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events in literary as well as political history. (Harpocrat. s. v. Eömvos; Dionys. i. 46; Clem. Alex. Strom. i. p. 45.) This work, of which some fragments are still extant, formed a comprehensive chronological history, and appears to have been held in high esteem by the ancients. Apollodorus and Eusebius made great use of it, and Syncellus (p. 96, c.) has preserved from it a list of 38 kings of the Egyptian Thebes. (Comp. Bernhardy, l.c. p. 243, &c.) Another work, likewise of a chronological kind, was the 'ONvutriovikal. (Diog. Laërt. viii. 51; Athen. iv. p. 154; Schol. ad Eurip. Hecub. 569.) It contained a chronological list of the victors in the Olympic games, and other things connected with them. (Bernhardy, p. 247, &c.) Among his grammatical works we notice that On the Old Attic Comedy (IIep Tils 'Apxaías KwuqStas, sometimes simply IIepl Kwuotas, or Kauq5tóv), a very extensive work, of which the twelfth book is quoted. It contained everything that was necessary to arrive at a perfect understanding of those poetical productions. In the first part of the work, Eratosthenes appears to have entered even into discussions concerning the structure of theatres, the whole scenic apparatus, the actors, their costumes, declamation, and the like ; and it is therefore not improbable that the 'Apxitektovikás (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 567, iii. 232) and orkevoypaqucós (Pollux, x. 1), which are mentioned as separate works, were only portions of the first part of his work on the Old Comedy. After this general introduction, Eratosthenes discussed the works of the principal comic poets themselves, such as Aristophanes, Cratinus, Eupolis, Pherecrates, and others, entering into detailed criticism, and giving explanations both of their language and the subjects of their comedies. We still possess a considerable number of fragments of this work (collected in Bernhardy, l.c. pp. 205–237); and from what he says about Aristophanes, it is evident that his judgment was as sound as his information was extensive. He is further said to have been engaged in the criticism and explanation of the Homeric poems, and to have written on the life and productions of that poet; but nothing certain is known in this respect. For more complete lists of the works attributed to Eratosthenes, see the Eratosthenica of Bernhardy. [L. S.] ERATO'STHENES SCHOLA'STICUS, the author of four epigrams in the Greek Anthology (Brunck. Anal. vol. iii. p. 123; Jacobs, vol. iv. p. 93), to which may be added, on the authority of the Vatican MS., a fifth, which stands in the Anthology among those of Paul the Silentiary (No. 88). In all probability, Eratosthenes lived under the emperor Justinian. (Jacobs, Anth. Graec. vol. xiii. p. 890; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. iv. p. 474.) [P. S.] ERATO'STRATUS. [HERostro ATUs.] E’RATUS ('Epatós), a son of Heracles by Dynaste, was king of Argos, and made a successful expedition against Asine, which was besieged and taken. (Apollod. ii. 7. S 8 ; Paus. ii. 36. § 5.) [L. S.] E’REBOS ("Epesos), a son of Chaos, begot Aether and Heinera by Nyx, his sister. (Hesiod. Theog. 123.) Hyginus (Fab. p. 1) and Cicero (de Nat. Deor. iii. 17) enumerate many personifications of abstract notions as the offspring of Erebos. The name signifies darkness, and is therefore applied also to the dark and gloomy space under the
earth, through which the shades pass into Hades. (Hom. Il. viii. p. 368; comp. HADEs. [L. S.] ERECHTHEUS. [ERICHTHoNIUs.) E'RESUS (“Eperos), a son of Macar, from whom the town of Eresus in Lesbos derived its name. (Steph. Byz. s. v.) A second otherwise unknown person of this name was painted in the Lesche at Delphi. (Paus. x. 27.) [L. S.] EREUTHA'LION ('Epev6a Atov), an Arcadian, who, in the armour of Areithous, which Lycurgus had given him, fought against the Pylians, but was slain by Nestor. (Hom. Il. iv. 319, vii. 134, &c.) [L. S.] ERGA'MENES (Epyauévns), a king of Meroe, an Ethiopian by birth, but who had received a Greek education. He was the first who overthrew the power of the priests, which had been paramount to that of the sovereign, and established a despotic authority. He was contemporary with Ptolemy Philadelphus, but we know nothing of the relations in which he stood towards that monarch. His name has been discovered in the hieroglyphics at Dakkeh, whence it is inferred that his dominions extended as far north as that point. (Diod. iii. 