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ment which ascribes the invention of tragedy to the Sicyonians. We do not know the period at which Epigenes flourished, and the point was a doubtful one in the time of Suidas, who says (s. v. 8éatris) that, according to some, he was the 16th before Thespis, while, according to others, he almost immediately preceded him. (See Müller, Dor. iv. 7. § 8; Meineke, Hist. Crit. Com. Graec. p. 354; Arist. Poèt. 3; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 100, 303, vol. iv. p. 10; Dict. of Ant. p. 980, a.) [E. E.] EPIGENES ('Emiyévms) of Byzantium is supposed to have lived about the time of Augustus by some, and several centuries earlier by others; nothing, in fact, is known of his date, except what may be inferred from the slight mention of him by Seneca, Pliny, and Censorinus. According to Seneca (Nat. Quaest. vii. 30.), Epigenes professed to have studied in Chaldea, from whence he brought, among other things, the notions of the Chaldeans on comets, in his account of which he is held to differ much from Apollonius Myndius [see his life], though it is not, we think, difficult to reconcile the two. Pliny (II.V. vii. 56) has a passage about Epigenes, which states that he asserts the Chaldeans to have had observations recorded on brick (coctilibus laterculis) for 720 (?) years, and that Berosus and Critodemus say 420 (?) years. 13ut among the various readings are found 720 thousand and 420 thousand, which seem to be the true” ones, for on them Pliny goes on to remark “Ex quo apparet aeternus litterarum usus.” Fabricius and Bayle (Dict, art. Ballylon) adopt the larger readings, and also Bailly, who takes them to mean days. Pliny may perhaps seem to say that Epigenes is the first author of note who made any such assertion about the Chaldeans: “Epigenes ... docet gravis auctor imprimis; ” and thus interpreted, he is made to mean that Epigenes was *lder than Berosus, and therefore than Alexander the Great. Weidler adopts this conclusion on different and rather hypothetical grounds. [A. De M.] EPIGE/NIUS, comes et magister memoriae, one of the commission of sixteen, appointed by Theodosius in A. D. 435, to compile the Theodosian Code, and one of the eight who actually signalized themselves in its composition. [Diodok Us, vol. i. p. 1018.] [J. T. G.] EPI'GONI (Ersoyovo), that is, the heirs or descendants. By this name ancient mythology understands the sons of the seven heroes who had undertaken an expedition against Thebes, and had perished there. [ADRASTUs.] Ten years after that catastrophe, the descendants of the seven heroes went against Thebes to avenge their fathers, and this war is called the war of the Epigoni. According to some traditions, this war was undertaken at the request of Adrastus, the only surviver of the seven heroes. The names of the Epigoni are not the same in all accounts (Apollod. iii. 7. § 2, &c.; Diod. iv. 66; Paus. X. 10. § 2; Hygin. Fab. 71); but the common lists contain Alcmaeon, Aegialeus, Diomedes, Promachus, Sthenelus, Thersander, and Euryalus. Alcmaeon undertook the command, in accordance with an oracle, and collected a considerable band of Argives. The Thebans marched out against the enemy, under the command
* Diodorus (ii. 8) says the Chaldeans claim for themselves 473,000 years.
