ページの画像
PDF

EBURNUS, an agnomen of Q. Fabius Maximus, who was consul in B. c. 116. [MAXIMUS.] ECDE''MUS. [DEMoPHANES.] E'CDICUS ('Ekötkos), a Lacedaemonian, was sent out with eight ships, in B. c. 391, to put down the democratic party in Rhodes. On his arrival however at Cnidus, he found that the forces of his opponents doubled his own, and he was therefore obliged to remain inactive. The Lacedaemonians, when they heard that he was not in a condition to effect anything, sent Toleutias with a larger arma

[ocr errors]

23; comp. Diod. xiv. 79, 97.) [E. E.] • ‘E3EBO'HAUS ('Ekojšóxios, a sophist of Con:stantinople, why in the reign of Constantine the Great pretended to be a Christian, but afterwards, in the time of the emperor Julian, conducted himself as a zealous pagan. (Suid. s. v.; Socrat. H. E. iii. 13.) [L. S.] ECECHEI/RIA ('Ekexepta), that is, the armistice or truce, which was personified and represented as a divine being at the entrance of the temple of Zeus at Olympia; there was a statue of Iphitus, which Ececheiria was in the act of crowning. (Paus. v. 10. § 3, 26. § 2.) [L. S.] ECHECLUS (“Exekxos), a son of Agenor, who was slain by Achilles. (Hom. Il. xx. 473; Paus. x. 27.) A Trojan of the same name occurs in the Iliad. (xvi. 692.) [L. S.] ECHECRATES ('Exekpárms). 1. A Thessalian, was one of those whom the ministers of Ptolemy Philopator, when they were preparing for war with Antiochus the Great in B. c. 219, employed in the levying of troops and their arrangement into separate companies. He was entrusted with the command of the Greek forces in Ptolemy's pay, and of all the mercenary cavalry, and did good service in the war, especially at the battle of Raphia in B. c. 217. (Polyb. v. 63, 65, 82,85.) 2. Son of Demetrius of Cyrene by Olympias of Larissa, and brother of Antigonus Doson. He had a son named Antigonus after his uncle. (Liv. xl. 54; see vol. i. pp. 187, 189, b.) {E. E.] ECHECRATES ('Exekpárms), the name of three Pythagorean philosophers, mentioned by Iamblichus. (Wit. Pyth. ad fin.) 1. A Locrian, one of those to whom Plato is said to have gone for instruction. (Cic. de Fin. v. 29.) The name Caetus in Valerius Maximus (viii. 7, Ext. 3) is perhaps an erroneous reading for Echecrates. 2. A Tarentine, probably the same who is mentioned in Plat. Ep. 9. 3. Of Phlius, was contemporary with Aristoxenus the Peripatetic. (Diog. Laërt. viii. 46; comp. Gell. iv. 11; Fabric. Bill. Graec. i. p. 861.) [E. E.] ECHECRA'TIDES ('Exexpartôms), a Peripatetic philosopher, who is mentioned among the disciples of Aristotle. He is spoken of only by Stephanus of Byzantium (s. v. Mij9vuva), from whom we learn that he was a native of Methymna in Lesbos. Several other persons of this name, concerning whom nothing is known beyond what is contained in the passages where they occur, are mentioned by Thucydides (i. 111), Pausanias (x. 16. S 4), Aelian (V. H. i. 25), Lucian (Timon, 7), and by Anyte in the Greek Anthology. (vi. 123.) [L. S.] ECHEDF'MUS [EcHEMUs.] ECHEDE'MUS ('Exéðmuos), the chief of the Athenian embassy which was sent, in B. c. 190, to