6; Droysen, Hellenismus, vol. ii. p. 49, 278. [E. H. B.] ERGANE (Epyavn) or ERGATIS, that is, the worker, a surname of Athena, who was believed to preside over and instruct man in all kinds of arts. (Paus. v. 14. § 5, i. 24. § 3; Plut. de Fort. p. 99, a.; Hesych. s. v.) [L. S.] E‘RGIAS (Epyias) of Rhodes, is mentioned as the author of a work on his native island. (Athen. viii. p. 360.) Gesner and others are of opinion that Ergias is the same person as Erxias, who was the author of Koxospoviaká. (Athen. xiii. p. 56].) But which of the two names, Ergias or Erxias, is the correct one, cannot be determined. [L. S.] ERGI'NUS (Epyivos), a son of Clymenus and Buzyge or Budeia, was king of Orchomenos. After Clymenus was killed by Perieres at the festival of the Onchestian Poseidon, Erginus, his eldest son, who succeeded him as king, undertook to avenge the death of his father. He marched against Thebes, and surpassing the enemy in the number of his horsemen, he killed many Thebans, and compelled them to a treaty, in which they bound themselves to pay him for twenty years an annual tribute of 100 oxen. Heracles once met the heralds of Erginus, who were going to demand the usual tribute : he cut off their ears and noses, tied their hands behind their backs, and thus sent them to Erginus, saying that this was his tribute. Erginus now undertook a second expedition against Thebes, but was defeated and slain by Heracles, whom Athena had provided with arms. (Apollod. ii. 4. S 1 l; Diod. iv. 10; Strab. ix. p. 414; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 272; Eurip. Herc. fur. 220; Theocrit. xvi. 105.) Pausanias (ix. 37. § 2, &c.), who agrees with the other writers in the first part of the mythus, states, that Erginus made peace with Heracles, and devoted all his energy to the promotion of the prosperity of his kingdom. In this manner Erginus arrived at an advanced age without having either wife or children: but, as he did not wish any longer to live alone, he consulted the Delphic oracle, which advised him to take a youthful wife. This he did, and became by her the father of Trophonius and Agamedes, or, according to Eustathius (l.c.) of Azeus. Erginus is also mentioned among the Argonauts, and is said to have succeeded Tiphys as helmsman. (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 185, ii. :396.) When the Argonauts took part in the funeral games which Hypsipyle celebrated at Lemnos in honour of her father Thoas, Erginus also contended for a prize; but he was ridiculed by the Lemnian women, because, though still young, he had grey hair. However, he conquered the sons of Boreas in the foot-race. (Pind. Ol. iv. 29, &c., with the Schol.) Later traditions represent our Erginus as a Milesian and a son of Poseidon. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 185, &c.; Orph. Argon. 150; Apollod. i. 9. § 16; Hygin. Fab. 14; comp. MülIer, Orchom. p. 179, &c. 2nd edit.) [L. S.] ERGI'NUS (Epyovos), a Syrian Greek, who betrayed the citadel of Corinth into the hands of Aratus, by informing him of a secret path by which it was accessible. For this service he received 60 talents from Aratus. At a subsequent period he made an attempt to surprise the Peiraecus, in order to free the Athenians from the yoke of Antigonus Gonatas: but failed in the enterprise, which was disavowed by Aratus. (Plut. A rat. cc. 18–22, 33.) [E. H. B.] ERIBOEA (Epíšola). There are three mythical personages of this name. One was the wife of Aloeus (Hom. I. v. 385, &c.), the second the wife of Telamon (Soph. Ajar, 562; Pind. Isthm. vi. 42), and the third an Amazon. (Diod. iv. 16.) [L.S.] ERIBO'TES ("Epiéâtms), the son of Teleon, was one of the Argonauts, and appears to have acted as surgeon, as he is represented as attending on Oileus when he was wounded. (Apollon. Rhod. Argon. i. 73, ii. 1040; Hygin. Fal. 14; Valer. Flacc. Argon.) [W. A. G.] ERICHTHO'NIUS ('Epix0/vios). I. There can be little doubt but that the names Erichthonius and Erechtheus are identical; but whether the two heroes mentioned by Plato, Hyginus, and Apollodorus, the one of whom is usually called Erichthonius or Erechtheus I. and the other Erechtheus II., are likewise one and the same person, as Müller (Orchom. p. 117, 2d edit.) and others think, is not so certain, though highly probable. Homer (Il. ii. 547, &c., Od. vii. 81) knows only one Prechtheus, as an autochthon and king of Athens; and the first writer who distinguishes two personages is Plato. (Crit. p. 110, a.) The story of Erichthonius is related thus: When Hephaestus wished to embrace Athena, and the goddess repulsed him, he became by Ge or by Atthis, the daughter of Cranaus, the father of a son, who had either completely or only half the form of a serpent. Athena reared this being without the knowledge of the other gods, had him guarded by a dragon, and then entrusted him to Agraulos, Pandrosos, and Herse, concealed in a chest, and forbade them to open it. (Hygin. Poet. A str. ii. 13.) J3ut this command was neglected; and on opening the chest and seeing the child in the form of a serpent, or entwined by a serpent, they were seized with madness, and threw themselves down the rock of the acropolis, or, according to others, into the sea. The serpent escaped into the shield of Athena, and was protected by her. (Apollod. iii. 14. § 6; Hygin. Fab. 166; Paus. i. 2. § 5, 18. § 2; Eurip. Ion, 260, &c.; Ov. Met. ii. 554.) When Erichthonius had grown up, he expelled Amphictyon, and usurped the government of Athens, and his wife Pasithea bore him a son Pandion. (Apolłod. l.c.) He is said to have introduced the worahip of Athena, to have instituted the festival of
the Panathenaea, and to have built a temple o Athena on the acropolis. When Athena and Po seidon disputed about the possession of Attica Erichthonius declared in favour of Athena. (Apol. lod. iii. 14. § 1.) He was further the first who used a chariot with four horses, for which reason he was placed among the stars as auriga (Hygin. P. A. l.c.; Virg. Georg. i. 205. iii. 113; Aelian, W. H. iii. 38); and lastly, he was believed to have made the Athenians acquainted with the use of silver, which had been discovered by the Scythian king Indus. (Hygin. Fal. 274.) He was buried in the temple of Athena, and his worship on the acropolis was connected with that of Athena and Poseidon. (Apollod. iii. 14. § 6; Serv. ad Aen. vii. 761.) His famous temple, the Erechtheium, stood on the acropolis, and in it there were three altars, one of Poseidon, on which sacrifices were offered to Erechtheus also, the second of Butes, and the third of Hephaestus. (Paus. i. 26. S 6.) Erechtheus II., as he is called, is described as a grandson of the first, and as a son of Pandion by Zeuxippe, so that he was a brother of Butes, Procne, and Philomela. (Apollod. iii. 14. S 8; Paus. i. 5. S 3.) After his father's death, he succeeded him as king of Athens, and was regarded in later times as one of the Attic eponymi. He was married to Praxithea, by whom he became the father of Cecrops, Pandoros, Metion, Orneus, Procris, Creusa, Chthonia, and Oreithyia. (Apollod. iii. 15. S 1 ; Paus. ii. 25. S 5: Ov. Met. vi. 676.) His four daughters, whose names and whose stories differ very much in the different tra. ditions, agreed among themselves to die all together, if one of them was to die. When Eumolpus, the son of Poseidon, whose assistance the Eleusinians had called in against the Athenians, had been killed by the latter, Poseidon or an oracle demanded the sacrifice of one of the daughters of Erechtheus. When one was drawn by lot, the others voluntarily accompanied her in death, and Erechtheus himself was killed by Zeus with a flash of lightning at the request of Poseidon. (Apollod. iii. 15. § 4; Hygin. Fab. 46, 238; Plut. Parall. Gr. et Rom. 20.) In his war with the Eleusinians, he is also said to have killed Immaradus, the son of Eumolpus. (Paus. i. 5. § 2; comp. AGRAULos.) According to Diodorus (i. 29), Erechtheus was an Egyptian, who during a famine brought corn to Athens, instituted the worship of Demeter, and the Eleusinian mysteries. 2. A son of Dardanus and Bateia. He was the husband of Astyoche or Callirrhoë, and father of Tros or Assaracus, and the wealthiest of all mortals, for 3000 mares grazed in his fields, which were so beautiful, that Boreas fell in love with them. He is mentioned also among the kings of Crete. (Hom. Il. xx. 220, &c.; Apollod. iii. 12. § 2; Dionys. i. 62; Ov. Fast. iv. 33; Serv. ad Aen. viii. 130; Strab. xiii. p. 604.) [L. S.] ERI’DANUS ('Hotöavos), a river god, a son of Oceanus and Tethys, and father of Zeuxippe. (Hesiod. Theog. 338; Hygin. Fab. 14.) He is called the king of rivers, and on its banks amber was found. (Virg. Georg. i. 482; Ov. Met. ii. 324.) In Homer the name does not occur, and the first writer who mentions it is Hesiod. Herodotus (iii. 15) declares the name to be barbarous, and the invention of some poet. (Comp. Strab. v. p. 215.) The position which the ancient poets assign to the river Eridanus differed at different times. [L. S.]