of Laodamas, after whose fall they took to flight to protect themselves within their city. On the part of the Epigoni, Aegialeus had fallen. The seer Teiresias, however, induced the Thebans to quit their town, and take their wives and children with them, while they sent ambassadors to the enemy to sue for peace. The Argives, however, took possession of Thebes, and razed it to the ground. The Epigoni sent a portion of the booty and Manto, the daughter of Teiresias, to Delphi, and then returned to Peloponnesus. The war of the Epigoni was made the subject of epic and tragic poems. (Paus. ix. 9. § 3.) The statues of the seven Epigoni were dedicated at Delphi. (Paus. x. 10. § 2.) [L. S.] EPI'GONUS (Etsyovos) of Thessalonica, the author of two epigrams in the Greek Anthology. (Brunck. Anal. vol. ii. p. 306; Jacobs, vol. iii. p. 19, vol. xiii. p. 889.) [P. S.] EPI'GONUS, a Greek statuary, whose works were chiefly in imitation of other artists, but who displayed original power in two works, namely, a trumpeter, and an infant caressing its slain mother. It is natural to suppose that the latter work was an imitation of the celebrated picture of Aristeides. (Plin. xxiv. 8. s. 19. § 29.) [P. S.] EPILY'CUS (ETIAvicos), an Athenian comic poet of the old comedy, who is mentioned by an ancient grammarian in connexion with Aristophanes and Philyllius, and of whose play Kapaxioskos a few fragments are preserved. (Suid. s. v.; Athen. iv. pp. 133, b., 140, a., xiv. p. 650, c., xv. p. 691, c.; Bekker, Anecd. p. 411. 17 ; Phot. Ler. s. v. Tettiyâvov; Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. p. 269, ii. pp. 887, 889; Bergk, de Reliq. Com. Att. Ant. p. 431.) An epic poet of the same name, a brother of the comic poet Crates, is mentioned by Suidas (s. v. Kpatms). [P. S.] EPI'MACHUS, a distinguished Athenian architect and engineer, built the Helepolis of Demetrius Poliorcetes. (Vitruv. x. 2.) [P. S.] EPIME'DES ('Etruñóms), one of the Curetes. (Paus. v. 7. § 4, 14. § 5; comp. CJRETEs ; DACTYLI. [L. S. EPIMENIDES (’Etruevsöms). 1. A poet and prophet of Crete. His father's name was Dosiades or Agesarces. We have an account of him in Diogenes Laërtius (i. c. 10), which, however, is a very uncritical mixture of heterogeneous traditions, so that it is difficult, if not altogether impossible, to discover its real historical substance. The mythical character of the traditions of Epimenides is sufficiently indicated by the fact of his being called the son of a nymph, and of his being reckoned among the Curetes. It seems, however, pretty clear, that he was a native of Phaestus in Crete (Diog. Laërt. i. 109; Plut. Sol. 12; de Defect. Orac. 1), and that he spent the greater part of his life at Cnossus, whence he is sometimes called a Cnossian. There is a story that when yet a boy, he was sent out by his father to fetch a sheep, and that seeking shelter from the heat of the midday sun, he went into a cave. He there fell into a sleep in which he remained for fifty-seven years. On waking he sought for the sheep, not knowing how long he had been sleeping, and was astonished to find everything around him altered. When he returned home, he found to his great amazement, that his younger brother had in the meantime grown an old man. The time at which Epimenides lived. is determined by his invitation to Athens, when he had already arrived at an advanced age. He was looked upon by the Greeks as a great sage and as the favourite of the gods. The Athenians who were visited by a plague in consequence of the crime of Cylon [CyLoN], consulted the Delphic oracle about the means of their delivery. The god commanded them to get their city purified, and the Athenians sent out Nicias with a ship to Crete to invite Epimenides to come and undertake the purification. Epimenides accordingly came to Athens, about B. c. 596 or Olymp. 