3. A son of Aristas and father of Arrhon, or, determined to quit the world ; one of them distriAccording to others, the son of Arcas and father of buted his whole property to the poor, the other Xanthus. (Paus. viii. 24. § 1.)

[L. S.] expended his in the foundation of a monastic and E'RYMAS ('Epúuas), the name of three different charitable establishment. If the Orations mens Trojans. (Hom. Il. xvi. 345, 415; Virg. Aen. ix. tioned below are correctly ascribed to the Esaias 702.)

[L. S.] of Palladius, the first oration (which in the Latin ERYSICHTHON ('Epvoixowv), that is, the version begins “Qui mecum manere vultis, audite," tearer up of the earth. 1. A son of Triopas, who &c.) enables us to identify him as the brother that cut down trees in a grove sacred to Demeter, for founded the monastery. Rufinus in his Lives of which he was punished by the goddess with fearful the Fathers, quoted by Tillemont, mentions an anechunger. (Callim. Hymn. in Cer. 34, &c. ; Ov. Niet. dote of Esaias and some other persons of monastic viii. 738, &c.) Müller (Dor. ii. 10. ^ 3) thinks character, visiting the confessor Anuph or Anub that the traditions concerning Triopas and Erysich- (who had suffered in the great persecution of Diothon (from épeveipn, robigo) belong to an agricul- cletian, but had survived that time) just before his tural religion, which, at the same time, refers to the death. If we suppose Esaias to have been cominfernal regions.

paratively young, this account is not inconsistent 2. A son of Cecrops and Agraulos, died without with Cave's opinion, that Esaias flourished A. D. issue in his father's lifetime, on his return from 370. Assemanni supposes that he lived about the Delos, from whence he brought to Athens the an- close of the fourth century. He appears to have cient image of Eileithyia. His tomb was shewn lived in Egypt. at Prasiae. (Apollod. iij. 14. § 2 ; Paus. i. 18. § 5, There are dispersed through the European li2. & 5, 31. § 2.)

[L. S.] braries a number of works in MS. ascribed to Esaias, ERYTHRUS (“Epudpos) 1. A son of Leucon, who is variously designated “Abbas,” “ Presbyter,” and grandson of Athamas. He was one of the “ Eremita,” « Anachoreta.” They are chiefly in suitors of Hippodameia, and the town of Erythrae, Greek. Some of them have been published, either in Boeotia, was believed to have derived its name in the original or in a Latin version. Assemanni from him. (Paus. vi. 21. § 7 ; Müller, Orchom. p. enumerates some Arabic and several Syriac works 210, 2nd edit.)

of Esaias, which, judging from their titles, are ver2. A son of Rhadamanthus, who led the Ery- sions in those tongues of the known works of this thraeans from Crete to the Ionian Erythrae. (Paus.writer. It is not ascertained whether Esaias the vii. 3. & 4.) There are two other mythical per- writer is the Esaias mentioned by Palladius. Carsonages of the name of Erythrus, or Erythrius, dinal Bellarmin, followed by the editors of the from whom the Boeotian Erythrae, and the Ery- Bibliotheca Patrum, places the writer in the seventh thraean Sea, are said to have received their names century subsequent to the time of Palladius ; but respectively. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 267 ; Steph. the character of the works supports the opinion that Byz. s. v. 'Epuspá ; Curtius, viii. 9.) [L. S.] they belong to the Egyptian monk.

ERYX ("Eput), the name of three mythical (1.) Chapters on the ascetic and peaceful life personages. (Diod. iv. 13; Apollod. ii. 5. S 10; (Kedárala tep? do KÝDews kal viouxías), published Ov. Met. v. 196.)