ERI'GONE (Holyóvn.) 1. A daughter of Icarius, seduced by Bacchus, who came into her father's house. (Ov. Met. vi. 125; Hygin. Fab. 130; comp. IcARIUs.) 2. A daughter of Aegisthus and Clytaemnestra, and by Orestes the mother of Penthilus. (Paus. ii. 18. § 5.) Hyginus (Fal. 122), on the other hand, relates that Orestes wanted to kill her like her mother, but that Artemis removed her to Attica, and there made her her priestess. Others state, that Erigone put an end to herself when she heard that Orestes was acquitted by the Areiopagus. (Dict. Cret. vi. 4.) A third Erigone is mentioned by Servius. (Ad Virg. Eclog. iv. 6.) [L. S.] ERI'GONUS, originally a colour-grinder to the painter Nealces, obtained so much knowledge of his master's art, that he became the teacher of the celebrated painter Pasias, the brother of the modeller Aegineta. (Plin. xxxv. 11, s. 40. § 41.) From this statement it follows that he flourished about B. c. 240. [AEGINETA.] [P. S.] ERIGY'IUS (Epsyvios, "Epiyúños), a Mytilenaean, son of Larichus, was an officer in Alexander's army. He had been driven into banishment by Philip because of his faithful attachment to Alexander, and returned when the latter came to the throne in B. c. 336. At the battle of Arbela, B. c. 331, he commanded the cavalry of the allies, as he did also when Alexander set out from Ecbatana in pursuit of Dareius, B. c. 330. In the same year Erigyius was entrusted with the command of one of the three divisions with which Alexander invaded Hyrcania, and he was, too, among the generals sent against Satibarzanes, whom he slew in battle with his own hand. [CARANUs, No. 3..] In 329, together with Craterus and Hephaestion, and by the assistance of Aristander the soothsayer, he endeavoured to dissuade Alexander from crossing the Jaxartes against the Scythians. In 328 he fell in battle against the Bactrian fugitives. (Arr. Anab. iii. 6, 11, 20, 23, 28, iv. 4; Diod. xvii. 57; Curt. vi. 4. § 3, vii. 3. S 2, 4. §§ 32–40, 7. §§ 6–29, viii. 2. § 40.) [E. E.] ERINNA (*Hpuwa). There seem to have been two Greek poetesses of this name. 1. A contemporary and friend of Sappho (about B. c. 612), who died at the age of nineteen, but left behind her poems which were thought worthy to rank with those of Homer. Her poems were of the epic class: the chief of them was entitled 'HAakātm, the Distaff: it consisted of three hundred lines, of which only four are extant. (Stob. Flor. cxviii. 4; Athen. vii. p. 283, d.; Bergk, Poèt. Lyr. Graec. p. 632.) It was written in a dialect which was a mixture of the Doric and Aeolic, and which was spoken at Rhodes, where, or in the adjacent island of Telos, Erinna was born. She is also called a Lesbian and a Mytilenaean, on account of her residence in Lesbos with Sappho. (Suidas, s. v.; Eustath. ad Il. ii. 726, p. 326.) There are several epigrams upon Erinna, in which her praise is celebrated, and her untimely death is lamented. (Brunck, Anal. vol.i.p. 241, n.81, p. 218, n. 35, vol.ii. p. 19, n. 47, vol.iii. p.261, n.523,524, vol.ii. p. 460.) The passage last cited, which is from the Ecphrasis of Christodorus (vv. 108–110) shews, that her statue was erected in the gymnasium of Zeuxippus at Byzantium. Her statue by Naucydes is mentioned by Tatian. (Orat. ad Graec. 52, p. 113, Worth.) Three epigrams in the Greek Anthology are ascribed to her (Brunck, Anal. vol. i. p. 58; JaWOL. II.