46, and performed the desired task by certain mysterious rites and sacrifices, in consequence of which the plague ceased. The grateful Athenians decreed to reward him with a talent and the vessel which was to carry him back to his native island. But Epimenides refused the money, and only desired that a friendship should be established between Athens and Cnossus. Whether Epimenides died in Crete or at Sparta, which in later times boasted of possessing his tomb (Diog. Laërt. i. 115), is uncertain, but he is said to have attained the age of 154, 157, or even of 299 years. Such statements, however, are as fabulous as the story about his fifty-seven years' sleep. According to some accounts, Epimenides was reckoned among the seven wise men of Greece (Diog. Laërt. Prooem. § 13: Plut. Sol. 12); but all that tradition has handed down about him suggests a very different character from that of those seven, and he must rather be ranked in the class of priestly bards and sages who are generally comprised under the name of the Orphici ; for everything we hear of him, is of a priestly or religious nature: he was a purifying priest of superhuman knowledge and wisdom, a seer and a prophet, and acquainted with the healing powers of plants. These notions about Epimenides were propagated throughout antiquity, and it was probably owing to the great charm attached to his name, that a series of works, both in prose and in verse, were attributed to him, though few, if any, can be considered to have been genuine productions of Epimenides, the age at which he he lived was certainly notan age of prose composition in Greece. Diogenes Laërtius (i. 112) notices as prose works, one on sacrifices, and another on the Political Constitution of Crete. There was also a Letter on the Constitution which Minos had given to Crete ; it was said to have been addressed by Jopimenides to Solom ; it was written in the modern Attic dialect, and was proved to be spurious by Demetrius of Magnesia. Diogenes himself has preserved another letter, which is likewise addressed to Solon ; it is written in the Doric dialect, but is no more genuine than the former. The reputation of Epimenides as a poet may have rested on a somewhat surer foundation ; it is at any rate more likely that he should have composed such poetry as Xpmauoi and Katapuot than any other. (Suidas, s. v. 'Etiuevíðms ; Strab. x. p. 479 ; Paus. i. 14. § 4.) It is, however, very doubtful whether he wrote the Téveals scal Oeo'yovía of the Curetes and Corybantes in 5000 verses, the epic on Jason and the Argonauts in 6500, and the epic on Minos and Rhadamanthys in 4000 verses; all of which works are mentioned by Diogenes. There cannot, however, be any doubt but that there existed in antiquity certain old-fashioned poems written upon skins; and the expression, 'Etruevibetov Šépua was used by the ancients to designate anything old-fashioned, obsolete, and curious. An
allusion to Epimenides seems to be made in St. Paul's Epistle to Titus (i. 12). Comp. Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. pp. 30, &c., 844; Höckh, Kreta, vol. iii. p. 246, &c.; Bode, Gesch. der Hellen. Dichtk. vol. i. p. 463, &c., and more especially C. F. Heinrich, Epimenides aus Creta, Leipzig, 1801, 8vo. 2. The author of a History of Rhodes, which was written in the Doric dialect. (Diog. Laërt. i. 115; Schol. ad Pind. Ol. vii. 24, ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 1125, iii. 241, iv. 57; Eudoc. p. 81; Heinrich, Epimenid. p. 134.) 3. The author of a work on genealogies. (Diog. Laërt. i. 115.) [L. S.] EPIME'THEUS. [PROMETHEUs and PANDORA.] EPINI'CUS (ETsvikos), an Athenian comic poet of the new comedy, two of whose plays are mentioned, “stroSaxAóweval and MunattróAewos. The latter title determines his date to the time of Antiochus the Great, about B. c. 217, for Mnesiptolemus was an historian in great favour with that king. (Suid. s. v.; Eudoc. p. 166; Athen. x. p. 432, b., xi. pp. 469, a., 497, a., 500. f. : Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. p. 481, iv. pp. 505–508.) [P.S.] EPI/PHANES, a surname of Antiochus IV. and Antiochus XI., kings of Syria, [see vol. i. pp. 198, 199], and also of Antiochus IV. king of Commagene, one of whose sons had likewise the same surname, and is the one meant by Tacitus, when he speaks (Hist. ii. 25) of “ Rex Epiphanes.” [See vol. i. p. 194.] EPIPHA'NIUS ('Etiqāvuos). 1. Of ALExANDRIA, son of the mathematician Theon, who addresses to him his commentaries on Ptolemy. (Theon. Commentary on Ptolemy, ed. Halma, Paris, 1821–22.) Possibly this Epiphanius is one of the authors of a work Tepi Bpovráv kal datpat&v, by Epiphanius and Andreas, or Andrew, formerly in the library of Dr. George Wheeler, canon of Durham. (Catal. MSS. Angliae et IIiberniae, Oxon. 1697.) 2. Bishop of CoNSTANTIA (the ancient Salamis), and metropolitan of CYPRUs, the most eminent of all the persons of the name of Epiphanius. (See below.) 