[L. S.] in Greek and Latin in the Thesaurus Asceticus of ERYXI'MACHUS (’Eputiuaxos ), a Greek Pierre Possin, pp. 315-325; 4to. Paris, 1684. As physician, who lived in the fourth century B. C., some MSS. contain portions of this work in conand is introduced in the Convivium of Plato (p. nexion with other passages not contained in it, it is 185) as telling Aristophanes how to cure the probable that the Chapters are incomplete. One hiccup, and in the mean time making a speech | MS. in the King's Library at Paris is described as himself on love or harmony ("Epws), which he “ Esaiae Abbatis Capita Ascetica, in duos libros illustrated from his own profession. [W. A. G.] divisa, quorum unusquisque praecepta centum com

ESAIAS ('Hoatas), sometimes written in Latin plectitur.” ISAIAS. 1. Of CYPRUS, lived probably in the (2.) Precepta seu Consilia posita tironibus, a reign of John VII. (Palaeologus) about A. D. Latin version of sixty-eight Short Precepts, pub1430. Nicolaus Comnenus mentions a work of lished by Lucas Holstenius, in his Codex Regulahis, described as Oratio de Lipsanomachis, as er rum Monasticarum. (vol. i. p. 6. ed. Augsburg, tant in MS. at Rome; and his Epistle in defence 1759.) of the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Fa (3.) Orationes. A Latin version of twentyther and the Son, in reply to Nicolaus Sclengias, nine discourses of Esaias was published by is given by Leo Allatius in his Graeciu Ortho- Pietro Francesco Zini, with some ascetic writdoxa, both in the original Greek and in a Latin ings of Nilus and others, 8vo. Venice, 1574, and version. Two epistles of Michael Glycas, ad- have been reprinted in the Bibliotheca Patrum. dressed to the much revered (TIPWTÁTQ) monk They are not all orations, but, in one or two inEsaias are published in the Deliciae Eruditorum stances at least, are collections of apophthegms or of Giovanni Lami, who is disposed to identify the sayings. Some MSS. contain more than twentyperson addressed with Esaias of Cyprus. (Fabric. nine orations : one in the King's Library at Paris Bibl. Graec. vol. xi. p. 395; Wharton, Appendix to contains thirty, wanting the beginning of the first; Cave's Hist. Litl. vol. ii. p. 130, ed. Oxford, 1740-3; and one, mentioned by Harless, is said to contain Lami, Deliciae Eruditorum, vol. viii. pp. 236-279, thirty-one, differently arranged from those in the Florence, 1739.)

Bibliotheca Patrum. 2. Of Egypt. Palladius in the biographical (4.) Dubitationes in Visionem Ezechielis. A notices which make up what is usually termed his MS. in the Royal Library of the Escurial in Spain, Lausiac History, mentions two brothers, Paësius is described by Montfaucon (Bibliotheca Bibliothe(Ilanotos) and Esaias, the sons of a merchant, carum, p. 619) as containing Sermones et DubitaEtavódpouos, by which some understand a Spanish tiones in Visionem Ezechielis, by “ Esaias Abbas.“ merchant. Upon the death of their father they | The Sermones or discourses are probably those men

cioned above. Of the Dubitationes no further ac ETEARCHUS ('Etéapxos). 1. An ancient count is given ; but the subject, as far as it is indi- king of the city of Àxus in Crete, who, according cated by the title, renders it very doubtful if the to the Cyrenaean accounts, was the grandfather of work belongs to the Egyptian Monk.

Battus I., king of Cyrene. The story of the way The Ascetica and Opuscula of Esaias, described in which he was induced to plan the death of his in Catalogues, are perhaps portions or extracts of daughter Phronime, at the instigation of her stej” the works noticed above. This is probably the mother, and of the manner in which she was precase with the passages given by Cotelerius among served and taken to Cyrene, is told by Herodotus the “Sayings of the Fathers.” (Palladius, Hist. (iv. 154, 155). Lausiaca, c. 18. ed. Meursius, Leyden, 1616; 2. A king of the Ammonians, mentioned by Tillemont, Mémoires, vol. vii. p. 426 ; Cave, Hist. Herodotus (ii. 32) as the authority for some acLit. vol. i. p. 254, ed. Oxford, 1740-3 ; Bibliothe-counts which he heard from certain Cyrenaeans of ca Patrum, vol. xii. p. 384, &c. ed. Lyon, 1677 ; an expedition into the interior of Africa undertaken Assemanni, Bibliothecu Orientalis, vol. iii. par. i. by five youths of the Nasamones. [C. P. M.] p. 46, note ; Cotelerius, Ecclesiae Graecue Monu ETEMUNDIS, the name prefixed to an epimenta, vol. i. p. 445, &c. ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec., gram of two lines to be found in Burmann, Antho'. vol. ix. p. 282, vol. xi. p. 395, Bibliothecu Mediae Lat. iii. 283, or n. 547, ed. Meyer, but of whom et Infimae Latinitatis, vol. ii. p. 109 ; Catalogus nothing is known.