cobs, vol. i. p. 50), of which the first has the genuine air of antiquity; but the other two, addressed to Baucis, seem to be a later fabrication. She had a place in the Garland of Meleager (v. 12). 2. A Greek poetess, who, if we may believe Eusebius (Chron. Arm. Syncell. p. 260, a., Hieron.) was contemporary with Demosthenes and Philip of Macedon, in Ol. 107, B. c. 352. Several good scholars, however, reject this statement altogether, and only allow of one Erinna. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. ii. p. 120; Welcker, de Erinna, Corinna, &c. in Creuzer's Meletemata, pt. ii. p. 3; Richter, Sappho und Erinna; Schneidewin, Delect. Poes. Graec. Joleg. &c., p. 323; Idem, in Zimmermann's Zeitschrift für die Alterthumswissenschaft, 1837. p. 209; Bode, Gesch. d. Hell. Dichth. vol. ii. pt. 2, p. 448.) [P. S.] ERINNYES. [EUMENIDAE.] ERIO'PIS ('Epióris). There are four mythical personages of this name. (Hom. II. xiii. 697: Schol. ad Pind. Pyth. iii. 14; Paus. ii. 3. § 7; Hesych. s. v.) [L. S.] ERI'PHANIS ('Hpiqavis), a melic poetess, and author of erotic poetry. One particular kind of love-song was called after her; but only one line of her's is preserved in Athenaeus (xiv. p. 619), the only ancient author that mentions her. [L. S.] E’RIPHUS (Epiqos), an Athenian comic poet of the middle comedy. According to Athenaeus, he lived at the same time as Antiphanes, or only a little later, and he copied whole verses from Antiphanes. That he belonged to the middle comedy, is suffciently shewn by the extant titles of his plays, namely, Aloxos, Mexiēota, IIextaatss. Eustathius (ad Hom. p. 1686. 43) calls him A6) tos dwijp. (Athen. ii. p. 58, a., iii. p. 84, b. c., iv. pp. 134, c., 137, d., vii. p. 302, e., xv. p. 693, c.; Antiatt. p. 98.26; Suidas, s. v.; Eudoc. p. 167: Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. pp. 420 421, iii. pp. 556–558 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 441. 442.) [P.S.] ERIPHY'LE ("EpipúAm), a daughter of Talaus and Lysimache, and the wife of Amphiaraus, whom she betrayed for the sake of the necklace of Harmonia. (Hom. Od. xi. 326; Apollod. i. 9. § 3; AMPHIARAUS, ALCMAEoN, HARMONIA.) [L. S.] ERIPHY'LUS, a Greek rhetorician, who is mentioned by Quintilian (x. 6. S 4), but is otherwise unknown. [L. S.] ERIS (‘Epis), the goddess who calls forth war and discord. According to the Iliad, she wanders about, at first small and insignificant, but she soon raises her head up to heaven (iv. 441). She is the friend and sister of Ares, and with him she delights in the tumult of war, increasing the moaning of men. (iv. 445, v. 518, xx. 48.) She is insatiable in her desire for bloodshed, and after all the other gods have withdrawn from the battle-field, she still remains rejoicing over the havoc that has been made. (v. 518, xi. 3, &c., 73.) According to HeSiod (Theog. 225, &c.), she was a daughter of Night, and the poet describes her as the mother of a variety of allegorical beings, which are the causes or representatives of man's misfortunes. It was Eris who threw the apple into the assembly of the gods, the cause of so much suffering and war. [PARIs...] Virgil introduces Discordia as a being similar to the Homeric Eris; for Discordia appears in company with Mars, Bellona, and the Furies, and Virgil is evidently imitating Homer. (Aen. viii. 702; Serv. ad Aen. i. 31, vi. 280.) [L.S.l. E.
