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3. A son of Aristas and father of Arrhon, or, according to others, the son of Arcas and father of Xanthus. (Paus. viii. 24. § 1.) [L. S.] E’RYMAS (Episuas), the name of three different Trojans. (Hom. Il. xvi. 345, 415; Virg. Aen. ix. 702.) [L. S.] ERYSICHTHON ('Epwortx0av), that is, the tearer up of the earth. 1. A son of Triopas, who cut down trees in a grove sacred to Demeter, for which he was punished by the goddess with fearful hunger. (Callim. Hymn. in Cer. 34, &c.; Ov. Met. viii. 738, &c.) Müller (Dor. ii. 10. § 3) thinks that the traditions concerning Triopas and Erysichthon (from épévetpm, robigo) belong to an agricultural religion, which, at the same time, refers to the infernal regions. 2. A son of Cecrops and Agraulos, died without issue in his father's lifetime, on his return from I)elos, from whence he brought to Athens the ancient image of Eileithyia. His tomb was shewn at Prasiae. (Apollod. iii. 14. § 2; Paus. i. 18. § 5, 2. § 5, 31. S 2.) [L. S.] ERYTHRUS ("EpwSpos) 1. A son of Leucon, and grandson of Athamas. He was one of the suitors of Hippodameia, and the town of Erythrae, in Boeotia, was believed to have derived its name from him. (Paus. vi. 21. § 7; Müller, Orchom. p. 210. 2nd edit.) 2. A son of Rhadamanthus, who led the Erythraeans from Crete to the Ionian Erythrae. (Paus. vii. 3. § 4.) There are two other mythical personages of the name of Erythrus, or Erythrius, from whom the Boeotian Erythrae, and the Erythraean Sea, are said to have received their names respectively. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 267: Steph. Byz. s. v. Epw8pá; Curtius, viii. 9.) [L. S.] ERYX (“Epwo), the name of three mythical personages. (Diod. iv. 83; Apollod. ii. 5. § 10; Ov. Mel. v. 196.) [L. S.] ERYXI'MACHUS ('Epvčíuaxos ), a Greek physician, who lived in the fourth century B. C., and is introduced in the Convivium of Plato (p. 185) as telling Aristophanes how to cure the hiccup, and in the mean time making a speech himself on love or harmony ("Epws), which he illustrated from his own profession. [W. A. G.] ESAIAS ("Horatas), sometimes written in Latin IsAIAs. 1. Of CYPRUs, lived probably in the reign of John VII. (Palaeologus) about A. D. 1430. Nicolaus Comnenus mentions a work of his, described as Oratio de Lipsanomachis, as extant in MS. at Rome; and his Epistle in defence of the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son, in reply to Nicolaus Sclengias, is given by Leo Allatius in his Graecia Orthodora, both in the original Greek and in a Latin version. Two epistles of Michael Glycas, addressed to the much revered (Tutatd to) monk Esaias are published in the Deliciae Eruditorum of Giovanni Lami, who is disposed to identify the person addressed with Esaias of Cyprus. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. xi. p. 395; Wharton, Appendir to Cave's Hist. Litt. vol. ii. p. 130, ed. Oxford, 1740-3; Lami, Deliciae Eruditorum, vol. viii. pp. 236-279, Florence, 1739.) 2. Of Egypt. Palladius in the biographical notices which make up what is usually termed his Lausiac History, mentions two brothers, Paësius (TIasatos) and Esaias, the sons of a merchant, Xtravóópouos, by which some understand a Spanish merchant. Upon the death of their father they