meet Publius and Lucius Scipio at Amphissa, a to obtain peace for the Aetolians. When the co sul Lucius refused to recede from the hard ter. which had been already proposed by the senal the Aetolians, by the advice of Echedemus, appli for and obtained a truce of six months, that might again send ambassadors on the subject Rome. (Polyb. xxi. 2, 3; Liv. xxxvii. 6, 7.) [E.E ECHEMBROTUS ('Exéuéporos), an Arcadi. flute-player (aij}\46ós), who gained a prize in t Pythian games about Ol. 48. 3 (B. c. 586), as dedicated a tripod to the Theban Heracles, wil an inscription which is preserved in Pausanias ( 7. § 3), and from which we learn that he won prize by his melic poems and elegies, which we sung to the accompaniment of the flute. [L. S ECHEMENES ('Exeuévns), is mentioned b Athenaeus (xiii. p. 601) as the author of Kpmruk from which a statement relating to the mythic history of Crete is there quoted. Vossius (de His Graec. p. 436, ed. Westerm.) proposes to readi Fulgentius (Mythol. i. 14), Echemenes for Euxt menes, who is there spoken of as the author C Mv80Aoyosueva, of which the first book is quoted But this conjecture is without support. [L. S.] ECHEMON ('Exéuov), a son of Priam, wh was killed, with his brother Chromius, by Diomede (Hom. Il. v. 160; Apollod. iii. 12, § 5.) [L. S.] E'CHEMUS ('Exeuos), a son of Aeropus an grandson of Cepheus, succeeded Lycurgus as ki of Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 4. § 7.) He was *: to Timandra, a daughter of Tyndareus and Leda (Apollod. iii. 10. S 6.) In his reign the Dori invaded Peloponnesus, and Echemus succeeded it slaying, in single combat, Hyllus, the son of H cles. (Paus. viii. 5. § 1, 45. § 2; Schol. ad Pi Ol. x. 79.) The fight was believed to have curred on the frontier, between Corinth and M gara, and in the latter place Hyllus was buri (Paus. i. 41. § 3, 44. § 14.) After the fall of Hy lus the Heracleidae were obliged to promise not to repeat their attempts upon Peloponnesus within the next fifty or hundred years, and the Tegeatani were honoured with the privilege of commanding one wing of the Peloponnesian army, whenever th inhabitants of the peninsula undertook an expedi. tion against a foreign enemy. (Herod. ix. 26; Diod. iv. 58.) The fight of Echemus and Hyllus was represented on the tomb of Echemus at Te (Paus. viii. 53. § 5.) According to Stephanus Byzantium (s. v. 'Ekaôjuela) Echemus accompani the Dioscuri in their expedition to Attica, whe Plutarch (Thes. 32) calls the Arcadian companion of the Dioscuri Echedemus and Marathus. [L.S. ECHENE/US ('Exévmos), the eldest o: J

[ocr errors]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]

poems mention two personages of this name, the one a Trojan, who was slain by Antilochus (Il. iv. 457, &c.), and the other a Sicyonian, who made Agamemnon a present of the mare Aethe, in order not to be obliged to accompany him to Troy. (Il. xxiii. 293, &c.) | L. S.] ECHESTRATUS ('Exéarpatos), son of Agis I. and third of the Agid line of Spartan kings. In his reign the district of Cynuria on the Argive border was reduced. He was the father of Labotas or Leobotes, king of Sparta. (Paus. iii. 2. § 2; Herod. vii. 204.) [A. H. C.] ECHETI'MUS ('Exériuos), of Sicyon, was the husband of Nicagora, who was believed to have brought the image of Asclepius, in the form of a dragon, from Epidaurus to Sicyon, on a car drawn by mules. (Paus. ii. 10. § 3.) [L. S.] ECHETLUS ('Exetxos), a mysterious being, about whom the following tradition was current at Athens. During the battle of Marathon there appeared among the Greeks a man, who resembled a rustic, and slew many of the barbarians with his plough. After the battle, when he was searched for, he was not to be found anywhere, and when the Athenians consulted the oracle, they were commanded to worship the hero Echetlaeus, that is the hero with the éxétam, or ploughshare. Echetlus was to be seen in the painting in the Poecile, which represented the battle of Marathon. (Paus. i. 15. § 4, 32, § 4.) [L. S.] E'CHETUS (Exeros), a cruel king of Epeirus, who was the terror of all mortals. He was a son of Euchenor and Phlogea. His daughter, Metope or Amphissa, who had yielded to the embraces of her lover Aechmodicus, was blinded by her father, and Aechmodicus was cruelly mutilated. Echetus further gave his daughter iron barleycorns, promising to restore her sight, if she would grind them into flour. (Hom. Od. xviii. 83, &c., xxi. 307; Apollon. Rhod. iv. 1093 ; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1839.) [L. S.] ECHIDNA (“Extàva), a daughter of Tartarus and Ge (Apollod. ii. 1. S 2), or of Chrysaor and Callirrhoë (Hesiod. Theog. 295), and according to others again, of Peiras and Styx. (Paus. viii. 18. § 1.) Echidna was a monster, half maiden and half serpent, with black eyes, fearful and bloodthirsty. She was the destruction of man, and became by Typhon the mother of the Chimaera, of the many-headed dog Orthus, of the hundredheaded dragon who guarded the apples of the Hesperides, of the Colchian dragon, of the Sphinx, Cerberus, Scylla, Gorgon, the Lernaean Hydra, of the eagle which consumed the liver of Prometheus, and of the Nemean lion. (Hes. Theog. 307, &c.; Apollod. ii. 3. § 1, 5. SS 10, 11, iii. 5. S 8; Hygin. Fab. Praef. p. 3, and Fab. 151.) She was killed in her sleep by Argus Panoptes. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 2.) According to Hesiod she lived with Typhon in a cave in the country of the Arimi, whereas the Greeks on the Euxine conceived her to have lived in Scythia. When Heracles, they said, carried away the oxen of Geryones, he also visited the country of the Scythians, which was then still a desert. Once while he was asleep there, his horses suddenly disappeared, and when he woke and wandered about in search of them, he came into the country of Hylaea. He there found the monster Echidna in a cave. When he asked whether she knew anything about his horses, she answered, that they were in her own possession,