3. Of CoNSTANTIA and metropolitan of CYPRUs, distinguished from the preceding as the Younger, was represented at the third council of Constantinople (the sixth general council) by the bishop of Trimithus, one of his suffragans. Several of the discourses which have been regarded as written by the great Epiphanius are by acuter judges ascribed either to this Epiphanius, or to a third of the same name and bishopric. [No. 4 below.] A work extant in MS. in the Library of St. Mark at Venice, and in the Imperial Library at Vienna, is also by some ascribed to this writer or the following. (Labbe, Concilia, vol. vi. col. 1058; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. pp. 258, 273, &c., x. pp. 249, 276, 279, 302; Petavius, Preface to the second volume of his edition of Epiphanius ; Oudin, Commentarius de Scriptor. Eccles. vol. ii. 318. 19.) 4. Third bishop of CoNSTANTIA of the name. A letter of his, congratulating Joannes or John on his restoration to the patriarchate of Constantinople (A. D. 867), is given, with a Latin version, by Labbe. (Concilia, vol. viii. col. 1276.) See the preceding article. 5. Of CoNSTANTINopi.E. On the death of Joannes or John II., the Cappadocian, patriarch of Constantinople, Epiphanius, then a presbytet, was
chosen to succeed him: he had been the “syncellus” or personal attendant (the functions of the syncellus are not determined) of his predecessor. The election of Epiphanius is stated by Theophanes to have taken place in Feb. A. D. 512 of the Alexandrian computation, equivalent to A. D. 519 or probably 520 of the common era ; the account, transmitted only four days after his ordination, to pope Hormisdas, by the deacon Dioscurus, then at Constantinople, as one of the legates of the Roman see, given by Labbe (Concilia, vol. iv. p. 1523), was received at Rome on the 7th of April, A. D. 520, which must therefore have been the year of his election. He occupied the see from A. D. 520 till his death in A. D. 535. Theophanes places his death in June, A. D. 529, Alex. comput. = A. D. 536 of the common era, after a patriarchate of sixteen years and three months; but Pagi (Critic. in Baronii Annales ad ann. 535, No. lviii.) shortens this calculation by a year. Epiphanius was one of the saints of the Greek calendar, and is mentioned in the Menologium translated by Sirletus, but not in that of the emperor Basil. IIc was succeeded by Anthimus, bishop of Trapezus. Some Letters of Epiphanius to pope Hormisdas, and of the pope to him, are extant in Labbe's Concilia, vol. iv. col. 1533–4–7, 1545–6, 1554–5; and in the Concilia of Binius, vol. ii. pp. 360–61–64– 65–68 (edit. 1606); in the latter they are given only in Latin. A decree of Epiphanius, and of a council in which he presided (apparently the council of Constantinople in A. D. 520, during the continuance of which he was elected to the patriarchate), condemning and amathematizing for heresy. Severus, patriarch of Antioch, Petrus or Peter, bishop of Apamea, and Zoaras, was read at a subsequent council of Constantinople, A. D. 536, under Menas or Mennas, successor of Anthimius, and appears in Labbe's Concilia, vol. v. col. 251, seq. Some laws and constitutions of Justinian are addressed to Epiphanius. (Justin. Cod. 1. tit. 3. s. 42; de Episcopis et Cleris; Novellae, 3, 5.) In the library of the king of Bavaria at Munich is a Greek MS. described (Hardt. Catalogus MSS. Graec. &c. Cod. cclvi.) as containing, among other things, a treatise by Epiphanius, patriarch of Constantinople, on the separation of the Latin and Greek churches; and a MS. in the Bodleian Library, Barocc. cxlv. (Catal. MStorum. Angliae et Hiberniae, Oxon. 1697) contains, with other things, a work by Epiphanius the patriarch On the ercommunication of the Latins by the Greeks on account of the Controversy concerning the Procession of the Holy Spirit. Allatius also (adv. Creoghtonum) cites Epiphanius Patriarcha, de Origine dissidii inter Graccos et Latinos, probably the same work as that in the Bavarian MS. But the subjects of these treatises shew they were of later date than our patriarch, nor have we the means of determining their authorship. An Arabic MS. in the King's Library at Paris (Catal. Mistorum. Bibl. Regiae, vol. i. p. 114, Codea. cxviii.) contains what is described as Canonum Epitome nec accurata nec antiqua, ascribed to Epiphanius. The account of Epiphanius by Evagrius contains two errors. He makes him the successor of Anthimius instead of the predecessor; and to have been succeeded by Menas or Mennas, who was the successor, not of Epiphanius, but of Anthimius. (Labbe and Binius, l.c.; Theophanes, Chronographia, ad annos citat. ; Evagrius, Hist. Eccles. iv.