[W. R.] MStorum Bibliothecue Regiue, vol. ii., Paris, 1701.) ETEOCLES ('Eteokiîs.) 1. A son of Andreu :3

3. The PERSIAN. The leta of the Martyrs, and Evippe, or of Cephisus, who was said to have Saints Jonas and Barachisius in the Actu Sunc- been the first that offered sacrifices to the Charites torum of the Bollandists, are a version of a Greek at Orchomenos, in Boeotia. (Paus. ix. 34. 5, 35. narrative, then, and probably still, extant in the Li 01; Theocrit. xvi. 104; Schol. ad Pind, Ol. xiv.); brary of the Republic of Venice, purporting to be Müller, Orchom. p. 128.) drawn up by Esaias. the son of Adam, one of the 2. A son of Oedipus and Jocaste. After his horsemen ("* eques,") of Sapor, King of Persia, un father's flight from Thebes, he and his brother der whom the martyrs suffered. (Acta Sanctorum, Polyneices undertook the government of Thebes llartii, vol. iii. p.770, &c.) [J. C. M.] by turns. But, in consequence of disputes haviny

ESQUILI'NUS, a name of several families at arisen between the brothers, Polyneices fled to Rome, which they obtained from living on the Adrastus, who then brought about the expedition of Esquiline hill. The name also occurs as an agno- the Seven against Thebes. [ADRASTUS.] When many men to distinguish a member or a branch of a par- of the heroes had fallen, Eteocles and Polyneice3 ticular family from others of the same name. resolved upon deciding the contest hy a single con

1. An agnomen of P. Licinius Calvus, both bat, but both the brothers fell. (Apollod. iii. 5.98, father and son. [Calvus, Nos. 1, 2.]

6. SS 1, 5, &c.; Paus. ix. 5. § 6 ; comp. Eurip, 2. An agnomen of L. MINUCIUS AUGURINUS Phoen. 67 ; Jocaste.)

[L. S.] and Q. MINUCIUS AUGURINUS, though, according ETEOCLUS ('Etéornos) a son of Iphis, was, to the Fasti, Augurinus would be the agnomen and according to some traditions, one of the seven heroes Esquilinus the cognomen. [AUGURINUS II., Nos. who went with Adrastus against Thebes. He had 3, 4.]

to make the attack upon the Neïtian gate, where 3. L. or M. SERGIUS Esquilinus, one of the he was opposed by Megareus. (Aeschyl. Sept. c. second decemvirate, B. C. 450. (Liv. ii. 35; Theb. 44+, &c. ; Apollod. iii. 6. $ 3.) He is said to Dionys. x. 58, xi. 23.)

have won a prize in the foot-race at the Nemean 4. An agnomen of the VirginII Tricosti. games, and to have been killed by Leades. (ApolAlmost all the members of the Virginia gens had lod. iji. 6. $$ 4, 8.) His statue stood at Delphi, the surname Tricostus, and those who dwelt on the among those of the other Argive lieroes. (Paus. I. Esquiline had the surname Esquilinus, just as 10. "?; Eustath. ad Ilom. p. 1042.) [L. S.] those living on the Caelian hill had the surname ETEONICUS ('ETEÓvikos), a Lacedaemonian, CAELIOMONTANUS. Two members of the gens have who in B. C. 412 was lieutenant under the admiral the surname Esquilinus, namely, OPITER VIRGI- | Astyochus, and assisted him in his unsuccessful NIUS Tricostus ESQUILINUS, who was consul in operations against Lesbos. (Thuc. viii. 23.) He B. C. 478, filling the place of C. Servilius Structus was afterwards harmost in Thasos, but in 410, Ahala, who died in his year of office (Fasti), and together with the Lacedaemonian party, was exhis grandson, L. VirginiUS TRICOSTUS Esquili- pelled by the Thasians. (Xen. IIell. i. 1. § 32.) vus, consular tribune in B. C. 402. The conduct In 406 we find him serving under Callicratidas, of the siege of Veii was entrusted to the latter and who left him to blockade Conon in Mytilene, while his colleague M'. Sergius Fidenas, but in conse he himself went to meet the Athenian reinforcequence of their private enmity the campaign was a After the battle of Arginusae, by means disastrous one. The Capenates and Falisci ad- of a stratagem, Eteonicus succeeded in drawing off vanced to the relief of l'eii. The two Roman the land forces to Vethymna, while he directed generals had each the command of a separate camp: the naval forces to make with all speed for Chios, Sergius was attacked by the allies and a sally from where he found means of rejoining them not long the town at the same time, and let himself be afterwards. In the course of his stay here, he, overpowered by numbers, because he would not with considerable energy and promptitude, defeated ask his colleague for assistance, and Virginins a plot formed by some of the troops under his would not send it because it was not asked. In command to seize Chios. (Xen. Fell. i. 6. & 26, consequence of their misconduct, they were forced 36, &c., ii. 1. § 1, &c.) It is probably this Eteoto resign their office before their year had expired. nicus whom we find mentioned in the Anabasis In the following year they were brought to trial (vii. 1. $ 12) apparently serving as an officer under and condemned by the people to pay a heavy fine. Anaxibius at Byzantium. (B. C. 400.) Eleven (Liv. v. 8, 9, 11, 12.)