but that she would not give them up, unless he would consent to stay with her for a time. Heracles complied with the request, and became by her the father of Agathyrsus, Gelonus, and Scythes, The last of them became king of the Scythians, according to his father's arrangement, because he was the only one among the three brothers that was able to manage the bow which Heracles had left behind, and to use his father's girdle. (Herod. iv. 8–10.) [L. S.] ECIII'NADES. [Achelous.] ECHI’ON ('Extav). 1. One of the five surviving Spartae that had grown up from the dragon's teeth, which Cadmus had sown. (Apollod. iii. 4. § l ; Hygin. Fab. 178; Ov. Met. iii. 126.) He was married to Agave, by whom he became the father of Pentheus. (Apollod. iii. 5. § 2.) He is said to have dedicated a temple of Cybele in Boeotia, and to have assisted Cadmus in the building of Thebes. (Ov. Met. x. 686. ) 2. A son of Hermes and Antianeira at Alope. (Hygin. Fab. 14; Apollon. Rhod. i. 56.) He was a twin-brother of Erytus or Eurytus, together with whom he took part in the Calydonian hunt, and in the expedition of the Argonauts, in which, as the son of Hermes, he acted the part of a cunning spy. (Pind. Pyth. iv. 179; Ov. Met. viii. 311 ; comp. Orph. Argon. 134, where his mother is called Laothoe.) A third personage of this name, one of the giants, is mentioned by Claudian. (Gigant. 104.) L. S.] ECHI’ON, a painter and statuary, who flourished in the 107th Olympiad (B. c. 352). His most noted pictures were the following: Father Liber; Tragedy and Comedy; Semiramis passing from the state of a handmaid to that of a queen, with an old woman carrying torches before her; in this picture the modesty of the new bride was admirably depicted. He is ranked by Pliny and Cicero with the greatest painters of Greece, Apelles, Melanthius, and Nicomachus. (Plin. xxxiv. 8, s 19; xxxv. 7. s. 32; 10. s. 36. § 9.) The picture in the Vatican, known as “the Aldobrandini Marriage,” is supposed by some to be a copy from the “Bride” of Echion. (Kugler, Handbuch d. Kunstgesch. p. 236; Müller, Arch. d. Kunst, $ 140, 3.) Hirt supposes that the name of the painter of Alexander's marriage, whom Lucian praises so highly, AETION, is a corruption of Echion. (Gesch. d. Bild. Künste, pp. 265–268.) [P. S.] E"CHIUS (Extos.) Two mythical personages of this name occur in the Iliad ; the one a Greek and a son of Mecisteus, was slain by Polites (viii. 333, xv. 339), and the other, a Trojan, was slain by Patroclus. (xvi. 416.) [L. S.] ECHO ('Hx4), an Oreade, who when Zeus was playing with the nymphs, used to keep Hera at a distance by incessantly talking to her. In this manner Hera was not able to detect her faithless husband, and the nymphs had time to escape. Hera, however, found out the deception, and she punished Echo by changing her into an echo, that is, a being with no controul over its tongue, which is neither able to speak before anybody else has spoken, nor to be silent when somebody else has spoken. Echo in this state fell desperately in love with Narcissus, but as her love was not returned, she pined away in grief, so that in the end there remained of her nothing but her voice. (Ov. Met. iii. 356–401.) There were in Greece certain porticoes, called the Porticoes of Echo, on account of the echo which was heard there; thus, there was one stoa at Hermione with a threefold, and one at Olympia with a sevenfold echo. (Paus. ii. 35. § 6, v. 21. § 7.) Compare Wiesler, Die Nymphe Echo : eine kunstmythologische Abhandlung, Göttingen, 1844. [L. S.] ECLECTUS or ELECTUS, originally, it would appear, the freedman of L. Verus, after whose death he enjoyed the protection of M. Aurelius, became subsequently the chamberlain of Ummidius Quadratus, and after his destruction was chosen to fill the same office in the household of Commodus. The circumstances under which Eclectus, in conjunction with Laetus and Marcia, contrived the death of the tyrant and then forced the vacant throne upon Pertinax, along with whom he eventually perished, are described elsewhere. [CoMMODUs ; LAETUs; MARCIA ; PERTINAX.] (Capitolin. Ver. 9, expressly declares that the Eclectus who was the freedman of Verus was the individual who murdered Commodus, while in Dion Cassius, lxxii. 4, he is first introduced as the chamberlain of Quadratus. See also Dion Cass. lxxii. 19, 22, lxxiii. 1; Capitolin. Pertin. 4, ll; Herodian, i. 51, &c., ii. 1; Zonar. xii. 5.) [W. R.] Q. ECLO'GIUS or EULO'GIUS. According to the commonly received text of Suetonius (Vitell. 1), Q. Eclogius or Eulogius was the author of a little work on the history and genealogy of the Vitellii, in which the origin of the family was traced from Faunus, king of the Aborigines. It must be remarked, however, that the existence of a writer bearing this appellation depends upon a conjectural emendation of Casaubon, who supposes that his name at full length was Q. Vitellius Eclogius or Eulogius, and that he was a freedman of the emperor whose pedigree he investigated. [W. R.] ECPHANTIDES ('Ekpavrièms), an Athenian comic poet of the old comedy, flourished after Magnes, and a little before Cratinus and Telecleides. (Näke, Choerilus, p. 52.) He is called by Aspasius (ad Aristot. Eth. Nicom. iv. 2) Tov dpxasov taxatóratov troint#v, which words some writers understand as implying that he was older than Chionides and Magnes. But we have the clear testimony of Aristotle (Poet. v. 3), that all the poets before Magnes furnished their choruses at their own expense, whereas the name of a person who was choragus for Ecphantides is mentioned also by Aristotle. (Polit. viii. 6.) Again, a certain Androcles, to whom Cratinus and Telecleides often refer, was also attacked by Ecphantides, who could not, therefore, have flourished long before those poets. (Schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 1182.) The date of Ecphantides may be placed about Ol. 80 (B. c. 460), and onwards. The meaning of the surname of Katvías, which was given to Ecphantides by his rivals, has been much disputed, but it seems to imply a mixture of subtlety and obscurity. He ridiculed the rudeness of the old Megaric comedy, and was himself ridiculed on the same ground by Cratinus, Aristophanes, and others. (Hesych. s. v. Katvías ; Schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 151 ; Nāke, Choeril. p. 52; Lehrs, Quaest. Epic. p. 23 ; Meineke, p. 36.) There is only one certain title of a play by Ecphantides extant, namely, the Xarâpot, a line of which is preserved by Athenaeus (iii. p. 96, b., c.). Another play, IIspavvos, is ascribed to him by Nāke on conjectural grounds; but Meineke ascribes it to Antiphanes. Another title, Alévvgos,