determined to quit the world ; one of them distributed his whole property to the poor, the other expended his in the foundation of a monastic and charitable establishment. If the Orations mentioned below are correctly ascribed to the Esaias of Palladius, the first oration (which in the Latin version begins “Qui mecum manere vultis, audite,” &c.) enables us to identify him as the brother that founded the monastery. Rufinus in his Lives of the Fathers, quoted by Tillemont, mentions an anecdote of Esaias and some other persons of monastic character, visiting the confessor Anuph or Anub (who had suffered in the great persecution of Diocletian, but had survived that time) just before his death. If we suppose Esaias to have been com. paratively young, this account is not inconsistent with Cave's opinion, that Esaias flourished A. D. 370. Assemanni supposes that he lived about the close of the fourth century. He appears to have lived in Egypt. There are dispersed through the European libraries a number of works in MS. ascribed to Esaias, who is variously designated “Abbas,” “Presbyter," “Eremita,” “Anachoreta.” They are chiefly in Greek. Some of them have been published, either in the original or in a Latin version. Assemanni enumerates some Arabic and several Syriac works of Esaias, which, judging from their titles, are versions in those tongues of the known works of this writer. It is not ascertained whether Esaias the writer is the Esaias mentioned by Palladius. Cardinal Bellarmin, followed by the editors of the Bibliotheca Patrum, places the writer in the seventh century subsequent to the time of Palladius ; but the character of the works supports the opinion that they belong to the Egyptian monk. (1.) Chapters on the ascetic and peaceful life (Keq)d Aata Tepl do kisaea's kal jovkias), published in Greek and Latin in the Thesaurus Asceticus of Pierre Possin, pp. 315-325; 4to. Paris, 1684. As some MSS. contain portions of this work in connexion with other passages not contained in it, it is probable that the Chapters are incomplete. One MS. in the King's Library at Paris is described as “ Esaiae Abbatis Capita Ascetica, in duos libros divisa, quorum unusquisque praecepta centum complectitur.” (2.) Precepta seu Consilia posita tironibus, a Latin version of sixty-eight Short Precepts, published by Lucas Holstenius, in his Codex Regularum Monasticarum. (vol. i. p. 6. ed. Augsburg, 1759.) (3.) Orationes. A Latin version of twentynine discourses of Esaias was published by Pietro Francesco Zini, with some ascetic writings of Nilus and others, 8vo. Venice, 1574, and have been reprinted in the Bibliotheca Patrum. They are not all orations, but, in one or two instances at least, are collections of apophthegms or sayings. Some MSS. contain more than twentynine orations: one in the King's Library at Paris contains thirty, wanting the beginning of the first; and one, mentioned by Harless, is said to contain thirty-one, differently arranged from those in the Bibliotheca Patrum. (4.) Dubitationes in Visionem Ezechielis. A MS. in the Royal Library of the Escurial in Spain, is described by Montfaucon (Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum, p. 619) as containing Sermones et Dubitationes in Visionem Ezechielis, by “Esaias Abbas." The Sermones or discourses are probably those mentioned above. Of the Dubitationes no further account is given; but the subject, as far as it is indicated by the title, renders it very doubtful if the work belongs to the Egyptian Monk. The Ascetica and Opuscula of Esaias, described in Catalogues, are perhaps portions or extracts of the works noticed above. This is probably the case with the passages given by Cotelerius among the “Sayings of the Fathers.” (Palladius, Hist. Lausiaca, c. 18. ed. Meursius, Leyden, 1616; Tillemont, Mémoires, vol. vii. p. 426 ; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 254, ed. Oxford, 1740–3; Bibliotheca. Patrum, vol. xii. p. 384, &c. ed. Lyon, 1677 ; Assemanni, Bibliotheca Orientalis, vol. iii. par. i. p. 46, note; Cotelerius, Ecclesiae Graecae Monumenta, vol. i. p. 445, &c.; Fabric. Bibl. Graec., vol. ix. p. 282, vol. xi. p. 395, Bibliotheca Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis, vol. ii. p. 109 ; Catalogus MStorum Bibliothecae Regiae, vol. ii., Paris, 1704.) 