years afterwards (389), he is mentioned as being


stationed as harmost in Aegina. (Xen. Hell. v. EVAE'NETUS (Eủaivetos), the name of twa 1. $ 1.)

[C. P. M.] commentators on the Phaenomena of Aratus, who ETEOʻNUS ('Etewvós), a descendant of Boeotus, are mentioned in the introductory commentary still and father of Eleon, from whom the Boeotian town extant (p. 117, ed. Victor.), but concerning whom of Eteonos derived its name. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. nothing is known.

[L. S.] 265.)

[L.S.] EVAE'NETUS, of Syracuse and Catana, was ET LEVA. [GENTIUS.]

one of the chief makers of the Sicilian coins. (MülETRUSCILLA, HERE'NNIA, wife of the ler, Archäol. d. Kunst, p. 428.) [P. S.] emperor Decius. The name not being mentioned EVAGES (Eváyns), of Hydrea, was, according in history, it was a matter of dispute to what to Dionysius (ap. Steph. Byz. s. r. Tdpeia), an princess the coins bearing the legend Herenniu illiterate and quite uneducated shepherd, but yet Etruscilla Augusta were to be assigned, until a a good comic poet. Meineke thinks this statement stone was found at Carseoli with the inscription insufficient to give him a place among the Greek Herenniae. CUPRESSENIAE. ETRUSCILLAE. Aug. comedians. (Hist. Cril. C'om. Graec. p.528.) [P.S.) CONIUGI. D.N. DECI. AUG. MATRI. AUGG. NN. EVA GORAS (Ejayópas), the name of two ET. CASTROR. S. P. Q., from which, taken in com- mythical personages. (Apollod. i. 9. p 9, iii. 12. bination with medals, it appears that her designa- S 5; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 156.) [L. S.] tion in full was Annia Cupressenia Herennia Etrus EVA GORAS (Evayópas). 1. King of Salamis cilla. (Muratori, p. 1036, 4; Maffei, Mus. Veron. in Cyprus. He was sprung from a family which p. 102; Eckhel, vol. vii. p. 347.) [W. R.] claimed descent from Teucer, the reputed founder

ETRUSCUS, HERE'NNIUS, son of the em of Salamis; and his ancestors appear to have been peror Decius, upon whose accession in A. D. 249 he during a long period the hereditary rulers of that received the appellations of Caesar and Princeps city under the supremacy of Persia. They had, Juventutis. In 251 he was consul, was admitted | however, been expelled (at what period we are not to a participation in the title of Augustus, and to- told) by a Phoenician exile, who obtained the sowards the close of the year was slain along with vereignty for himself, and transmitted it to his his father in a bloody battle fought against the descendants: one of these held it at the time of Goths in Thrace. [Decius.) We gather from the birth of Evagoras, the date of which there is no coins that his designation at full length was Q. means of fixing with any degree of accuracy; but Herennius Etruscus Messius Trajanus Decius, the he appears to have been grown up, though still a names Herennius Etruscus being derived from his young man, when one Abdymon, a native of Citmother Herennia Etruscilla, while the rest were tium, conspired against the tyrant, put him to inherited from his sire. (Aurel. Vict. de Caes. xxix. death, and established himself in his place. After Epit. xxix. ; Zonar. xii. 20.) [W. R.] this the usurper sought to apprehend Evagoras,