is obtained by Nāke from a comparison of Suda (s. v. Eöte) with Hephaestion (xv. 13, p. 96, Gaisf. see Gaisford's note). Ecphantides was said to havi been assisted in composing his plays by his sla CHOERILUs. [P. S.] E/DECON (Eöekøv), an Iberian chief, called Edesco by Livy. He came to Scipio at Tarraco in B. c. 209, and offered to surrender himself “t. the faith of the Romans,” requesting, at the sami time, that his wife and children, who were among the hostages that had fallen into Scipio's hands a the capture of New Carthage, might be restored to him. Scipio granted his prayer, and thereby greatly increased the Roman influence in Spain. Edecon was the first chief who, after the retreal of Hasdrubal to the Pyrenees, saluted Scipio a king, —a homage which the latter knew bette than to accept. (Polyb. x. 34, 35, 40; Liv. xxvii 17, 19.) [E. E.] EDO'NUS ('Hôwvós), the mythical ancestor ol the Edones in Thrace. (Steph. Byz. s. v. 'Hôovuot.) The name is therefore used also in the sense ol “Thracian,” and as Thrace was one of the principal seats of the worship of Dionysus, it further signifies “Dionysiac" or “Bacchantic.” (Ov. Rem. Am. 593; Hor. Carm. ii. 7. 27.) [L. S.] EDU/LICA or EDUSA, a Roman divinity, who was worshipped as the protectress of children, and was believed to bless their food, just as Potina and Cuba blessed their drinking and their sleep. (Augustin, de Civ. Dei, iv. l l ; Varro, ap. Non. p. 108; Arnob. iii. 25; Donat. ad Terent. Phorm. i. 1, 11.) [L. S.] EERIBOEA. [ERIBoEA.] EETION ('Hettav), a king of the Placian Thebe in Cilicia, and father of Andromache and Podes (Hom. Il. vi. 396, xvii. 575.) He and seven ol his sons were slain by Achilles (Il. vi. 415, &c.) who proposed the mighty iron ball, which Eétion had once thrown, and which had come into the possession of Achilles, as one of the prizes at the funeral games of Patroclus. (Il. xxiii. 826, &c.) Among the booty which Achilles made in the town of Eétion, we find especial mention of the horse Pedasus and the phorminx with a silver neck, on which Achilles played in his tent. (Il xv. 153, ix. 186.) There are two other mythical personages of this name. (Il. xxi. 40, &c.; Paus ii. 4. § 4.) [L. S.] EGE'RIA. [AEGER.I.A..] EGE'RIUS, the son of Aruns, who was the brother of L. Tarquinius Priscus [ARUNs, No. 1] was born after the death of his father ; and as De maratus, the father of Aruns, died shortly after the death of his son without knowing that his daughter in-law was pregnant, none of his property was lef to Egerius, from which circumstance, according to the legend, he derived his name. When the town of Collatia was taken by his uncle Tarquinius Priscus, Egerius was left in command of the place and henceforth received, according to Dionysius the surname of Collatinus (though this name ii usually confined to his son L. Tarquinius Collatinus) Egerius was afterwards sent against Fidenae in com mand of the allied forces of Rome. [CollATINUs] (Liv. i. 34, 38; Dionys. iii. 50, 57, comp. iv. 64. EGESI/NUS. [HEGESINUs.] EGESTA. [AcKSTEs.] L. EGI’LIUS, one of the three commissioner who superintended the foundation of the colon planted at Luca, B. c. 177. (Liv. xli. 17.) [C.P. M. EGNATIA GENS, a family of Samnite origin, some at least of whom settled at Teanum. At the end of the social war the greater part of these appear to have removed to Rome, where two of them were admitted into the senate (Cic. pro Cluent. 48), though a branch of the family seems still to have remained at Teanum. (Cic, ad Att. vi. 1, mentions one Egnatius Sidicinus.) We find the following surnames borne by members of this gens: CELER, MAxIMUs, Rufus, and WERATIUs. [C. P. M.] EGNATIA MAXIMILLA, a descendant of that branch of the Egnatia gens which bore the surname of Maximus, is mentioned by Tacitus (A nn. xv. 71) as the wife of Glicius Gallus, who was banished by the emperor Nero. She accompanied her husband in his exile. [C. P. M.] EGNATIUS. l. GELLIUs EGNATIUs, was leader of the Samnites in the third great Samnite war, which broke out B. c. 298. By the end of the second campaign, the Samnites appeared entirely subdued; but in the following year Gellius Egnatius marched into Etruria, notwithstanding the presence of the Romans in Samnium, and roused the Etruscans to a close co-operation against Rome. This had the effect of withdrawing the Toman troops for a time from Samnium; but the forces of the confederates were defeated by the combined armies of the consuls L. Volumnius and Appius Claudius. In the fourth campaign (B. c. 295) Egnatius induced the Gauls and Umbrians to join the confederacy; but in consequence of the withdrawal of the Etruscans and Umbrians, the Gauls and Samnites fell back beyond the Apennines, and were met by the Romans near the town of Sentinum. A decisive battle, signalized by the heroic devotion of P. Decius, ensued, in which the confederate army was defeated, and Egnatius slain. (Liv. x. 18–29.) 2. MARIUS EGNATIUs, one of the principal leaders of the Italian allies in the social or Marsian war, which broke out B. c. 90. He was doubtless one of those twelve commanders, who were to be chosen year by year by the allies, to serve under two consuls. (Diod. Fragm. vol. x. p. 186, ed. Bip.) In Livy hè is called the leader of the Samnites. The first of his exploits which we have mentioned is the capture of Venafrum, of which he made himself master through treachery, and where he destroyed two cohorts. Not long after, near Teanum, in a defile of Mons Massicus, he fell unexpectedly on the army of the consul L. Caesar, which he put to flight. The Romans fled to Teanum, but lost a great number of men in crossing the Savo, over which there was but a single bridge. In the following year Egnatius was killed in battle with the Romans under the praetors C. Cosconius and Luc: (Liv. Epit. lxxv.; Appian, B.C. i. 40, 41, 45. It has been ingeniously conjectured (by Prosper Merimée, in his Essai sur la Guerre Sociale) that the M. Marius of Sidicinum mentioned by A. Gellius as being suae civitatis nobilissimus homo, and who was treated with such gross indignity by one of the consuls, probably of the year B. c. 123, was either the father or a near relative of Marius Egnatius. 3. CN. EGNATIUS, a man of somewhat disreputable character, was admitted into the Roman senate, but was subsequently expelled by the censors. (Cic pro Cluent. 48.)

