of two. The first compreHended, l. An epistle to Zenobius, a scholasticus or advocate of Emesa, and one of the sect of the Acephali; 2. Some epistles to the omperor Justinian ; 3. Epistles to Anthimus, bishop of Trapezus, Dometianus Syncleticus, metropolitan of Tarsus, Brazes the Persian, and others; 4. An act of a synod (avvobuki) Tpääts) held by Ephraimius respecting certain unorthodox books ; and, 5, Panegyrical and other discourses. The second volume contained a treatise in four books, in which were defences of Cyril of Alexandria and the synod of Chalcedon against the Nestorians and Eutychians; and answers to some theological questions of his correspondent the advocate Anatolius. (Phot. Bibl. Codd. 228, 229; Facundus, iv. 4; Evagrius, Eccles. Hist. iv. 5, 6 ; Joannes Moschus (commonly cited as Sophronius) Pratum Spirituale, c. 36, 37 in Biblioth. Patrum, vol. xiii. ed. Paris, 1654; Theophanes, Chronograph. ad Ann. 519 (Alex. Era-526 Common Era) and table ad Ann. 537, 538; Baronius, Anmales; Cave, Hist. Liter. vol. i. p. 507, ed. 1740-3; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. x. p. 750.) 3. EPHREM, or rather EPHRAEM ("Eq'paju), of CARIA, a monk of unknown date, writer of a Greek hymn or prayer given by Raynaeus (Dissert. Prelim. de A coluthiis Officii Graeci, p. lxviii. in the Acta Sanctorum Junii, vol. ii.) This Ephrem is not to be confounded with Nos. 1 and 7. 4. EPHRAIM ("Eq'palu), bishop of Cherson. In the title of his only published work he is called archbishop, and some moderns style him “martyr.” He is the author of an account of a miracle wrought by the relics or the interposition of Clement of Rome, on the body of a child, who had been overwhelmed by the sea in a pilgrimage to Clement's submarine tomb. The account is printed in the Patres Apostolici of Cotelerius (vol. i. p. 815. ed. Amsterdam, 1724,) and in the De Probatis Sanctorum Vitis, of Surius, 29 Nov. Another piece of Ephraim on the Miracles of St. Clement, evidently different from the foregoing, is noticed by Leo Allatius, who calls the writer Ephraemius; but Couplerius was not able to obtain it, or he would have printed it with the foregoing. (Cotelerius, l.c.; Allatius, De Symeonum Scriptis, pp. 90,96; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vii. p. 21, viii. 254; Catal. MSS. Biblioth. Regiae. Paris, 1740.) 5. EPHRAEM of CoNSTANTINopLE, a chronographer who flourished apparently about the beginning of the fourteenth century. His chronicle, written in Iambic verse, is repeatedly cited by Allatius (De Psellis, p. 22, Diatriba de Georgiis, : pp. 327, 341, 354, &c., ed. Paris. 1651), and is probably extant in the Vatican Library in MS. but “has never been published. (Fabric. Pol. Graec. vol. vii. p. 472, viii. 79, 254.)

6. EPHRAEMUs of EDEssa, commonly called the Syrian. [See below.]

7. EPHREM, bishop of MYLASA in Caria [see Nos. 1 and 3]. The time when he lived is uncertain ; but religious honours were paid to his memory in the fifth century at Leuce (near Mylasa), where his body was buried. (Acta Sanctorum, S. Eusebiae Vita, cap. 3, Januar. vol. ii. p. 600.) [J. C. M.]