giver of good fortune, occurs as a surname of Hermes, but is also used as a proper name instead of Hermes. (Hom. Il. xxiv. 440, 457, Od. viii. 322; Aristoph. Ran. 1143.) [L. S.] ERO'PHILUS, a distinguished engraver of gems, was the son of Dioscorides. He lived, therefore, under the early Roman emperors. He is only known by a beautiful gem, bearing the head of Augustus, on which his name appears, though partially defaced. (Meyer zu Winckelmann, B. xi. c. 2. § 18, Abbildungen, No. 92; Müller, Arch. d. Kunst, $200, n. 1.) [P. S.] ERO'PON, an officer in the confidence of Perseus, king of Macedonia, who sent him in B. c. 168 to negotiate an alliance with Eumenes II., king of Pergamus, against the Romans. Livy says that Eropon had been engaged before on secret services of the same nature. (Liv. xliv. 24, 27, 28.) This name should perhaps be substituted for Kpupévra in Polyb. xxix. 3. [E. E.] EROS (Epws), in Latin, AMOR or CUPI'DO, the god of love. In the sense in which he is usually conceived, Eros is the creature of the later Greek poets; and in order to understand the ancients properly we must distinguish three Erotes: viz. the Eros of the ancient cosmogonies, the Eros of the philosophers and mysteries, who bears great resemblance to the first, and the Eros whom we meet with in the epigrammatic and erotic poets, whose witty and playful descriptions of the god, however, can scarcely be considered as a part of the ancient religious belief of the Greeks. Homer does not mention Eros, and Hesiod, the earliest author that mentions him, describes him as the cosmogonic Eros. First, says Hesiod (Theog. 120, &c.), there was Chaos, then came Ge, Tartarus, and Eros, the fairest among the gods, who rules over the minds and the council of gods and men. In this account we already perceive a combination of the most ancient with later notions. According to the former, Eros was one of the fundamental causes in the formation of the world, inasmuch as he was the uniting power of love, which brought order and harmony among the conflicting elements of which Chaos consisted. In the same metaphysical sense he is conceived by Aristotle (Metaph. i. 4); and similarly in the Orphic poetry (Orph. Hymn. 5; comp. Aristoph. Av. 695) he is described as the first of the gods, who sprang from the world's egg. In Plato's Symposium (p. 178, b) he is likewise called the oldest of the gods. It is quite in accordance with the notion of the cosmogonic Eros, that he is described as a son of Cronos and Ge, of Eileithyia, or as a god who had no parentage, and came into existence by himself. (Paus. ix. c. 27.) The Eros of later poets, on the other hand, who gave rise to that motion of the god which is most familiar to us, is one of the youngest of all the gods. (Paus. l.c.; Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 23.) The parentage of the second Eros is very differently described, for he is called a son of Aphrodite (either Aphrodite Urania or Aphrodite Pandemos), or Polymnia, or a son of Porus and Penia, who was begotten on Aphrodite's birthday. (Plat. l. c.; Sext. Emp. adv. Math. i. 540.) According to other genealogies, again, Eros was a son of Hermes by Artemis or Aphrodite, or of Ares by Aphrodite (Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 23), or of Zephyrus and Iris (Plut. Amat. 20; Eustath. ad IIom. p. 555), or, lastly, a son of Zeus by his
own daughter Aphrodite, so that Zeus was at oncehis father and grandfather. (Virg. Cir. 134.) Eros in this stage is always conceived and was always. represented as a handsome youth, and it is not till about after the time of Alexander the Great that Eros is represented by the epigrammatists and the erotic poets as a wanton boy, of whom a thousand tricks and cruel sports are related, and from whom neither gods nor men were safe. He is generally described as a son of Aphrodite; but as love finds its way into the hearts of men in a manner which no one knows, the poets sometimes describe him as of unknown origin (Theocrit. xiii. 2), or they say that he had indeed a mother, but not a father. (Meleagr. Epigr. 50.) In this stage Eros has nothing to do with uniting the discordant elements of the universe, or the higher sympathy or love which binds human kind together; but he is purely the god of sensual love, who bears sway over the inhabitants of Olympus as well as over men and all living creatures: he tames lions and tigers, breaks the thunderbolts of Zeus, deprives Heracles of his arms, and carries on his sport with the monsters of the sea. (Orph. Hymn. 57; Virg. Eclog. x. 29; Mosch. Idyll. vi. 10; Theocrit. iii. 15.) His arms, consisting of arrows, which he carries in a golden quiver, and of torches, no one can touch with impunity. (Mosch. Idyll. vi.; Theocrit. xxiii. 