father, a member of the senate, and retained that dignity when his father's name was struck off the rolls. . He was disinherited by his father. (Cic. pro Cluent. 48.) 5. EGNATIUs, probably a son of No. 4, accompanied Crassus on his expedition against the Parthians, and after the great defeat which Crassus sustained (B. c. 53), escaped from the scene of the disaster with 300 horsemen. (Plut. Crassus, 27.) Appian (B. C. iv. 21) mentions two Egmatii, father and son, who were included in the proscription of the year B. c. 43, and were slain by a single blow, while locked in each other's arms. They were perhaps the same with the two last. 6. EGNATIUS SIDICINUs, mentioned by Cicero as having had some money transactions with him. (Ad Att. vi. 1. § 23.) [EGNATIA GENs.] 7. EGNATIUs, a poet who wrote before Virgil. Macrobius (Sat. vi. 5) quotes some lines from his poem De Rerum Natura. [C.P. M.] EGNATULEIUS, the name of a plebeian gens at Rome. The names of two only belonging to it have come down to us. 1. C. EGNATULEIUs, c. F., whose name is found upon a coin figured below. The obverse represents the head of Apollo with C. EGNATvlei. C. (F.), and the reverse Victoy and a trophy, with RoM(A) beneath. The letter Q indicates that the coin was a Quinarius or half a Denarius. (Eckhel, Doctr. Num. vol. v. p. 205.)