3. The PERSIAN. The Acta of the Martyrs, Saints Jonas and Barachisius in the Acta Sanctorum of the Bollandists, are a version of a Greek narrative, then, and probably still, extant in the Library of the Republic of Venice, purporting to be drawn up by Esaias, the son of Adam, one of the horsemen (“eques,”) of Sapor, King of Persia, under whom the martyrs suffered. (Acta Sanctorum, .Martii, vol. iii. p. 770, &c.) [J. C. M.] ESQUILI'NUS, a name of several families at Rome, which they obtained from living on the Esquiline hill. The name also occurs as an agnomen to distinguish a member or a branch of a particular family from others of the same name. 1. An agnomen of P. Licinius CALvUs, both father and son. [CALvUs, Nos. 1, 2.] 2. An agnomen of L. MINUCIUs AUGURINUs and Q. MINUCIU's AUGURINUs, though, according to the Fasti, Augurinus would be the agnomen and Esquilinus the cognomen. [AUGURINUS II., Nos. 3, 4.] 3. L. or M. SERGIUs Esquilin Us, one of the second decemvirate, B. c. 450. (Liv. iii. 35 ; Dionys. x. 58, xi. 23.) 4. An agnomen of the VIRGINII TRICOSTi. Almost all the members of the Virginia gens had the surname Tricostus, and those who dwelt on the Esquiline had the surname Esquilinus, just as those living on the Caelian hill had the surname CAELIoMostANUs. Two members of the gens have the surname Esquilinus, namely, OPITER VIRGINIUs TRIcostus Esquilis Us, who was consul in B. c. 478, filling the place of C. Servilius Structus Ahala, who died in his year of office (Fasti), and his grandson, L. VIRGIN1Us TRICOSTUs EsquillNUs, consular tribune in B. c. 402. The conduct of the siege of Veii was entrusted to the latter and his colleague M'. Sergius Fidenas, but in consequence of their private enmity the campaign was a disastrous one. The Capenates and Falisci advanced to the relief of Veii. The two Roman generals had each the command of a separate camp : Sergius was attacked by the allies and a sally from the town at the same time, and let himself be overpowered by numbers, because he would not ask his colleague for assistance, and Virginius would not send it because it was not asked. In consequence of their misconduct, they were forced to 19sign their office before their year had expired. ln the following year they were brought to trial and condemned by the people to pay a heavy fine. (Liv. v. 8, 9, 11, 12.)
ETEARCHUS (Eréapxos). 1. An ancient king of the city of Axus in Crete, who, according to the Cyrenaean accounts, was the grandfather of Battus I., king of Cyrene. The story of the way in which he was induced to plan the death of his daughter Phronime, at the instigation of her stepmother, and of the manner in which she was preserved and taken to Cyrene, is told by Herodotus (iv. 154, 155). 2. A king of the Ammonians, mentioned by Herodotus (ii. 32) as the authority for some accounts which he heard from certain Cyrenaeans of an expedition into the interior of Africa undertaken by five youths of the Nasamones. [C. P. M.] ETEMUNDIS, the name prefixed to an epigram of two lines to be found in Burmann, Antho'. Lat. iii. 283, or n. 547, ed. Meyer, but of whom nothing is known. [W. R.] ETEOCLES ('Eteok)\fis.) 1. A son of Andreus and Evippe, or of Cephisus, who was said to have been the first that offered sacrifices to the Charites at Orchomenos, in Boeotia. (Paus. ix. 34. § 5, 35. § l; Theocrit. xvi. 104; Schol. ad Pind. Ol. xiv. 1; Müller, Orchom. p. 128.)