EPHRAEM or EPHRAIM, a Syrian, born at Nisibis, flourished A. D. 370. He spent his youth in diligent study, and devoted himself at first to a monastic life, but afterwards went to Edessa, where he was ordained deacon. He refused to proceed to the higher orders of the ministry, and is even said to have played the part of Brutus, by feigning madness in order to avoid elevation to the bishopric. He formed a close friendship with Basil, bishop of Caesareia, and shared his acrimony against the Arians and other heretics, whom he attacks with the violence characteristic of his age. He appeared in a truly Christian light at the time of a famine at Edessa, when he not only assisted the suffering poor with the greatest energy and most zealous kindness, but also actively exerted himself in urging the rich to deny themselves for their brethren's good. Sozomen (iii. 15) speaks with admiration of the manner in which Christianity had subdued in him a naturally irascible temper, and illustrates it by a pleasing anecdote, amusing from its quaint simplicity. At the conclusion of a long fast, Ephraem's servant let fall the dish in which he was bringing him some food. His alarm at having thus spoiled his master's dinner was removed by hearing him say, “Never mind, since the food has not come to us, we will go to it.” Whereupon Ephraem sat down on the floor and ate the scraps left in the fragments of the broken dish. He died about A. D. 378, and in his last illness forbad the recitation of any funeral oration over his remains, and desired that his obsequies should be conducted in the simplest manner. He knew no language but his native Syrian, though nearly all his works are translated into Greek, and were formerly held in such high esteem, that portions of them were sometimes read in churches after the gospel for the day. Most of his writings were collected by Gerard Voss, who turned them into Latin, and published them (1) at Rome A. D. 1589-93-97, (2) at Cologne in 1603, (3) at Antwerp in 1619. Voss's edition is in three volumes. The first consists of various treatises, partly on subjects solely theological, as the Priesthood, Prayer, Fasting, &c., with others partly theological and partly moral, as Truth, Anger, Obedience, Envy. The second contains many epistles and addresses to monks, and a collection of apophthegms. The third consists of several treatises or homilies on parts of Scripture and characters in the Old Testament, as Elijah, Daniel, the Three Children, Joseph, Noah. Photius gives a list of 49 homilies of Ephraem (Cod. 196), but which of these are included in Voss's edition it is impossible to ascertain, though it is certain that many are not. Another edition of Ephraem's works in Syriac, Greek, and Latin, was published also at Rome with notes, prefaces, and various readings, “studio Sim. Assemanni, P. Benedicti et Steph. Evodii Assemanni,” 6 vols. fol. 1732–46. The Greek version of several of his writings, from eighteen MSS. in the Bodleian library, was published by Edw. Thwaites at Oxford, 1709. There have been several editions of separate works. Ephraem is also said to be the author of an immense number of songs. He began to write them in opposition to Harmonius, the son and disciple of Bardesanes the heretic, who composed poetry involving many serious errors of doctrine, some of which were not only of an heretical but even of an heathen character, denying the resurrection of the body, and containing views about the nature of the soul extracted from the writings of pagan philosophers. These songs had become great favourites among the common people, and Ephraem, to oppose their evil tendency, wrote other songs in similar metres and adapted to the same music of a pious and Christian character. (Sozomen, l.c.; Theodoret, iv. 27 ; Cave, Script. Eccl. Hist. Liter. part 1. sec. 4; C. Lengerke, Commentatio Critica de Ephraemo Syrio SS. interprete, qua simul Versionis Syriacae, quam Peschito vocant, Lectiones variae ea Ephraemo Commentariis collectae, eahibentur, Halle, 1828, and De Ephraemi Syri arte hermeneutica liber, 1831.) [G. E. L. C.] EPHYRA ('Eqūpa), a daughter of Oceanus, from whom Ephyraea, the ancient name of Corinth was derived. (Paus. ii. 1. § 1 ; Virg. Georg. iv. 343.) [L. S.] EPIBATE'RIUS ('Etisatispios), the god who conducts men on board a ship, a surname of Apollo, under which Diomedes on his return from Troy built him a temple at Troezene. (Paus. ii. 32. § 1.) In the same sense Apollo bore the surname of Euéágios. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 404.) [L.S.] EPICASTE (’Etukáarm), a daughter of Menoeceus, and wife of Laius, by whom she became the mother of Oedipus, whom she afterwards unwittingly married. She is more commonly called Jocaste. (Hom. Od. xi. 271; Apollod. iii. 5. § 7, &c.; see OEDIPUs.) Respecting Epicaste, the daughter of Calydon, see AGENOR, No. 4; a third Epicaste is mentioned by Apollodorus. (ii. 7. - S.]