ETRUSCUS ('Etpovorcós), of MESSENE, the probably from jealousy of his hereditary claim to anthor of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology: the government, but the latter made his escape to (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 307; Jacobs, vol. 11. p. 20.) Cilicia, and, having there assembled a small band Nothing more is known of him. Martial (vi. 83, of followers, returned secretly to Salamis, attacked vii. 39) mentions an Etruscus who was banished the tyrant in his palace, overpowered his guards, by Domitian. (Jacobs, Anth. Graec. vol. xiii. p. and put him to death. (Isocr. Brug. pp. 191-195; 892.)

[P. S.] Diod. xiv. 98; Theopomp. ap. Phot. p. 120, a.; ETUTA. [Gentius.]

Paus. ii. 29. $ 4.) After this Evagoras established ETY MOCLES (Ετυμοικλής) was one of the his authority at Salamis without farther opposition, three Spartan envoys who, happening to be at If we may trust his panegyrist, Isocrates, his rule Athens at the time of the incursion of Sphodrias was distinguished for its mildness and equity, and into Attica (B. C. 378), were arrested by the Athe- he promoted the prosperity of his subjects in every nians on suspicion of having been privy to the way, while he particularly sought to extend his attempt Their assurances, however, to the con- relations with Greece, and to restore the influence trary were believed, and they were allowed to de- of Hellenic customs and civilization, which had part. Etymocles is mentioned by Xenophon and been in some degree obliterated during the period Plutarch as a friend of Agesilaus, and we hear of of barbarian rule. (Isocr. Erug. pp. 197—198.) him again as one of the ambassadors sent to nego- He at the same time greatly increased the power of tiate an alliance with Athens in B. C. 369. (Xen. his subject city, and strengthened his own resources, IIell. v. 4. SS 22, 23, 32, vi. 5. § 33; Plut. Ayes. specially by the formation of a powerful fleet. 25.)

[E. E.] Such was his position in B. C. 405, when, after the ÉVADNE (Eủáðun.) 1. A daughter of Poseidon defeat at Aegospotami, the Athenian general Conon and Pitane. Immediately after her birth, she was took refuge at Salamis with his few remaining galcarried to the Arcadian king Aepytus, who brought lies. Evagoras had already received, in return for

She afterwards became by Apollo the mo some services to Athens, the rights of an Athenian ther of Jamus. (Pind. Ol vi. 30; Hygin. Fab. 175.) citizen, and was on terms of personal friendship

2. A daughter of Iphis, or Philax. (Eurip. Suppl. with Conon (Isocr. Erag. p. 199, e.; Diod. xüi. 985; Apollod. iii. 7.91; Ilygin. Fab. 256. See 106): hence he zealously espoused the Athenian Capaneus.) There are three other mythical per

It is said to have been at his intercession sonages of the same name. (Apollod. ii. 1. $ 2; Ov. that the king of Persia determined to allow Conon amor, iji. 6. 41; Diod. iv.53.)

[L.S.] the support of the Phoenician fleet, and he comEVAECHME (Evalxun), the name of two my- manded in person the squadron with which he thical personages. (Paus. iv, 2. $ 1; comp. Alca- joined the fleet of Conon and Pharnabazus at the THOUS.)

[L. S.] battle of Cnidus, B. C. 394. (Xen, Hell, ii. 1. EVAEMON (Evaluwv), the name of two my-$ 29; Isocr. Erag. pp. 199, 200, Paus. i. 3. & 2; thical personages. (Hom. I. ii. 736 ; Apollod. iii. Ctesias, ap. Phot. p. 44, b.) For this distinguished 8. § 1.)