2. A son of Oedipus and Jocaste. After his
father's flight from Thebes, he and his brother
Polyneices undertook the government of Thebes by turns. But, in consequence of disputes having arisen between the brothers, Polyneices fled to Adrastus, who then brought about the expedition of the Seven against Thebes, [ADRASTUs.] When many of the heroes had fallen, Eteocles and Polyneices resolved upon deciding the contest by a single conbat, but both the brothers fell. (Apollod. iii. 5. § 8, 6. SS 1, 5, &c.; Paus. ix. 5. § 6; comp. Eurip. Phoen. 67 ; JocasTE.) [L. S.] ETEOCLUS (ETéokAos) a son of Iphis, was, according to some traditions, one of the seven heroes who went with Adrastus against Thebes. He had to make the attack upon the Neitian gate, where he was opposed by Megareus. (Aeschyl. Sept. c. Theb. 444, &c.; Apollod. iii. 6. § 3.) He is said to have won a prize in the foot-race at the Nemean games, and to have been killed by Leades. (Apollod. iii. 6. §§ 4, 8.) His statue stood at Delphi, among those of the other Argive heroes. (Paus. x. 10. § 2; Eustath. ad IIom. p. 1042.) | L. S.] ETEON I CUS (ETéðvikos), a Lacedaemonian, who in B. c. 412 was lieutenant under the admiral Astyochus, and assisted him in his unsuccessful operations against Lesbos. (Thuc. viii. 23.) He was afterwards harmost in Thasos, but in 410, together with the Lacedaemonian party, was expelled by the Thasians. (Xen. Hell. i. 1. § 32.) In 406 we find him serving under Callicratidas, who left him to blockade Conon in Mytilene, while he himself went to meet the Athenian reinforcements. After the battle of Arginusae, by means of a stratagem, Eteonicus succeeded in drawing off the land forces to Methymna, while he directed the naval forces to make with all speed for Chios, where he found means of rejoining them not long afterwards. In the course of his stay here, he, with considerable energy and promptitude, defeated a plot formed by some of the troops under his command to seize Chios. (Xen. Hell. i. 6. § 26, 36, &c., ii. 1. S 1, &c.) It is probably this Eteonicus whom we find mentioned in the Anabasis (vii. 1. § 12) apparently serving as an officer under Anaxibius at Byzantium. (B. c. 400.) Eleven years afterwards (389), he is mentioned as being stationed as harmost in Aegina. (Xen. Hell. v. t. § 1.) [C.P. M.] ETEO'NUS ('Ereovás), a descendant of Boeotus, and father of Eleon, from whom the Boeotian town of Eteonos derived its name. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 265.) [L. S.] ETLEVA. [GENTIUs.] ETRUSCILLA, HERENNIA, wife of the emperor Decius. The name not being mentioned in history, it was a matter of dispute to what princess the coins bearing the legend Herennia JEtruscilla Augusta were to be assigned, until a stone was found at Carseoli with the inscription IHERENNIAE. CUPRESSENIAE. ETRUSCILLAE. A. UG. CoNIUGI. D. N. DECI. AUG. MATRI. AUGG. N.N. ET. CASTRoR. S. P. Q., from which, taken in combination with medals, it appears that her designation in full was Annia Cupressenia. Herennia Etruscilla. (Muratori, p. 1036, 4; Maffei, Mus. Veron. p. 102; Eckhel, vol. vii. p. 347.) [W. R.] ETRUSCUS, HERENNIUS, son of the emperor Decius, upon whose accession in A. D. 249 he received the appellations of Caesar and Princeps Juventutis. In 251 he was consul, was admitted to a participation in the title of Augustus, and towards the close of the year was slain along with his father in a bloody battle fought against the Goths in Thrace. [DECIUs.] We gather from coins that his designation at full length was Q. Jserennius Etruscus Messius Trajanus Decius, the names Herennius Etruscus being derived from his mother Herennia Etruscilla, while the rest were inherited from his sire. (Aurel. Vict, de Caes. xxix. JEpit. xxix.; Zonar. xii. 20.) [W. R.] ETRUSCUS ('Etpovakós), of MEssBNE, the author of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 307; Jacobs, vol. iii. p. 20.) Nothing more is known of him. Martial (vi. 83, vii. 39) mentions an Etruscus who was banished by Domitian. (Jacobs, Anth. Graec. vol. xiii. p. 802.) [P. S.] ETUTA. [GENTIUs.] ETYMOCLES ("Et vuokais) was one of the three Spartan envoys who, happening to be at Athens at the time of the incursion of Sphodrias into Attica (B. c. 378), were arrested by the Athenians on suspicion of having been privy to the attempt Their assurances, however, to the contrary were believed, and they were allowed to depart. Etymocles is mentioned by Xenophon and Plutarch as a friend of Agesilaus, and we hear of him again as one of the ambassadors sent to negotiate an alliance with Athens in B. c. 369. (Xen. J sell. v. 4. SS 22, 23, 32, vi. 5. S 33; Plut. Ages. 25.) [E. E.] EVADNE (Eö45um.) 1. A daughter of Poseidon and Pitane. Immediately after her birth, she was carried to the Arcadian king Aepytus, who brought her up. She afterwards became by Apollo the mother of Jamus. (Pind. Ol vi. 30: Hygin. Fab. 175.) 2. A daughter cf Iphis, or Philax. (Eurip. Suppl. 985; Apollod. iii. 7. § 1 ; IIygin. Fab. 256. See CAPANEUs.) There are three other mythical personages of the same name. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 2; Ow. Amor. iii. 6.41 ; Diod. i...) [L. S.] EVAECHME (EJatxum), the name of two mythical personages. (Paus. iv. 2. § 1 ; comp. ALCATHous.) [L. S.] EVAEMON (EJasuov), the name of two mythical personages. (Hom. Il. ii. 736 ; Apollod. iii. 8. § 1.) [L. S.]