& 8. - - Epicrosses ('EtukéAevotos), a native of Crete, who lived probably in the second or first century B. c. He is mentioned by Erotianus (Gloss. Hippocr. p. 8) as having abridged and differently arranged the work by Baccheius on the obsolete words found in the writings of Hippocrates. [W. A. G.] EPI'CHARIS (’Etxapus), a freedwoman of bad repute, who was implicated in the conspiracy of Piso against the life of Nero, in A. D. 65, in which the philosopher Seneca also was involved. According to Polyaenus (viii. 62), she was the mistress of a brother of Seneca, and it may be that through this connexion she became acquainted with the plot of the conspirators, though Tacitus says that it was unknown by what means she had acquired her knowledge of it. She endeavoured by all means to stimulate the conspirators to carry their plan into effect. But as they acted slowly and with great hesitation, she at length grew tired, and resolved upon trying to win over the sailors of the fleet of Misenum in Campania, where she was staying. One Volusius Proculus, a chiliarch of the fleet, appears to have been the first that was initiated by her in the secret, but no names were mentioned to him. Proculus had no sooner obtained the information than he betrayed the whole plot to Nero. Epicharis was summoned before the emperor, but as no names had been mentioned, and

as no witnesses had been present at the communication, Epicharis easily refuted the accusation. She was, however, kept in custody. Subsequently, when the conspiracy was discovered, Nero ordered her to be tortured because she refused naming any of the accomplices; but neither blows, nor fire, nor the increased fury of her tormentors, could extort any confession from her. When on the second or third day after she was carried in a sedan-chair— for her limbs were already broken—to be tortured . a second time, she strangled herself on her way by her girdle, which she fastened to the chair. She thus acted, as Tacitus says, more nobly than many a noble eques or senator, who without being tortured betrayed their nearest relatives. (Tac. Ann. xv. 51, 57; Dion Cass. lxii. 27.) [L. S.] EPICHARMUS ('Emixapaos), the chief comic poet among the Dorians, was born in the island of . Cos about the 60th Olympiad (B. c. 540). His father, Elothales, was a physician, of the race of the Asclepiads, and the profession of medicine seems to have been followed for some time by Epicharmus himself, as well as by his brother. At the age of three months he was carried to Megara, in Sicily; or, according to the account preserved by Suidas, he went thither at a much later period, with Cadmus (B. c. 484). Thence he removed to Syracuse, with the other inhabitants of Megara, when the latter city was destroyed by Gelon (B. c. 484 or 483). Here he spent the remainder of his life, which was prolonged throughout the reign of Hieron, at whose court Epicharmus associated with the other great writers of the time, and among them, with Aeschylus, who seems to have had some influence on his dramatic course. He died at the age of ninety (B. c.450), or, according to Lucian, ninety-seven (B. c. 443). The city of Syracuse erected a statue to him, the inscription on which is preserved by Diogenes Laërtius. (Diog. Laërt. viii. 78; Suid. s. v.; Lucian, Macrob. 25; Aelian, V. H. ii. 34; Plut. Moral. pp. 68, a., 175, c.; Marmor Parium, No. 55.) In order to understand the relation of Epicharmus to the early comic poetry, it must be remembered that Megara, in Sicily, was a colony from Megara on the Isthmus, the inhabitants of which disputed with the Athenians the invention of comedy, and where, at all events, a kind of comedy was known as early as the beginning of the sixth century B. c. [SUSARION.] This comedy (whether it was lyric or also dramatic, which is a doubtful point) was of course found by Epicharmus existing at the Sicilian Megara; and he, together with Phormis, gave it a new form, which Aristotle describes by the words to uvêows totesv (Poet. 6 or 5, ed. Ritter), a phrase which some take to mean comedies with a regular plot; and others, comedies on mythological subjects. The latter seems to be the better interpretation; but either explanation establishes a clear distinction between the comedy of Epicharmus and that of Megara, which seems to have been little more than a sort of low buffoonery. With respect to the time when Epicharmus began to compose comedies, much confusion has arisen from the statement of Aristotle (or an interpolator), that Epicharmus lived long before Chionides. (Poèt. 3; ChioniDEs.) We have, however, the express and concurrent testimonies of the anonymous writer On Comedy (p. xxviii.), that he flourished about the 73rd Olympiad, and of