(L. S.] service a statue of Lvagoras was set up by the

her up:


Athenians in the Cerameicus, by the side of that of this Evagoras. The latter had obtained from the Conon. (Paus. i. 3. $ 2; Isocr. Evag. p. 200, c.) | Persian king a promise of his father's government

We have very imperfect information concerning in case he could effect its conquest ; but the siege the relation in which Evagoras stood to the king being protracted, Evagoras by some means incurred of Persia in the early part of his reign ; but it the displeasure of Artaxerxes, who became reconseems probable that he was regarded from the first ciled to Pnytagoras, and left him in the possession with suspicion : the tyrants whom he had suc-of Salamis, while he appointed Evagoras to a ceeded are particularly spoken of as friendly to government in the interior of Asia. Here, how. Persia (Diod. xiv. 98), and we learn from Ctesias ever, he again gave dissatisfaction, and was accused (ap. Phot. p. 44, b.) that his quarrels with one of of maladministration, in consequence of which he the other petty states of Cyprus had already called fled to Cyprus, where he was seized and put to for the interference of the great king before the death. (Diod. xvi. 42, 46.) The annexed coin battle of Cnidus. The chronology of the succeed belongs to this Eragoras. ing events is also very obscure ; but the most consistent view of the matter appears to be that derived from Theopompus (ap. Phot. p. 120, a.), that Artaxerxes had previously determined to inake war upon Evagoras, and had even commenced his preparations, but was unable to engage with vigour in the enterprise until after the peace of Antalcidas (B. c. 387). (See Clinton, F. H. vol. ii, p. 280 ; and comp. Isocr. Panegyr. p. 70, a.; Xen. Hell. iv. 8. S 3. Of Lacedaemon, remarkable for having gained 24, v. 1. $ 10.) Meantime Evagoras had not only three victories in the chariot-race at the Olympic extended his dominion over the greater part of games with the same horses, in consequence of Cyprus, but had ravaged the coast of Phoenicia which he erected the statue of a quadriga at with his fleet, prevailed on the Cilicians to revolt Olympia, and honoured his horses with a magnifrom Persia, and even (if we may believe Isocrates ficent funeral. (Herod. vi. 103; Aelian, Hist. and Diodorus) made himself master of Tyre itself. Anim. xii. 40; Paus. vi. 10. $ 8.) (Diod. xiv, 98, 110, xv. 2 ; Isocrat. Erag. p. 201.) 4. An Achaean of Aegium, accused by Critolaus At length, however, a great fleet and army were of betraying the counsels of his countrymen to the assembled under the command of Tiribazus and Romans, B. c. 146. (Polyb. xxxviii. 5.) [E. H. B.] Orontes, and Evagoras having ventured to oppose EVAGRIUS (Eŭáypios). 1. Of ANTIOCH, them with very inferior forces was totally defeated ; was a native of Antioch, the son of a citizen of that all the rest of Cyprus fell into the hands of the place, named Pompeianus, and a presbyter appasatraps, and Evagoras himself was shut up within rently of the church of Antioch. He travelled the walls of Salamis. But the Persian generals into the west of Europe, and was acquainted with seem to have been unable to follow up their advan- Jerome, who describes him as a man “acris ac tage, and notwithstanding this blow the war was ferventis ingenii.” During the schism in the paallowed to linger for some years. The dissensions triarchate of Antioch, he was chosen by one of the between his two adversaries at length proved the parties (A. D. 388 or 389) successor to their deceased safety of Evagoras : Tiribazus was recalled in con- patriarch Paulinus, in opposition to Flavianus, the sequence of the intrigues of Orontes, and the latter patriarch of the other party. According to Theohastened to conclude a peace with the Cyprian doret, the manner of his election and ordination monarch, by which he was allowed to retain un was altogether contrary to ecclesiastical rule. The controlled possession of Salamis, with the title of historians Socrates and Sozomen state that Evagrius king. (Diod. xv. 2—1, 8, 9; Theopomp. up. survived his elevation only a short time; but this Phot. p. 120, a. ; Isocr. Erag. p. 201, Panegyr. expression must not be too strictly interpreted, as p. 70.) This war, which is said to have lasted ten it appears from Jerome that he was living in A. D. veas in all, was brought to a close in B. c. 385. 392. He was perhaps the Evagrius who instructed (Diod. xv. 9; Clinton, F. II. vol. ii. pp. 278-281.) Chrysostom in monastic discipline, though it is Evagoras survived it above ten years. He was to be observed that Chrysostom was ordained a assassinated in 374, together with his eldest son presbyter by Flavianus, the rival of Evagrius in Pnytagoras, by an eunuch named Thrasydaeus ; the see of Antioch. Evagrius had no successor in but the murder was caused by revenge for a pri- his see, and ultimately Flavianus succeeded in vate injury, and he seems to have been succeeded healing the division. without opposition by his son Nicocles. (Theo Evagrius wrote treatises on various subjects pomp. ap. Phot. p. 120, a, b. ; Arist. Pol. v. 10; (diversarum hypotheseon tractatus). Jerome says Diod. xv. 47, and Wesseling, ad loc.) Our know- the author had read them to him, but had not yet ledge of the character and administration of Eva- published them. They are not extant. Evagrius goras is derived mainly from the oration of Isocrates also translated the life of St. Anthony by Athain his praise, addressed to his son Nicocles; but nasius from Greek into Latin. The very free this is written in a style of undistinguishing pane- version printed in the Benedictine edition of gyric, which must lead us to receive its statements Athanasius (vol. i. pars ii. p. 785, &c.) and in with great caution.