36 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 257, xii. pp. 666, 674.)
6. Of CoNstanTINople (2). The life of St. Andreas or Andrew, o XaAós (the fool), by his contemporary and friend Nicephorus, contains various particulars of the history and character of Epiphanius, a young Constantinopolitan, who is described as possessed of every desirable endowment of mind and body, and as having manifested the strongest affection and regard for the saint who foretold his elevation to the patriarchate of Constantinople. Nicephorus declares that he lived to see this prophecy fulfilled in the elevation of Epi. phanius to that metropolitan dignity, but intimates that he changed his name. The Epiphanius of this narrative has been by Fabricius confounded with the subject of the preceding article; but Janninghus has shewn that as St. Andrew did not live till late in the ninth century and the earlier part of the tenth, the Epiphanius of Nicephorus must have lived long after the other. As he changed his name, he cannot be certainly identified with any of the patriarchs of Constantinople. Janninghus conjectures that he is identical with Polyeuctus or Antonius III.(Studita), who occupied the sce in the latter half of the tenth century. (Nicephorus, S. Andreae Vita, with the Commentarius Praevius of Janninghus, in the Acta Sanctorum Maii, vol. vi. ad fin. ; Fabricius, Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 257; o IIist. Lit. vol. i. p. 505, ed. Oxford, 1740– 43.
7. HAGIOPOLITA, or of JERUSALEM. See below, No. 8.
8. Described as a MONK and PRESBYTER. Allatius (de Symeonum Scriptis, p. 106) gives an account of and extract from a life of the Virgin by this Epiphanius, which extract is also given by Fabricius, in his Codex Apocryph. N. T. The entire work has since been published in the Anecdota Literaria of Amadutius (vol. iii. p. 39, &c.) with a Latin version and introduction. When he lived is not known : it is conjectured that it was in the twelfth century, as he mentions Joannes of Thessalonica and Andreas of Crete (who lived near the end of the seventh century) among “the fathers,” and is himself quoted by Nicephorus Callisti (Eccles. Hist. ii. 23) in the earlier half of the fourteenth century. He wrote also a 11istory of the Life and acts of St. Andrew the Apostle (Allatius, de Symeon. p. 90); and he is probably the author of an account of Jerusalem and of parts of Syria (by “Epiphanius Hagiopolita,” i. e. inhabitant of the Holy City), which he describes as an eye-witness. This account was published, with a Latin version, by Fed. Morellus, in his Expositio Thematum, Paris, 1620, and again by Allatius, in his Süuukta. It may be observed, that Morellus published two editions of the Expositio Thematum in the above year, one without the Greek text of Epiphanius, and one with it. A MS. in the Bodleian Library (Barocc. cxlii. No. 20) is described as containing “Epiphanii Monachi et Presbyteri Character B. Jirginis et Domini Nostri” (a different work from that mentioned above); and “ejusdem, ut videtur, de Dissilione Quatuor Evangelistarum circa Resurrectionem Christi.” (Catal. MSS. Angl. et Hibern. Oxford, 1697.) Some have confounded him with Epiphanius the friend and disci. ple of St. Andreas the fool, noticed above, No. 6. (Oudin, Comment. de Scriptor. et Scriptis Eccles. vol. ii. pp. 455-6.)
9. Called erroneously THE PATRIARCH, author of some works on the schism of the Eastern and Western churches. See above, No. 5.