2. L. EGNATULEIUs, was quaestor in the year B. c. 44, and commanded the fourth legion, which deserted from Antony to Octavianus. As a reward for his conduct on this occasion, Cicero proposed in the senate that he should be allowed to hold public offices three years before the legal time. (Cic. Phil. iii. 3, 15, iv. 2, v. 19.) [C.P. M.] EIDO'MENE (Eiðouévn), a daughter of Pheres and wise of Amythaon in Pylos, by whom she became the mother of Bias and Melampus. (Apollod. i. 9. § 11.) In another passage (ii. 2. S 2) Apollodorus calls her a daughter of Abas. [L. S.] EIDO'THEA (Eið00éa), a daughter of the aged Proteus, who instructed Menelaus, in the island of Pharos at the mouth of the river Aegyptus, in what manner he might secure her father and compel him to say in what way he should return home. (Hom. Od. iv. 365, &c.) There are three other mythical personages of this name. (Hygin. Fab. 182; Schol. ad Soph. Antig. 972; Anton. Lib. 30.) [L. S.] EILEITHYIA (Eixesovia), also called Eleithyia, Eilethyia, or Eleutho. The ancients derive her name from the verb éAes&eiv, according to which it would signify the coming or helping goddess. She was the goddess of birth, who came to the assistance of women in labour; and when she was kindly disposed, she furthered the birth, but when she was angry, she protracted the labour and delayed the birth. These two functions were originally assigned to different Eixeiðvías. (Hom. Il. xi. 270, xvi. 187, xix. 103; comp. Paus. i. 44. § 3; Hesych. s. v. Eixeiðvíai.) Subsequently, how