Suidas (s. v.), that he wrote six years before the

Persian war (B. c. 485–4). Thus it appears that, like Cratinus, he was an old man before he began to write comedy; and this agrees well with the fact that his poetry was of a very philosophic character. (Anon. de Com. l.c.) The only one of his plays, the date of which is certainly known, is the Nāool, B. c. 477. (Schol. Pind. Pyth. i. 98; Clinton, sub ann.) We have also express testimony of the fact that Elothales, the father of Epicharmus, formed an acquaintance with Pythagoras, and that Epicharmus himself was a pupil of that great philosopher. (Diog. Laërt. l.c.; Suid. s. v.; Plut. Numa, 8.) We may therefore consider the life of Epicharmus as divisible into two parts, namely, his life at Megara up to B. c. 484, during which he was engaged in the study of philosophy, both physical and metaphysical, and the remainder of his life, which he spent at Syracuse, as a comic poet. The question respecting the identity of Epicharmus the comedian and Epicharmus the Pythagorean philosopher, about which some writers, both ancient and modern, have been in doubt, may now be considered as settled in the affirmative. (Menag. ad Laërt. l. c.; Perizon. ad Aelian. V. H. ii. 34 ; Clinton, Fast. Hell, vol. ii. Introd. p. xxxvi.) The number of the comedies of Epicharmus is differently stated at 52 or at 35. There are still extant 35 titles, of which 26 are preserved by Athenaeus. The majority of them are on mythological subjects, that is, travesties of the heroic myths, and these plays no doubt very much resembled the satyric drama of the Athenians. The following are their titles:–’AAkisou,”Auvkos, BárXal, Boisaipts, Aevicaxtov, Atóvvaol, "Héms Yduos, "Hopatatos Kouaotai, Kūkawil, A6)0s kal A0'yesva, 'O6vage')s gotáuoxos, 'O6vgorets vavayós, Sepives, Sicipav, Spsyo, Toães, 41AokTijtmo. But besides mythology, Epicharmus wrote on other subjects, political, moral, relating to manners and customs, and, it would seem, even to personal character; those, however, of his comedies which belong to the last head are rather general than individual, and resembled the subjects treated by the writers of the new comedy, so that when the ancient writers enumerated him among the poets of the old comedy, they must be understood as referring rather to his antiquity in point of time than to any close resemblance between his works and those of the old Attic comedians. In fact, we have a proof in the case of CRATEs that even among the Athenians, after the establishment of the genuine old comedy by Cratinus, the mythological comedy still maintained its ground. The plays of Epicharmus, which were not on mythological subjects, were the following:—'AYpwortivos (Sicilian Greek for 'A'ypoikos), ‘Apirayal, kal OáAaaaa, Asquxos, 'Extris à IIAoûtos, Eopt& Kal Nāorot, 'Etivikios, ‘HpákAettos, Oeapol, Meyapis, Miives,’Opúa, IIepta\Aos, IIéposal, IIftwV, Tptakáðes, Xopečovtes, Xútpal. A considerable number of fragments of the above plays are preserved, but those of which we can form the clearest notion from the extant fragments are the Marriage of Hebe, and Hephaestus or the Revellers. Müller has observed that the painted vases of lower Italy often enable us to gain a complete and vivid idea of those theatrical representations of which the plays of Epicharmus are the type. The style of his plays appears to have been a curious mixture of the broad buffoonery which distinguished the old Megarian comedy, and of the