10. Of PETRA, son of Ulpianus, was a sophist or rhetorician of considerable reputation. He taught rhetoric at Petra and at Athens. He lived also at Laodiceia in Syria, where he was very intimate with the two Apollinarii, father and son, of whom the latter afterwards became the founder of the sect of the Apollinaristae. The Apollinarii were excommunicated by the bishop of Laodiceia on account of their intimacy with Epiphanius, who, it was feared would convert them to the religion of the Greeks; from which it appears that Epiphanius was a heathen. While he was at Athens, Libanius, then a young man, came thither, but did not apply for instruction to Epiphanius, then in the height of his reputation, though they were both from Syria; neither is this Epiphanius the person to whom Libanius wrote. (Libanius, Epist. 831.) Epiphanius did not live to be very old; and both he and his wife, who was eminent for her beauty, died of the same disease, an affection of the blood. He wrote many works, which are enumerated by Suidas. They are as follows: 1. IIepl Kolvayias Kal Stapopas Tév atágeov. 2. Ipolyvuvdapata. 3. Mex4Tal. 4. Aijuapxol. 5. IIoxeuapxucós. 6. A6)ot 'ETiêellcrukoi : and, 7. Miscellanies. Socrates mentions a hymn to Bacchus, recited by him, attendance on which recitation was the immediate occasion of the excommunication of the Apollinarii. (Socrates, Hist. Eccl. ii. 46; Sozomen, Hist. Eccl. v. 25; Eunapius, Sophist. Vitae (Epiphanius and Libanius); Eudocia, 'Iović, in the Anecdota Graeca of Willoison, vol. i. ; Suidas, s. v. 'Etruspávios; the passages in Suidas and Eudocia are the same.)
11. Described as ScholasTICUs. Sixtus of Sena calls him a Greek, but Ceillier (Auteurs Sacrés, vol. xvi.) and Cave (Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 405) call him an Italian. He lived about the beginning of the sixth century. He was the friend of Cassiodorus [CAssiodorus], at whose request he translated from Greek into Latin the Commentary of Didymus on the Proverbs and on Seven of the Canonical
Epistles [DidyMUs, No. 4.], the Exposition of
Solomon's Song, said by Cassiodorus to be by Epiphanius of Constantia or Salamis. Garetius thinks this exposition was probably written by Philo of Carpasus or Carpathus; but Foggini vindicates the title of Epiphanius to the authorship. Whether Epiphanius Scholasticus was concerned in the translation of the Jewish Antiquities of Josephus, and of the Notes on some of the Catholic Epistles, from the writings of Clement of Alexandria, which Cassiodorus procured to be made, can only be conjectured, as Cassiodorus does not name the translators. Sixtus of Sena ascribes to Epiphanius Scholasticus a Calena (or compilation of comments) on the Psalms, from the Greek Fathers; but we know not on what authority. But his principal work was translating and combining into one the Ecclesiastical Histories of Sozomen, Socrates, and Theodoret. The Historia Tripartita of Cassiodorus was digested from this combined version. He also translated, by desire of Cassiodorus, the Codew Encyclius, a collection of letters, chiefly synodal, in defence of the council of Chalcedon, which collection has been reprinted in the Concilia of Binius, Labbe, Coletus, and Harduin, but most correctly by the last two. The version of the
Commentary of Didymus on the Canonical Epistle. is said [Didymus, No. 4) to be that given in Bibliotheca Patrum ; but that on the Proverbs h not, we believe, been printed ; the versions of Epiphanius, Josephus, and Clement of Alexandria, have been printed. That of Epiphanius on Solomon's Song was first published by Foggini, at Rome, i 1750, with a preface and notes. (Cassiodo Praef. in Histor. Tripart., De Institutione Divinar. Literar. cc. 5, 8, 11, 17, with the notes of Garetius; Sixtus Senensis, Bibliotheca Sancta, lib. iv.; Fabric. Billioth. Med... et Ins. Latimitatis, vol. ii. p. 101, ed. Mansi, Biblioth. Graec. vol. vii. p. 425, vol. viii. p. 257, vol. xii. p. 299; Cave, Ceillier, and Foggini, il. cc.) Beside the foregoing, there are many persons of the name of Epiphanius of whom little or nothing is known but their names. The ecclesiastics of the name, who appear in the records of the ancient councils, may be traced by the Index in Labbe's Concilia, vol. xvi. [J. C. M.] EPIPHA'NIUS ('Etiqāvuos), bishop of ConSTANTIA and metropolitan of Cyprus, was born at Bezanduca, a small town in Palestine, in the district of Eleutheropolis, in the first part of the fourth century. (Sozomen. vi. 32.) His parents were Jews. He went to Egypt when young, and there appears to have been tainted with Gnostic errors, but afterwards fell into the hands of some monks, and by them was made a strong advocate for the monastic life, and strongly imbued with their own narrow spirit. He returned