EVAE'NETUS (Eöaivetos), the name of twocommentators on the Phaenomena of Aratus, who are mentioned in the introductory commentary still extant (p. 117, ed. Victor.), but concerning whom nothing is known. [L. S.] EVAE'NETUS, of Syracuse and Catana, was one of the chief makers of the Sicilian coins. (Müller, Archäol. d. Kunst, p. 428.) [P. S.] EVAGES (Eö4/ms), of Hydrea, was, according to Dionysius (ap. Steph. Byz. s. v. "Yöpeta), an illiterate and quite uneducated shepherd, but yet a good comic poet. Meineke thinks this statement insufficient to give him a place among the Greek comedians. (Hist. Crit. Com. Graec. p.528.) [P.S.] EVA'GORAS (Eijayapas), the name of two mythical personages. (Apollod. i. 9. § 9, iii. 12. S 5; Schol. ad Apollon. Ithod. i. 156.) [L. S.] EVA'GORAS (EJayópas). 1. King of Salamis in Cyprus. He was sprung from a family which claimed descent from Teucer, the reputed founder of Salamis; and his ancestors appear to have been during a long period the hereditary rulers of that city under the supremacy of Persia. They had, however, been expelled (at what period we are not told) by a Phoenician exile, who obtained the sovereignty for himself, and transmitted it to his descendants: one of these held it at the time of the birth of Evagoras, the date of which there is no means of fixing with any degree of accuracy; but he appears to have been grown up, though still a young man, when one Abdymon, a native of Cittium, conspired against the tyrant, put him to death, and established himself in his place. After this the usurper sought to apprehend Evagoras, probably from jealousy of his hereditary claim to the government, but the latter made his escape to Cilicia, and, having there assembled a small band of followers, returned secretly to Salamis, attacked the tyrant in his palace, overpowered his guards, and put him to death. (Isocr. Evag. pp. 191–195; Diod. xiv. 98; Theopomp. ap. Phot. p. 120, a ; Paus. ii. 29. § 4.) After this Evagoras established his authority at Salamis without farther opposition. If we may trust his panegyrist, Isocrates, his rule was distinguished for its mildness and equity, and he promoted the prosperity of his subjects in every way, while he particularly sought to extend his relations with Greece, and to restore the influence of Hellenic customs and civilization, which had been in some degree obliterated during the period of barbarian rule. (Isocr. Erag. pp. 197–198.) He at the same time greatly increased the power of his subject city, and strengthened his own resources, specially by the formation of a powerful fleet. Such was his position in B. c. 405, when, after the defeat at Aegospotami, the Athenian general Conon took refuge at Salamis with his few remaining gallies. Evagoras had already received, in return for some services to Athens, the rights of an Athenian citizen, and was on terms of personal friendship with Conon (Isocr. Evag. p. 199, e.; Diod. xiii. 106): hence he zealously espoused the Athenian cause. It is said to have been at his intercession that the king of Persia determined to allow Conon the support of the Phoenician fleet, and he com— manded in person the squadron with which he joined the fleet of Conon and Pharnabazus at the battle of Cnidus, B. c. 394. (Xen. Hell. ii. 1. § 29; Isocr. Erag. pp. 199, 200; Paus. i. 3. § 2; Ctesias, ap. Phot. p. 44, b.) For this distinguished service a statue of Evagoras was set up by the