the scta Sanctorum (Januar. vol. ii. p. 107), pro2. Apparently a son of the preceding, is men fesses to be that of Evagrius, and is addressed to Lioned by Diodorus as joined with Phocion in the his son Innocentius, who is perhaps the Innocencommand of an expedition destined to recover tius whose death, A. D. 369 or 370, is mentioned Cyprus for the king of Persia, from whom it had by Jerome. (Eprist. 41 ad Rufinum.) Tillemont revolted. (B. c. 351.) They succeeded in reducing receives it, and Bollandus (Acta Sanct. l. c.) all the island with the exception of Salamis, which and the Benedictine editors of Athanasius (l. c.) was held by Pnytagoras, probably a brother of | vindicate its genuineness ; but Care affirms that


" there is more than one reason for doubting its | rank of a quaestorian or ex-quaestor. (Evagr. Hist. genuineness ;” and Oudin decidedly denies the Eccles. vi. 24, where see the note of Valesius.) genuineness both of the Greek text and the version. On the birth of Theodosius, son of the emperor În the library of Worcester Cathedral is a MS. Maurice (A. D. 584 or 585), Evagrius composed a described as containing the life of St. Antony, piece, apparently a congratulatory address, which written by Evagrius and translated by Jerome: obtained a farther manifestation of imperial favour there is probably an error, either in the MS. itseif, in the rank of ex-prefect (ård étrápxwv), which or in the description of it. (Catal. MSS. Angliae designation he bears in the title of his own work, et Hib. vol. ii. p. 17.)

and in Nicephorus. (Hist. Eccles. i. 1.) He accomTillemont has collected various particulars of panied the Patriarch Gregory to a synod at Conthe life of Evagrius of Antioch. Trithemius con- stantinople (A. D. 589), to the judgment of which founds him with Evagrius of Pontus. (Socrates, the patriarch had appealed when accused of incest Hist. Eccles. v. 15; Sozomen, Hist. Eccles. vii. 15; and adultery. On his return to Antioch, after Theodoretus, Hist. Eccles. v. 23; Hieronymus (Je- the acquittal of Gregory, Evagrius (in October or rome) de Viris Illust. 25; Tillemont, Mémoires, November of the same year) married a second vol. xii. p. 13, &c. ; Cave, Hist. Lit, vol. i. p. 283, wife, a young maiden. His reputation and influed. Ox. 1740-43; Oudin, de Scriptor. et Scriptis ence are evidenced by the fact that his marriage Eccles. vol. i. col. 882 ; Trithemius, de Scriptor. was celebrated by a general festival at the public Eccles. c. 85; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vii. p. 434, expense; but the rejoicing was interrupted by a vol. x. p. 137.)

dreadful earthquake, in which, as some computed, 2. The AscETIC, instructed Chrysostom in 60,000 of the inhabitants perished. This is the monastic discipline. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. last incident in the life of Evagrius of which anyp. 455.) He is perhaps the same as Evagrius of thing is known, except the death of his daughter, Antioch. [No. 1.]

already noticed, and the completion of his history, 3. Of EPIPHANEIA, known also as EVAGRIUS in A.D. 593 or 594. SCHOLASTICUS and Ex-PRAEFECTUS.