to Palestine, and lived there for some time as a monk, having founded a monastery near his native place. In A. D. 367 he was chosen bishop of Constantia, the metropolis of the Isle of Cyprus, formerly called Salamis. His writings shew him to have been a man of great reading; for he was acquainted with Hebrew, Syriac, Egyptian, Greek, and Latin, and was therefore called TrevT&YAwqoros. But he was entirely without critical or logical power, of real piety, but also of a very bigoted and dogmatical turn of mind, unable to distinguish the essential from the nonessential in doctrinal differences, and always ready to suppose that some dangerous heresy lurked in. any statement of belief which varied a little from the ordinary form of expression. It was natural that to such a man Origen, whom he could not understand, should appear a dangerous teacher of error; and accordingly in his work on heresies he thinks it necessary to give an essential warning against him. A report that Origen's opinions were spreading in Palestine, and sanctioned even by John, bishop of Jerusalem, excited Epiphanius to such a pitch, that he left Cyprus to investigate the matter on the spot. At Jerusalem he preached so violent a sermon against any abettors of Origen's errors, and made such evident allusions to the bishop, that John sent his Archdeacon to beg him to stop. Afterwards, when John preached against anthropomorphism (of a tendency to which Epiphanius had been suspected) he was followed up to the pulpit by his undaunted antagonist, who announced that he agreed in John's censure of Anthropomorphites, but that it was equally necessary to condemn Origenists. Having excited sufficient commotion at Jerusalem, Epiphanius repaired to Bethlehem, where he was all-powerful with the monks; and there he was so successful
in his denunciation of heresy, that he persuaded.
some to renounce their connexion with the bishop of Jerusalem. After this he allowed his zeal to get the better of all considerations of church order and decency, to such an extent, that he actually ordained Paullinianus to the office of presbyter, that he might perform the ministerial functions for the monks (who, as usual at that time, were laymen), and so prevent them from applying to Jerusalem to supply this want. John naturally protested loudly against this interference with his diocese, and appealed for help to the two patriarchal sees of Alexandria and Rome. Peace was not restored to the Church for some time. The next quarrel in which Epiphanius was involved was with Chrysostom. Some monks of Nitria had been expelled by Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria, as Origenists, but were received and protected at Constantinople [CIIRysostom Us]. Upon this Theophilus persuaded Epiphamius, now almost in his dotage, to summon a council of Cyprian bishops, which he did A. D. 401. This assembly passed a sentence of condemnation on Origen's books, which was made known to Chrysostom by letter; and Epiphanius proceeded in person to Constantinople, to take part in the pending dispute. Chrysostom was irritated by Epiphanius interfering in the government of his diocese; and the latter, just before his return home, is reputed to have given went to his bad feeling by the scandalous malediction, “I hope that you will not die a bishop !” upon which Chrysostom replied,—“I hope you will never get home !” (Sozomen. viii. 15.) For the credit of that really great and Christian man, it is to be hoped that the story is incorrect; and as both wishes were granted, it bears strong marks of a tale invented after the deaths of the two disputants. Epiphanius died on board the ship, which was conveying him back to Cyprus, A. D. 402, leaving us a melancholy example of the unchristian excesses into which bigotry may hurry a man of real piety, and a sincere desire to do God service.
The extant works of Epiphanius are (1) Ancoratus, a discourse on the faith, being an exposition of the doctrine of the Trinity ; (2) Panarium, a discourse against Heresies, of which he attacks no less than eighty ; (3) An epitome of 2. called -smacophalaeosis ; (4) De Ponderibus et A sensuris liber; (5) Two Epistles ; the first to John bishop of Jerusalem, translated by Jerome into Latin ; the second to Jerome himself, in whose works they are both found. A great number of Epiphanius's writings are lost. The earliest editions were at Basle, in Latin, translated by Cormarius, 1543, and again in the following year sumtu et typis Jo. Hercagii. The edition of Diomysius Petavius, in Greek and Latin, appeared at Paris, 1622, 2 vols. fol., and at Leipzig, 1682, with a commentary by Walesius. (Sozomen. l. c.; Hieronym. - spol. 1. ade. It usin. p. 222; Cave, Hist. Litt. vol. i.; Neander, Kirchenyeschichte, vol.