sententious wisdom of the Pythagorean philosopher His language was remarkably elegant: he was celebrated for his choice of epithets: his plays abounded, as the extant fragments prove, with 'yvaluat, or philosophical and moral maxims, and long speculative discourses, on the instinct of animals for example. Müller observes that “if the elements of his drama, which we have discovered singly, were in his plays combined, he must have set out with an elevated and philosophical view, which enabled him to satirize mankind without disturbing the calmness and tranquillity of his thoughts: while at the same time his scenes of common life were marked with the acute and penetrating genius which characterized the Sicilians.” In proof of the high estimate in which he was held by the ancients, it may be enough to refer to the notices of him by Plato (Theaet. p. 152, e.) and Cicero. (Tusc. i. 8, ad Att. i. 19.) It is singular, however, that Epicharmus had no successor in his peculiar style of comedy, except his son or disciple Deinolochus. He had, however, distinguished imitators in other times and countries. Some writers, making too much of a few words of Aristotle, would trace the origin of the Attic comedy to Epicharmus ; but it can hardly be doubted that Crates, at least, was his imitator. That Plautus imitated him is expressly stated by Horace (Epist. ii. 1. 58), “Plautus ad exemplar Siculi properare Epicharmi.” The parasite, who forms so conspicuous a character in the plays of the new comedy, is first found in Epicharmus. The formal peculiarities of the dramas of Epicharmus cannot be noticed here at any length. His ordinary metre was the lively Trochaic Tetrameter, but he also used the Iambic and Anapaestic metres. The questions respecting his scenes, number of actors, and chorus, are fully treated in the work of Grysar. Some writers attribute to Epicharmus separate philosophical poems; but there is little doubt that the passages referred to are extracts from his comedies. Some of the ancient writers ascribed to Epicharmus the invention of some or all of those letters of the Greek alphabet, which were usually attributed to Palamedes and Simonides. The fragments of Epicharmus are printed in the collections of Morellius (Sententiae vet. Comic., Paris, 1553, 8vo.), Hertelius (Collect. Fragm. Comic, Basil. 1560, 8vo.), H. Stephanus (Poesis Philosophica, 1573, 8vo.), and Hugo Grotius (Excerpt. ea Trag. et Comoed., Paris, 1626, 4to.), and separately by H. P. Kruseman, Harlem. 1834. Additions have been made by Welcker (Zeitschris? für die Alterthumswissenschaft, 1835, p. 1123), and others. The most important modern work on Epicharmus is that of Grysar, de Doriensium Comoedia, Colon. 1828; the second volume, containing the fragments, has not yet appeared. (See also Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. p. 298; Harless, de Epicharmo, Essen, 1822; Müller, Dorians, bk. iv. c. 7; Bode, Geschichte d. Hellen. Dichtkunst, vol. iii. part i. . 36.) - EPICLEIDAS (Erikxesöas), brother of Cleomenes III., king of Sparta. According to Pausanias (ii. 9. § 1. 3), Cleomenes poisoned Eurydamidas, his colleague of the house of Proclus, and shared the royal power with his brother Epicleidas. The latter afterwards fell in the battle of Sellasia, B. C. 222. [C.P. M.]

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EPICLES ('Emikasis), a medical writer quoted by Erotianus (Gloss. Hippocr. p. 16), who wrote a commentary on the obsolete words found in the writings of Hippocrates, which he arranged in alphabetical order. He lived after Baccheius, and therefore probably in the second or first century B. c. [W. A. G.] EPI'CRATES ('Etukpárms), an Athenian, who took a prominent part in public affairs after the end of the Peloponnesian war. He was a zealous member of the democratical party, and had a share in the overthrow of the Thirty Tyrants (Dem. de Fals. Legat. p. 430); but afterwards, when sent on an embassy to the Persian king Artaxerxes, he was accused not only of corruption, in receiving money from Artaxerxes, but also of peculation. (Lys. Or. 27, c. Epicratem, p. 806, &c.) Hegesander (ap. Athen. vi. p. 251, a.) and Plutarch (Pe. lop. 30) say, that he so grossly flattered Artaxerxes as to propose that instead of nine archons, nine ambassadors to the Persian king should be annually chosen by the Athenians. Plutarch also says that he did not deny the charge of corruption. He seems, however, to have been acquitted (Plut. and Ath. ll. cc.) probably through the powerful interest possessed by himself and by his fellow criminal, Phormisius. (Dionys. Wit. Lys. 32.) He had been guilty of corruption on a former occasion also, but had been equally fortunate in escaping punishment. (Lys. l.c.) This first offence of his was robably on the occasion when Timocrates the hodian was sent by Tithraustes to bribe the Greek states to attack Sparta (B. c. 395); for though Xenophon (Hell. iii. 5. § 1.) asserts, that the Athenians did not receive any money from Timocrates (a statement suspicious on the face of it), Pausanias (iii. 9, § 4) has preserved an account that at Athens bribes were taken by Cephalus and Epicrates. The above statement of the acquittal of Epicrates on the charge of corruption in his embassy to Artaxerxes, seems at first sight opposed to the statement of Demosthenes (de Fals. Legat. pp. 430, 431), that he was condemned to death, and that he was actually banished. But, in fact, Demosthenes seems to be referring to a distinct and third occasion on which Epicrates was charged with corruption ; for in his repetition of the charge there is the important head, karayevöðuevo Táv ovuuäxou, of which we find nothing in the oration of Lysias, but which is just the charge we should expect to be made against the Athenian envoy who took part in accepting the peace of Antalcidas (B. c. 387); and that Epicrates was really that envoy is the more probable from the fact, which is expressly stated, that it was Epicrates who recommended that peace to the Athenians. (Schol. Aristeid. i. p. 283, ed. Dindorf.) Epicrates and Phormisius were attacked by Aristophanes (Eccles. 68–72, Ran. v. 965, and Schol.) and by Plato, the comic poet, who made their embassy the subject of a whole play, the IIpéo Bels. Both are ridiculed for their large beards, and for this reason Epicrates was called oakeo popós. (Comp. Etym. Mag. s. v.; Suid. s. v., and s. v. troyow; Harpocrat. s. v. p. 162, cum not. Maussac. et Wales.; Epist. Socrat. 13. p. 29; Plat. Phaedr. p.227,b.; Meineke, Hist. Cril.Com. Graec. pp. 182, 183; Bergk, de Reliqu. Com. Att. Ant. pp. 389–394.) [P. Sl EPI'CRATES (Emikpárms), of Ambracia, was