He was a

Evagrius wrote (1) An Ecclesiastical History, native of Epiphaneia on the Orontes, in the province which extends, besides some preliminary matter; of Syria Secunda, as we gather from the title of from the third general council, that of Ephesus, his Ecclesiastical History, where he is called ’ETTL A. D. 431, to the twelfth year of the reign of the paveús. (Comp. also his Hist. Eccles. iii. 34.) | Emperor Maurice, A. D. 593–4. He modestly Photius says (Biblioth. Cod. 29), according to the professes that he was not properly qualified for present text, that he was of a celebrated city such a work (ur) delvós éya Tà Tolaūta), but says (TÓNews dè êtrupavoûs) of Coele-Syria ; but the text he was induced to undertake it, as no one had yet is probably corrupt.' Nicephorus Callisti (Hist. attempted to continue the history of the Church Eccles. i. 1, xvi. 31) twice cites him as ó éiripavńs, regularly (kat' eipuóv) from the time at which the " the illustrious ;” but this is probably an error, histories of Sozomen and Theodoret close. He either in the transcription of Nicephorus or in that has the reputation of being tolerably accurate. His of his authorities. The birth of Evagrius is fixed credulity and love of the marvellous are characby data furnished in his own writings in or about teristic of the period rather than of the individual. A. D. 536. (Evagr. Hist. Eccles. iv. 29, vi. 24.) Photius describes his style as not unpleasant, He was sent to school before or when he was four though occasionally redundant; and (as we underyears old, for he was a schoolboy when he was stand the passage) praises him as being more exact taken by his parents to the neighbouring city of than the other ecclesiastical historians in the stateApameia to see the exhibition of "the life-giving ment of opinions : ev Tôv doyuátwv õpeórnto wood of the Cross,” during the alarm caused by arpıßis twv årl@v uâiov otopikwv. Some the captnre of Antioch by Chosroes or Khosru I., however interpret the passage as a commendation king of Persia, A. D. 540. Two years afterwards of the historian's orthodoxy. Nicephorus Callisti (A. D. 542), he was near dying from a pestilential | (Hist. Eccles. i. 1) notices, that Evagrius dwells disorder which then first visited the Byzantine much on secular affairs, and enumerates the empire, and which continued at intervals for above writers from whom he derived his materials, half a century, if not more, to cause a fearful mor- namely Eustathius the Syrian, Zosimus, Priscus tality. Evagrius gives a melancholy catalogue of and Joannes, Procopius of Caesarea, Agathias, his own subsequent losses through it. It took off, 6 and other writers of no mean character." His at different times, his first wife, several of his chil- history has been repeatedly published. The edidren (especially a married daughter, who, with tion of Valesius (Henri de Valois) which compreher child, died when the pestilence visited Antioch hends the other early Greek Ecclesiastical Histofor the fourth time, A. D. 591 or 592, two years rians, has a valuable biographical preface, a Latin before Evagrius wrote his history), and many of translation, and useful notes. It was reprinted his kindred and domestics. Evagrius was a “scho- with some additional “ variorum” notes by Readlasticus” (advocate or pleader), and is often desig- ing, 3 vols. fol. Camb. 1720. (2) A volume of nated from his profession. It is probable that he Memorials, Letters, Decrees, Orations, and Dispupractised at Antioch, which, as the capital of the tations, including the Memorials and the address province of Syria, would offer an important field which procured for Evagrius his rank of Quaestorfor his forensic exertions, and with which city his ian and Ex-praefect. This volume is mentioned in writings shew that he was familiar. (Comp. Hist. the Ecclesiastical History, but appears to be now Eccles. i. 18, iii. 28.) He appears to have been lost. Some pieces of little moment have been the legal adviser of Gregory, patriarch of Antioch; ascribed to Evagrius, but most or all of them incorand some of his memorials, drawn up in the name rectly. (Evagrius, Hist. Eccles. iv. 26, 29, vi. 7, of the patriarch, obtained the notice and approval 8, 23, 24; Photius, Biblioth. Cod. 29 ; Nicephoof the emperor Tiberius, who gave Evagrius, not as rus Callisti, Hist. Eccles. i. l, xvi. 31; Fabric gonne have understood, the quaestorship, but the Bibl. Graec. vol. vii. p. 432.

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