4; Ov. Trist. v. 1, 22.) His arrows are of different power: some are golden, and kindle love in the heart they wound; others are blunt and heavy with lead, and produce aversion to a lover. (Ov. Met. i. 468; Eurip. Iphig. Aul. 548.) Eros is further represented with golden wings, and as fluttering about like a bird. (Comp. Eustath. ad Hom. p. 987.) His eyes are sometimes covered, so that he acts blindly. (Theocrit. x. 20.) He is the usual companion of his mother Aphrodite, and poets and artists represent him, moreover, as accompanied by sueh allegorical beings as Pothos, Himeros, Dionysus, Tyche, Peitho, the Charites or Muses. (Pind. Ol. i. 41 ; Anacr. xxxiii. 8; Hesiod, Theog. 201; Paus. vi. 24. § 5, vii. 26. § 3, i. 43. § 6.) His statue and that of Hermes usually stood in the Greek gymnasia. (Athen. xiii. p. 551; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1596.) We must especially notice the connexion of Eros with Anteros, with which persons usually connect the notion of “Love returned.” But originally Anteros was a being opposed to Eros, and fighting against him. (Paus. i. 30. § 1, vi. 23. § 4.) This conflict, however, was also conceived as the rivalry existing between two lovers, and Anteros accordingly punished those who did not return the lovs of others; so that he is the avenging Eros, or a deus ultor. (Paus. i. 30. § 1 ; Ov. Met. xiii. 750, &c.; Plat. Phaedr. p. 255, d.) The number of Erotes (Amores and Cupidines) is playfully extended ad libitum by later poets, and these Erotes are described either as sons of Aphrodite or of nymphs. Among the places distinguished for their worship of Eros, Thespiae in Boeotia stands foremost : there his worship was very ancient, and the old representation of the god was a rude stone (Paus. ix. 27. § 1), to which in later times, however, the most exquisite works of art were added. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 266.) At Thespiae a quinquennial festival, the Erotidia or Erotia, were celebrated in honour of the god. (Paus. l.c.; Athen. xiii. p. 561.) Besides Sparta, Samos, and Parion on the Hellespont, he was also worshipped at Athens, where he had an altar at the entrance of the Academy. (Paus. i. 30. Sl.) At Megara his statue, together with those of Himeros and Pothos, stood in the temple of Aphrodite. (Paus. i. 43. § 6, comp. iii. 26. § 3, vi. 24. § 5, vii. 26. § 3.) Among the things sacred to Eros, and which frequently appear with him in works of art, we may mention the rose, wild beasts which are tamed by him, the hare, the cock, and the ram. Eros was a savourite subject with the ancient statuaries, but his representation seems to have been brought to perfection by Praxiteles, who conceived him as a full-grown youth of the most perfect beauty. (Lucian, Am. ii. 17; Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 4, 5.) In later times artists followed the example of poets, and represented him as a little boy. (Hirt, Mythol. Bilderb. ii. p. 216, &c.; Welcker, Zeitschrift für die alie Kunst, p. 475.) Respecting the connexion between Eros and Psyche, see PsychE. [L. S.] EROS ("Epws) occurs in three ancient Latin inscriptions as the name of one or more physicians, one of whom is supposed to have been physician to Julia, the daughter of the emperor Augustus. There is extant a short work, written in bad Latin, and entitled “Curandarum Aegritudinum Muliebrium ante et post Partum Liber unicus,” which has sometimes been attributed to Eros. The style, however, and the fact that writers are liuoted in it who lived long after the time of Augustus, prove that this supposition is not correct. It has also been attributed to a female named Trotula, under whose name it is generally quoted ; but C. G. Gruner, who has examined the subject in a dissertation entitled “Neque Eros, neque Trotula, sed Salernitanus quidam Medicus, isgue Christianus, Auctor Libelli est qui De Morbis Mulierum inscribitur” (Jenae, 1773, 4to.), proves that this also is incorrect. The work is of very little value, and is included in the Aldine collection, entitled “Medici Antiqui omnes qui Latinis Litteris,” &c., fol., Venet. 15 '7, and in the collection of writers “Gynaeciorum,” or “ on Female Diseases,” Basil. 