an Athenian comic poet of the middle comedy, according to the testimony of Athenaeus (x. p. 422, f.), confirmed by extant fragments of his plays, in which he ridicules Plato and his disciples, Speusippus and Menedemus, and in which he refers to the courtezan Laís, as being now far advanced in years. (Athen. ii. p. 59, d., xiii. p. 570, b.) From these indications Meineke infers that he flourished between the 101st and 108th Olympiads (B. c. 376–348). Two plays of Epicrates, "Eutropos and 'Avrixats are mentioned by Suidas (s. v.), and are quoted by Athenaeus (xiv. p. 655, f, xiii. pp. 570, b. 605, e.), who also quotes his 'Auatóves (x. p. 422. f.) and Asatrpatos (vi. p. 262, d.), and informs us that in the latter play Epicrates copied some things from the Asatrpatos of Antiphanes. Aelian (N. A. xii. 10) quotes the Xopós of Epicrates. We have also one long fragment (Athen. ii. p. 59, c.) and two shorter ones (Athen. xi. p. 782, f, ; Pollux, iv. 121) from his unknown plays. (Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. pp. 414, 415, vol. iii. pp. 365–373; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 440, 44.1.) [P. S.] EPICTETUS (Ersktmros), of Hierapolis in Phrygia, a freedman of Epaphroditus, who was himself a freedman and a servile favourite of Nero, lived and taught first at Rome, and, after the expulsion of the philosophers by Domitian, at Nicopolis, a town in Epeirus, founded by Augustus in commemoration of his victory at Actium. Although he was favoured by Hadrian (Spartian, Hadr. 16) —which gave occasion to a work which was undoubtedly written at a much later time, the “Altercatio Hadriani cum Epicteto" (see especially Heumann, Acta Philos. i. 734)—yet he does not appear to have returned to Rome; for the discourses which Arrian took down in writing were delivered by Epictetus when an old man at Nicopolis. (Dissert. i. 25, 19, with Schweighauser's note.) The statement of Themistius (Orat. v. p. 63, ed.Harduin) that Epictetus was still alive in the reign of the two Antonines, which is repeated by Suidas (s. v.), seems to rest upon a confusion of names, since M. Aurelius Antoninus, who was an enthusiastic admirer of Epictetus, does not mention him, but Junius Rusticus, a disciple of Epictetus, among his teachers; in like manner, A. Gellius, who lived in the time of the Antonines, speaks of Epictetus as belonging to the period which had just passed away. (M. Antonin. i. 7, vii. 29, with Gataker's note; Gellius, vii. 19.) Besides what is here mentioned, only a few circumstances of the life of Epictetus are recorded, such as his lameness, which is spoken of in very different ways, his poverty, and his few wants. The detailed biography written by Arrian has not come down to us. (Simplic. Prooem. Comment. in Epictet. Enchirid. iv. p. 5, ed. Schweigh.) It is probable that he was still a slave (Arrian, Dissert. i. 9, 29) when C. Musonius Rufus gained him for the philosophy of the Porch, of which he remained a faithful follower throughout life. In what manner he conceived and taught it, we see with satisfactory completeness from the notes which we owe to his faithful pupil, Arrian; although of Arrian's eight books of commentaries four are lost, with the exception of a few fragments. . Epictetus himself did not leave anything written behind him, and the short manual or collection of the most essential doctrines of Epictetus, was compiled from his discourses by Arrian. (Simplic. in Enchirid.

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