JAtheniani in the Cerameicus, by the side of that of Conon. (Paus. i. 3. § 2; Isocr. Evag. p. 200, c.) We have very imperfect information concerning the relation in which Evagoras stood to the king of Persia in the early part of his reign ; but it seems probable that he was regarded from the first with suspicion: the tyrants whom he had succeeded are particularly spoken of as friendly to I’ersia (Diod. xiv. 98), and we learn from Ctesias (ap. Phot. p. 44, b.) that his quarrels with one of the other petty states of Cyprus had already called for the interference of the great king before the battle of Cnidus. The chronology of the succeeding events is also very obscure; but the most consistent view of the matter appears to be that derived from Theopompus (ap. Phot. p. 120, a.), that Artaxerxes had previously determined to make war upon Evagoras, and had even commenced his preparations, but was unable to engage with vigour in the enterprise until after the peace of Antalcidas (B. c. 387). (See Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 280; and comp. Isocr. Panegyr. p. 70, a.; Xen. Hell. iv. 8. § 24, v. 1. S 10.) Meantime Evagoras had not only extended his dominion over the greater part of Cyprus, but had ravaged the coast of Phoenicia with his fleet, prevailed on the Cilicians to revolt from Persia, and even (if we may believe Isocrates and Diodorus) made himself master of Tyre itself. (Diod. xiv. 98, 110, xv. 2; Isocrat. Erag. p. 201.) At length, however, a great fleet and army were assembled under the command of Tiribazus and Orontes, and Evagoras having ventured to oppose them with very inferior forces was totally defeated; all the rest of Cyprus fell into the hands of the satraps, and Evagoras himself was shut up within the walls of Salamis. But the Persian generals seem to have been unable to follow up their advantage, and notwithstanding this blow the war was allowed to linger for some years. The dissensions between his two adversaries at length proved the safety of Evagoras: Tiribazus was recalled in consequence of the intrigues of Orontes, and the latter hastened to conclude a peace with the Cyprian monarch, by which he was allowed to retain uncontrolled possession of Salamis, with the title of king. (Diod. xv. 2–4, 8, 9; Theopomp, ap. J’hot. p. 120, a. ; Isocr. Eraq. p. 20), Panegyr. p. 70.) This war, which is said to have lasted ten yeas in all, was brought to a close in B. c. 385. (Diod. xv. 9; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. pp. 278-281.) Evagoras survived it above ten years. He was assassinated in 374, together with his eldest son Pnytagoras, by an eunuch named Thrasydaeus: but the murder was caused by revenge for a private injury, and he seems to have been succeeded without opposition by his son Nicocles. (Theopomp. ap. Phot. p. 120, a, b. ; Arist. Pol. v. 10; Diod. xv. 47, and Wesseling, ad loc.) Our knowledge of the character and administration of Evagoras is derived mainly from the oration of Isocrates in his praise, addressed to his son Nicocles; but this is written in a style of undistinguishing panegyric, which must lead us to receive its statements with great caution. 2. Apparently a son of the preceding, is mentioned by Diodorus as joined with Phocion in the command of an expedition destined to recover Cyprus for the king of Persia, from whom it had revolted. (B. c. 351.) They succeeded in reducing all the island with the exception of Salamis, which
was held by Pnytagoras, probably a brother of
this Evagoras. The latter had obtained from the Persian king a promise of his father's government in case he could effect its conquest; but the siege being protracted, Evagoras by some means incurred the displeasure of Artaxerxes, who became reconciled to Pnytagoras, and left him in the possession of Salamis, while he appointed Evagoras to a government in the interior of Asia. Here, how. ever, he again gave dissatisfaction, and was accused of maladministration, in consequence of which he fled to Cyprus, where he was seized and put to death. (Diod. xvi. 42, 46.) The annexed coin belongs to this Evagoras.