4to, 1566. It was also published in 1778, Lips. 8vo., together with H. Kornmann, “De Virginum Statu,” &c. [W. A. G.] EROTIA'NUS ('Epartavés), or, as he is sometimes called, Herodianus ('Howātavās), the author of a Greek work still extant, entitled Táv Tap' ‘Irrokpátel Aéčewv Svvaywys, Vocum, quae apud Hippocratem sunt, Collectio. It is uncertain whether he was himself a physician, or merely a grammarian, but he appears to have written (or at least to have intended to write) some other works on Hippocrates besides that which we now possess (pp. 23, 208, ed. Franz). He must have lived (and probably at Rome) in the reign of the emperor Nero, A. D. 54—68, as his work is dedicated to his archiater, Andromachus. It is curious as containing the earliest list of the writings of Hippocrates that exists, in which we find the titles of several treatises now lost, and also miss several that now form part of the Hippocratic collection. The rest of the work consists of a glossary, in which the words are at present arranged in a partially alphabetical manner, though it appears that this mode of arrangement is not that which was adopted by the author himself. It was first published in Greek, 8vo., 1564, Paris. in H. Stephani Dictionarium Medicum ; a Latin translation by Barth. Eustachius appeared in 1566, 4to., Venet. ; the last and best edition is that by Franz, Lips. 1780,
8vo., Greek and Latin, containing also the glossaries of Galen and Herodotus, a learned and copious commentary, and good indices. It has also been published with some editions of the works of Hippocrates. [W. A. G.] ERO'TIUS, vicarius and quaestor, one of the commission of Sixteen, appointed by Theodosius in A. D. 435, to compile the Theodosian Code. He does not appear, however, to have taken any distinguished part in its composition. [DIoDoRU's, vol. i. p. 1018.] [J. T. G.] ERU'CIA GENS, plebeian. Only one member of this gens is mentioned in the time of the republic, namely, C. Erucius, the accuser of Sex. Roscius of Ameria, whom Cicero defended in B. c. 80. From Cicero's account he would appear to have been a man of low origin. (Cic. pro Rosc. 13, 16, 18– 21, 29, 32.) His name also appears as one of the accusers of L. Varenus, who was likewise defended by Cicero, but in what year is uncertain. [VARENUs.] He was called by Cicero in his speech for Warenus Antoniaster, that is, an imitator of the orator Antonius. (Cic. Fragm. pro Varen. 8, p. 443, ed. Orelli.) The Ericius ("Epíkios) who is mentioned by Plutarch (Sull. 16, 18) as one of Sulla's legates in the Mithridatic war, is supposed by Drumann (Gesch. Roms, vol. iii. p. 68) to be a false reading for Hirtius, but we ought perhaps to read Ericius. Under the empire, in the second century after Christ, a family of the Erucii of the name of Clarus attained considerable distinction. [CLARUs.] E'RXIAS. [ERGIAs.] ERYCI'NA ('Epukivm), a surname of Aphrodite, derived from mount Eryx, in Sicily, where she had a famous temple, which was said to have been built by Eryx, a son of Aphrodite and the Sicilian king Butes. (Diod. iv. 83.) Virgil (Aen. v. 760) makes Aeneias build the temple. Psophis, a daughter of Eryx, was believed to have founded a temple of Aphrodite Erycina, at Psophis, in Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 24. S 3.) From Sicily the worship of Aphrodite (Venus) Erycina was introduced at Rome about the beginning of the second Punic war (Liv. xxii. 9, 10, xxiii. 30, &c.), and in B. c. 181 a temple was built to her outside the Porta Collatina. (Liv. xl. 34 ; Ov. Fast. iv. 871, Item. Amor. 549; Strab. vi. p. 272; comp. Cic. in Jerr. iv. 3 ; Horat. Carm. i. 2. 33: Ov. //eroid. xv. 57.) [L. S.] I.RY'CIUS ('Epúklos), the name of two poets, whose epigrams are in the Greek Anthology. The one is called a Cyzicene, the other a Thessalian ; and, from the internal evidence of the epigrams, it is probable that the one lived in the time of Sulla, and about B. c. 84, the other under the emperor Hadrian. Their epigrams are so mixed up, that it is impossible to distinguish accurately between them, and we cannot even determine which of the two poets was the elder, and which the younger. We only know that the greater number of the epigrams are of a pastoral nature, and belong to Erycius of Cyzicus. (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 295; Jacobs, Anth. Graec. vol. iii. p. 9, vol. xiii. pp. 891, 892; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. iv. p. 474.) [P. S.] ERYMANTHUS (Episuavoos). 1. A rivergod in Arcadia, who had a temple and a statue at Psophis. (Paus. viii. 24. § 6; Aelian, V. H. ii. 33.) 2. A son of Apollo, was blinded by Aphrodite, because he had seen her in the bath. Apollo, in revenge, metamorphosed himself into a wild boar, and killed Adonis. (Ptolem. Heph. i. 306.)