4. EGNATIUS, a son of the former, was, like his

ever, both functions were attributed to one divinity, and even in the later Homeric poems the Cretan Eileithyia alone is mentioned. (Hom. Hymn. in Apoll. Del. 98, &c., Od. xix. 188.) According to the Iliad the Eileithyiae were daughters of Hera, the goddess of marriage, whom they obeyed. (Hom. Il. xix. 119; comp. Pind. Nem. vii. init.; Ov. Met. ix. 285, &c.; Anton. Lib. 29.) According to Hesiod (Theog. 922) Zeus was the father of Eileithyia, and she was the sister of Hebe and Ares. (Apollod. i. 3. § 1.) Artemis and Eileithyia were originally very different divinities, but there were still some features in their characters which afterwards made them nearly identical. Artemis was believed to avert evil, and to protect what was young and tender, and sometimes she even assisted women in labour. Artemis, moreover, was, like Eileithyia, a maiden divinity; and although the latter was the daughter of the goddess of marriage and the divine midwife, neither husband, nor lover, nor children of her are mentioned. She punished want of chastity by increasing the pains at the birth of a child, and was therefore feared by maidens. (Theocrit. xxvii. 28.) Frequent births, too, were displeasing to her. In an ancient hymn attributed to Olen, which was sung in Delos, Eileithyia was called the mother of Eros. (Paus. i. 18. § 5. ix. 27. § 2.) Her worship appears to have been first established among the Dorians in Crete, where she was believed to have been born in a cave in the territory of Cnossus. From thence her worship spread over Delos and Attica. According to a Delian tradition, Eileithyia was not born in Crete, but had come to Delos from the Hyperboreans, for the purpose of assisting Leto. (Herod. iv. 35.) She had a sanctuary at Athens, containing three carved images of the goddess, which were covered all over down to the toes. Two were believed to have been presented by Phaedra, and the third to have been brought by Erysichthon from Delos. (Paus. i. 8. § 15.) Her statues, however, were not thus covered everywhere, as Pausanias asserts, for at Aegion there was one in which the head, hands, and feet were uncovered. (Paus. vii. 23. S 5.) She had sanctuaries in various places, such as Sparta (Paus. iii. 17. § 1, 14. § 6), Cleitor (viii. 21. S 2), Messene (iv. 31. § 7), Tegea (viii. 48. § 5), Megara (i. 44. S 3), Hermione (ii. 35. § 8), and other places. The Elionia, who was worshipped at Argos as the goddess of birth (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 49), was probably the same as Eileithyia. (Böttiger, Ilīthyia oder die Here, Weimar, 1799; Müller, Dor. ii. 2. § 14.) [L. S.] EIO'NEUS (Hiovess), a son of Magnes, and one of the suitors of Hippodameia, was slain by Oenomaus. (Paus. vi. 21. $ 7; Schol. ad Eurip. Phoen. o There are three other mythical personages of this name. (Hom. Il. vii. 11, x. 435; DLA. [L. S.] EIRE'NE (Elpijvm). 1. The goddess of peace. After the victory of Timotheus over the Lacedaemonians, altars were erected to her at Athens at the public expense. (Corn. Nep. Timoth. 2; Plut. Cim. 13.) Her statue at Athens stood by the side of that of Amphiaraus, carrying in its arms Plutus, the god of wealth (Paus. i. 8. § 3), and another stood near that of Hestia in the Prytaneion. (i. 18, § 3.) At Rome too, where peace (Pax) was worwhipped, she had a magnificent temple, which was built by the emperor Vespasian. (Suet. Vespas. 9; Paus. vi. 9. § 1.) The figure of Eirene or Pax