ii. p. 1414, &c.) [G. E. L. C.] EPI'POLE ("Etitoxi), a daughter of Trachion, of Carystus in Euboea. In the disguise of a man she went with the Greeks against Troy; but when Palamedes discovered her sex, she was stoned to death by the Greek army. (Ptolem. Hephaest. 5.) Epipole was also a surname of Demeter at Lace
daemon. (Hesych. s. v. 'EtitoxNd.) [L. S.] EPI'STHENES (Eriot'évns), of Amphipolis, commanded the Greek peltastae at the battle of
Cunaxa, and is mentioned by Xenophon as an ableofficer. His name occurs again in the march of the Greeks through Armenia. (Xen. Anab. i. 10. § 7, iv. 6. § 1.) [E. E.] EPI'STROPHUS ('Etriatpopos), three mythical personages of this name are mentioned in the Iliad. (ii. 516, &c., 692, 850.) [L. S.] EPITADAS ('Etitáðas), son of Molobrus, was. the commander of the 420 Lacedaemonians who were blockaded in the island of Sphacteria in the 7th year of the Peloponnesian war, B. c. 425. Ile appears to have executed his difficult task with prudence and ability, and was spared by death in the final combat the disgrace of surrender. (Thuc. iv. 8, 31, 38. [A. H. C.] EPITHERSES ("Ett0épons), of Nicaea, a grammarian, who wrote on Attic comic and tragic words (Tepl Aéewv Attuków kal Kauków kai Tpayikav; Steph. Byz. s. v. Nikata; Erotian. s. v.”Auðmu, p. 88, who gives the name wrongly 0épaus). If he be the same as the father of the rhetorician Aemilianus, he must have lived under the Emperor Tiberius. (Plut. de DJ. Orac. p. 419, b.) [P. S.] EPOCILLUS (ETórixAos), a Macedonian, was commissioned by Alexander, in B. c. 330, to conduct as many of the Thessalian cavalry and of the other allied troops as wished to return home, as far as the sea-coast, where Menes was desired to make arrangements for their passage to Euboea. In B. c. 328, when Alexander was in winter quarters at Nautaca, he sent Epocillus with Sopolis and Menidas to bring reinforcements from Macedonia. (Arr. A mal. iii. 19, iv. 18.) [E. E.] EPO/NA ("ITTwwa), from epus (Tiros), that is, •equus, was regarded as the protectress of horses. Images of her, either statues or paintings, were frequently seen in niches of stables. She was said to be the daughter of Fulvius Stellus by a mare. (Juven. viii. 157; Plut. Parall. Gr. et stom. p. 312; Isartung, Die Religion der Jömer, vol. ii. p. 154.) [L. S.] EPOPEUS ('Etatess), a son of Poseidon and Canace. He came from Thessaly to Sicyon, where he succeeded in the kingdom, as Corax died without leaving any heir to his throne. He carried away from Thebes the beautiful Antiope, the daughter of Nycteus, who therefore made war upon Epopeus. The two hostile kings died of the wounds which they received in the war; but previous to his death Epopeus dedicated a temple to Athena. (Paus. ii. 6. § 1; Apollod. i. 7. § 4.) A different tradition about Epopeus is related under AxiPHION, No. 1. Pausanias (ii. 1. § 1) calls him a son of Aloeus, whereas he is commonly described as a brother of Aloeus. The temple of Athena which he had built at Sicyon was destroyed by lightning, but his tomb was preserved and shewn there to a very late period. (Paus. ii. 11. § 1.) Another mythical being of this name occurs in Ovid. (..] set. iii. 618, &c.) IL. S.] EPO'PSIUS (ETápios), that is, the superintendent, occurs as a surname of several gods, such as Zeus (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1124), Apollo (Hesych. s.v.; comp. Soph. Philoct. 1040), and of Poseidon at Megalopolis. (Paus. viii. 30. § 1.) [L. S.] EPORE'DORIX, a chieftain of the Aedui, was one of the commanders of the Aeduan cavalry, which, in compliance with Caesar's requisition, was sent to the aid of the Romans against Wercingetorix, in B. c. 52. He also informed Caesar of
the designs of Litavicus, who was endeavouring to