3. Of Lacedaemon, remarkable for having gained three victories in the chariot-race at the Olympic games with the same horses, in consequence of which he erected the statue of a quadriga at Olympia, and honoured his horses with a magnificent funeral. (Herod. vi. 103: Aelian, Hist. Anim. xii. 40; Paus. vi. 10. § 8.) 4. An Achaean of Aegium, accused by Critolaus of betraying the counsels of his countrymen to the Romans, B. c. 146. (Polyb. xxxviii. 5.) [E. H. B.] EVA'GRIUS (Eváyptos). 1. Of ANTIOCH, was a native of Antioch, the son of a citizen of that place, named Pompeianus, and a presbyter apparently of the church of Antioch. He travelled into the west of Europe, and was acquainted with Jerome, who describes him as a man “acris ac ferventis ingenii.” During the schism in the patriarchate of Antioch, he was chosen by one of the parties (A.D. 388 or 389) successor to their deceased patriarch Paulinus, in opposition to Flavianus, the patriarch of the other party. According to Theodoret, the manner of his election and ordination was altogether contrary to ecclesiastical rule. The historians Socrates and Sozomen state that Evagrius survived his elevation only a short time; but this expression must not be too strictly interpreted, as it appears from Jerome that he was living in A. D. 392. He was perhaps the Evagrius who instructed Chrysostom in monastic discipline, though it is to be observed that Chrysostom was ordained a presbyter by Flavianus, the rival of Evagrius in the see of Antioch. Evagrius had no successor in his see, and ultimately Flavianus succeeded in healing the division. Evagrius wrote treatises on various subjects (diversarum hypotheseon tractatus). Jerome says the author had read them to him, but had not yet published them. They are not extant. Evagrius also translated the life of St. Anthony by Athanasius from Greek into Latin. The very free version printed in the Benedictine edition of Athanasius (vol. i. pars ii. p. 785, &c.) and in the Acta Sanctorum (Januar. vol. ii. p. 107), professes to be that of Evagrius, and is addressed to his son Innocentius, who is perhaps the Innocentius whose death, A. D. 369 or 370, is mentioned by Jerome. (Epist. 41 ad Rufinum.) Tillemont receives it, and Bollandus (Acta Sanct. l. c.) and the Benedictine editors of Athanasius (l.c.) vindicate its genuineness; but Cave affirms that “there is more than one reason for doubting its genuineness;” and Oudin decidedly denies the genuineness both of the Greek text and the version. In the library of Worcester Cathedral is a MS. described as containing the life of St. Antony, written by Evagrius and translated by Jerome: there is probably an error, either in the MS. itself, or in the description of it. (Catal. MSS. Angliae et Hil. vol. ii. p. 17.) Tillemont has collected various particulars of the life of Evagrius of Antioch. Trithemius confounds him with Evagrius of Pontus. (Socrates, Hist. Eccles. v. 15; Sozomen, Hist. Eccles. vii. 15; Theodoretus, Hist. Eccles. v. 23; Hieronymus (Jerome) de Viris Illust. 25; Tillemont, Mémoires, vol. xii. p. 13, &c.; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 283, ed. Ox. 1740–43; Oudin, de Scriptor. et Scriptis Eccles. vol. i. col. 882; Trithemius, de Scriptor. Eccles. c. 85; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. vii. p. 434, vol. x. p. 137.) 2. The AscETIC, instructed Chrysostom in monastic discipline. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 455.) He is perhaps the same as Evagrius of Antioch. [No. 1.] 3. Of EPIPHANEIA, known also as Eva GRIUS Schol Asticus and Ex-PRAEFECT Us. He was a native of Epiphaneia on the Orontes, in the province of Syria Secunda, as we gather from the title of his Ecclesiastical History, where he is called 'ET1qavess. (Comp. also his Hist. Eccles. iii. 34.) Photius says (Billioth. Cod. 29), according to the present text, that he was of a celebrated city (tróAews Śē étiqlavods) of Coele-Syria; but the text is probably corrupt. Nicephorus Callisti (Hist. Eccles. i. 1, xvi. 31) twice cites him as 6 tripavis, “the illustrious;” but this is probably an error, either in the transcription of Nicephorus or in that of his authorities. The birth of Evagrius is fixed by data furnished in his own writings in or about A. D. 536. (Evagr. Hist. Eccles. iv. 29, vi. 24.) He was sent to school before or when he was four years old, for he was a schoolboy when he was taken by his parents to the neighbouring city of Apameia to see the exhibition of “the life-giving wood of the Cross,” during the alarm caused by the capture of Antioch by Chosroes or Khosru I., king of Persia, A. D. 