[graphic]

occurs only on coins, and she is there represente as a youthful female, holding in her left arm a co, nucopia and in her right hand an olive branch a the staff of Hermes. Sometimes also she appear in the act of burning a pile of arms, or corn-ears in her hand or upon her head. ( Mythol. Bilderb. ii. p. 104.) 2. A daughter of Poseidon and Melanthea, whom the island of Calauria was, in early ti called Eirene. (Plut. Quaest. Gr. 19.) [L. S.] ELAEU'SIUS ('EAatovalos), if the name b. correct, must have lived in or before the firs; century after Christ, as he is quoted by Soranui (de Arte Obstetr. p. 210), who calls him one of the followers of Asclepiades, and says he was one of those physicians who considered that there were certain diseases peculiar to the female sex, in op. position to some other medical writers who held the contrary opinion. He wrote a work on chronic diseases (Xpóvia), of which the thirteenth book is referred to by Soranus, but of which nothing now remains. [W. A. G.] ELAGABALUS. The Roman emperor commonly known by this name, was the son of Julia Soemias and Sextus Varius Marcellus, and first cousin once removed to Caracalla. [See genealogical table prefixed to the article CARAcALLA.] He was born at Emesa about A. D. 205, and was originally called VARIUS Avitus BASSIANUs, a series of appellations derived from his father (Varius), maternal grandfather (Avitus), and maternal greatgrandfather (Bassianus). While yet almost a child he became, along with his first cousin Alexander Severus, priest of Elagabalus, the SyroPhoenician Sun-god, to whose worship a gorgeous temple was dedicated in his native city. The history of his elevation to the purple, to which in the earlier portion of his life he was not supposed to possess any claim, was effected in a very singular manner by his grandmother, Julia Maesa. She had long enjoyed the splendours and dignities of the imperial court in the society of her sister, Julia Domna, the wife of Septimius Severus and the mother of Geta and Caracalla. But after the murder of the latter by Macrinus, Maesa...was compelled to return to Syria, there to dwell in unhonoured retirement. While still smarting under a reverse peculiarly galling to her haughty temper, she received intelligence that the army was already disgusted by the parsimony and rigid discipline of their new ruler, and was sighing for the luxury enjoyed under his predecessor. Maesa, skilled in court intrigues and familiar with revolutions, quickly perceived that this feeling might be turned to her own advantage. A report was circulated with industrious rapidity that Elagabalus was not the son of his reputed father, but the offspring of a secret commerce between Soemias and Caracalla. The troops stationed in the vicinity to guard the Phoenician border had already testified their admiration of the youth, whom they had seen upon their visits to Emesa gracefully performing the imposing duties of his priesthood, and, having been further propitiated by a liberal distribution of the wealth hoarded by Maesa, were easily persuaded to receive Elagabalus with his whole family into the camp, and to salute him as their sovereign by the title of M. Aurelius Antoninus, as if he had really been the undoubted progeny and lawful heir of their late monarch. These proceedings took place on the 16th of May, A. D. 218. Macrinus having re

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
« 前へ次へ »