540. Two years afterwards (A. D. 542), he was near dying from a pestilential disorder which then first visited the Byzantine empire, and which continued at intervals for above half a century, if not more, to cause a fearful mortality. Evagrius gives a melancholy catalogue of his own subsequent losses through it. It took off, at different times, his first wife, several of his children (especially a married daughter, who, with her child, died when the pestilence visited Antioch for the fourth time, A. D. 591 or 592, two years before Evagrius wrote his history), and many of his kindred and domestics. Evagrius was a “scholasticus” (advocate or pleader), and is often designated from his profession. It is probable that he practised at Antioch, which, as the capital of the province of Syria, would offer an important field for his forensic exertions, and with which city his writings shew that he was familiar. (Comp. Hist. Eccles, i. 18, iii. 28.) He appears to have been the legal adviser of Gregory, patriarch of Antioch; and some of his memorials, drawn up in the name of the patriarch, obtained the notice and approval of the emperor Tiberius, who gave Evagrius, not as some have understood, the quaestorship, but the
rank of a quaestorian or ex-quaestor. (Evagr. Hist Eccles. vi. 24, where see the note of Walesius.) On the birth of Theodosius, son of the emperor Maurice (A. D. 584 or 585), Evagrius composed a piece, apparently a congratulatory address, which obtained a farther manifestation of imperial favour in the rank of ex-prefect (dT) &mdpxov), which designation he bears in the title of his own work, and in Nicephorus. (Hist. Eccles. i. 1.) He accompanied the Patriarch Gregory to a synod at Constantinople (A. D. 589), to the judgment of which the patriarch had appealed when accused of incest and adultery. On his return to Antioch, after the acquittal of Gregory, Evagrius (in October or November of the same year) married a second wife, a young maiden. His reputation and influence are evidenced by the fact that his marriage was celebrated by a general festival at the public expense; but the rejoicing was interrupted by a dreadful earthquake, in which, as some computed, 60,000 of the inhabitants perished. This is the last incident in the life of Evagrius of which anything is known, except the death of his daughter, already noticed, and the completion of his history, in A. D. 593 or 594. Evagrius wrote (1) An Ecclesiastical History, which extends, besides some preliminary matter, from the third general council, that of Ephesus, A. D. 431, to the twelfth year of the reign of the Emperor Maurice, A. D. 593–4. He modestly professes that he was not properly qualified for such a work (us) beives éY2 to Totaúta), but says he was induced to undertake it, as no one had yet attempted to continue the history of the Church regularly (kat' eipuju) from the time at which the histories of Sozomen and Theodoret close. He has the reputation of being tolerably accurate. His credulity and love of the marvellous are characteristic of the period rather than of the individual. Photius describes his style as not unpleasant, though occasionally redundant; and (as we understand the passage) praises him as being more exact than the other ecclesiastical historians in the statement of opinions: év 6é Tà têv Šoyuárav Čp0órmti dipt&is Tóv dx^6v uáA\ov ioTopików. Some however interpret the passage as a commendation of the historian's orthodoxy. Nicephorus Callisti (Hist. Eccles. i. 1) notices, that Evagrius dwells much on secular affairs, and enumerates the writers from whom he derived his materials, namely Eustathius the Syrian, Zosimus, Priscus and Joannes, Procopius of Caesarea, Agathias, “ and other writers of no mean character.” His history has been repeatedly published. The edition of Walesius (Henri de Valois) which comprehends the other early Greek Ecclesiastical Historians, has a valuable biographical preface, a Latin translation, and useful notes. It was reprinted with some additional “ variorum” notes by Reading, 3 vols. fol. Camb. 1720. (2) A volume of Memorials, Letters, Decrees, Orations, and Disputations, including the Memorials and the address which procured for Evagrius his rank of Quaestorian and Ex-praefect. This volume is mentioned in the Ecclesiastical History, but appears to be now lost. Some pieces of little moment have been ascribed to Evagrius, but most or all of them incorrectly. (Evagrius, Hist. Eccles. iv. 26, 29, vi. 7, 8, 23, 24; Photius, Biblioth. Cod. 29; Nicephorus Callisti, Hist. Eccles. i. 1, xvi. 31 ; Fabric Bibl. Graec. vol. vii. p. 432.