4. Of Pontus, an eminent ascetic and ecclesiasical writer. The place of his birth was probably bora, a small town in Pontus, on the shore of the Suxine near the mouth of the Halys; but the exressions of Nicephorus Callisti would rather imply hat he was of the race of the Iberians, who inhabited the modern Georgia, on the southern side »f the Caucasus. Palladius, his disciple, says he was of Pontus, of the city (or rather a city) of the Iberians (TóAews Iéjpan, or as one MS., according to Tillemont, has it, "Iśćpwv), which is ambiguous. Jerome calls him “Hyperborita,” an expression which Martianay, the Benedictine editor of Jerome's works, alters to “Iberita,” and which has given occasion to other conjectural emendations. (Cotelerius, Eccles. Graec. Monumenta, vol. iii. p. 543.) His father was a presbyter, or perhaps a chorepiscopus. (Heraclides, apud Tillemont.) IIe was placed in early life under the instruction of Gregory Nazianzen. There is extant a letter of Gregory to an Evagrius, to whom he expresses his pleasure at the growing reputation of one whom he terms “our son,” and of whom he had been the instructor both in literature and religion. If, as is conjectured, this letter refers to our Evagrius, his father and he were of the same name. Gregory also in his will leaves a legacy, with strong expressions of regard, to Evagrius the deacon ; but it is not certain that this is our Evagrius. Evagrius was appointed reader by the great Basil, and was ordained deacon either by Gregory Nyssen or Gregory Nazianzen. According to Socrates, he was ordained at Constantinople by Gregory Nazianzen; and Sozomen says, that when Gregory occupied the see of Constantinople, he made Evagrius his archdeacon. If these statements are received, the removal of Evagrius to Constantinople must be placed during or before the short time (A. D. 379 to 381) of Gregory's episcopate at Constantinople. But according to Palladius (whose personal connexion with Evagrius would make his testimony preferable, if the text of his Lausiac History was in a more satisfactory state), Evagrius was ordained deacon by Gregory Nyssen, and taken by him to the first council of Constantinople (the second general council), and left by him in that city, under the patronage of Nectarius, who succeeded Gregory Nazianzen. The age and intellectual character of Evagrius disposed him to polemical discussion ; and “ he obtained high reputation in controversy,” says Palladius, “ in the great city, exulting with the ardour of youth in opposing every form of heresy.” His popularity was probably increased by the beauty of his person, which he set off by great attention to his dress. The handsome deacon won and returned the affection of a married lady of rank; but Evagrius, though vain, was not profligate, and struggled hard against the sinful passion. It is doubtful, however, if he would have broken away from the snare, but for an extraordinary dream ; in which he dreamed that he took a solemn oath to leave Constantinople. Deeming himself bound by his oath, he at once left the city; and by this step, according to Sozomen, preserved not only his virtue, but his life, which was in imminent danger from the jealousy of the lady's husband. His first sojours after leaving Constantinople, was at Jerusalem. Here, recovering from the alarm into which his dream had thrown him, he gave way again to vanity and the love of dress; but a long and sewere illness, and the exhortation of Melania Ro

mana, a lady who had devoted herself to a religious life, and had become very eminent, induced him to renounce the world, and give himself up to an ascetic life. He received the monastic garb from the hands of Melania, and departed for Egypt, the cradle of monasticism, where he spent the remainder of his life. Some copies of Palladius are thought to speak of a visit made by him to Constantinople, in A. D. 394; but the passage is obscure, and Tillemont and the Greek text of Palladius, in the Bibliotheca Patrum, refer the incident to Ammonius. Socrates states that he accompanied Gregory Nazianzen into Egypt; but there is no reason to think that Gregory visited Egypt at that time. Evagrius's removal into Egypt was probably late in A. D. 382, or in 383. The remainder of his life was spent on the hills of Nitria, in one of the hermitages or monasteries of Scetis or Scitis, or in the desert “ of the Cells,” to which, after a time, he withdrew. IIe was acquainted with several of the more eminent solitaries of the country, the two Macarii, Ammonius, and others, whose reputation for austerity of life, sanctity and miracles (especially healing the sick and casting out daemons) he emulated. He learned here, says Socrates, to be a philosopher in action, as he had before learned to be one in words. He had many disciples in the monastic life, of whom Palladius was one. His approval of the answer which one of the solitaries gave to the person who informed him of the death of his father: “Cease to blaspheme; for my Father (meaning God) is immortal,” shews that Jerome's sarcastic remark, that he recommended an apathy which would shew that a man was “either a stone or God,” was not undeserved. Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, would have ordained him a bishop; but he fled from him to avoid an elevation which he did not covet. Palladius has recorded many singular instances of his temptations and austerities; and, besides a separate memoir of him, has mentioned him in his notices of several other leading monks. Evagrius died apparently about A. L. 399, at the age of fifty-four. There is considerable difficulty in ascertaining what were the writings of Evagrius. Some are known to us only from the notice of them in ancient writers, others are extant only in a Latin version, and of others we have only disjointed fragments. As nearly as we can ascertain, he is the author of the following works:—l. Movaxós (perhaps we should read Movoxtros) is repl IIpakTikis. Fragments of this work, but apparently much interpolated, are given in the Monumenta Eccles. Graec. of Cotelerius, vol. iii. pp. 68–102, and in the edition of the Dialogus Pita St. Joannis Chrysostoni, erroneously ascribed to Palladius, published by Emmer. Bigotius (4to., Paris, 1680) pp. 349—355. Possibly the whole work is extant in these fragments (which are all given in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Gallandius, vol. vii.); although a quotation given by Socrates (Hist. Eccles. iii. 7) as from this work (but which Cotelerius considers was probably taken from the nextmentioned work) is not included in it. An introductory address to Anatolius, given by Cotelerius, was evidently designed as a preface both to this work and the next. A Latin translation of the Monachus was revised by Gennadius, who lived toward the close of the fifth century. 2. Tvørtikós is rods tow karaśw8évra (or repl roc. catašta,0évros) Yvalorews, in fifty chapters, and "Ečakógia IIpon vacaturd IIpoğAñuata. These two pieces, which are by ancient and modern writers noticed as distinct works, are by the writer himself, in the address to Anatolius just mentioned, regarded as one work, in six hundred and fifty chapters. Perhaps the complete work constituted the ‘Iepá, one of the three works of Evagrius mentioned by Palladius. The fifty chapters of the Tvørrukás were first translated into Latin by Gennadius. It is possible that the “paucas sententiolas valde obscuras,” also translated by Gennadius, were a fragment of the TipoğAñuata: Fabricius thinks that the treatise entitled Capita Gnostica published in Greek and Latin by Suaresius, in his edition of the works of St. Nilus, is the Tvøgtucós of Evagrius. 3. ‘Avromtikós (or Avromtiká) diró Tóv 0etov Ypapáv, Tpós Toys Tepáčovros 8aluovas. This work was translated by Gennadius. It was divided into eight sections corresponding to the eight evil thoughts. Fabricius and Gallandius consider that the fragment given by Bigotius (as already noticed) is a portion or compendium of this work, the scriptural passages being omitted. But although that fragment, a Latin version of which, with some additional sentences not found in the Greek, appears in the Biblioth. Patrum (vol. v. p. 902, ed. Paris, 1610, vol. iv. p. 925, ed. Cologn. 1618, vol. v. p. 698, ed. Paris, 1654, and vol. xxvii. p. 97, ed. Lyon, 1677) treats of the eight evil thoughts, it belongs, we think, to the Movaxós rather than the "Avtomtikós. 4. >tlxmpa 800, two collections of sentences, possibly in verse, one addressed to Coenobites or monks, the other to a virgin, or to women devoted to a life of virginity. A Latin version of these appears in the Appendix to the Codex Regularum of Holstenins, 4to, Rome, 1661, and reprinted in vol. i. pp. 465–468 of the Augsburg edition of 1759, and in the Biblioth. Patrum vol. xxvii. pp. 469, 470, ed. Lyon, 1677, and vol. vii. of the edition of Gallandius. Jerome, who mentions the two parts of these Stixmpa, appears to refer to a third part addressed “to her whose name of blackmess attests the darkness of her perfidy,” i. e. to Melania Romana; but this work, if Jerome is correct in his mention of it, is now lost. Genuadius mentions the two parts, not the third : and it is possible that, as Cave supposes, these, not the Tvøgtukós, may constitute the ‘Iepd of Palladius. 5. Táv katá Movaxów TrpayuáTwo td. atria, extant in Cotelerius, Eccles. Graec. Mon. vol. iii., and Gallandius, Bibl. Patrum, vol. vii., are noticed in the Vitae Patrum of Rosweid, and are perhaps referred to by Jerome, who says that Evagrius wrote a book and sentences IIept 'Atrafletas: in which words he may describe the Movaxás and this work Töv kard Movaxav, both which are contained in one MS. used by Cotelerius. 6. A. fragment Eis IIIIII (T^), or the tetragrammaton and other names of God used in the Hebrew Scriptures, published by Cotelerius and Gallandius (ll, cc.) 7. KepáAata Ay Kat' dicoxov0lav. 8. IIvevuatucal 'yväual kará áApášntov. 9. "Etepal Yvouai. These three pieces are published by Gallandius as the works of Evagrius, whose claim to the authorship of them he vindicates. They have been commonly confounded with the works of St. Nilus. 10. 11. The life of the monk Pachrom ar Pahromius; and A Sermon on the Trinity, both published by Suaresius among the works of St. Nilus, but

assigned by him, on the authority of his to Evagrius. Gallandius positively ascribes sermon to Basil of Caesareia. 12. ‘Trouvijuara IIapoluías Tov Soxoudovros, mentioned by Suidi (s. v. EU&yptos). Some understand Suidas to mea not “Notes on the Proverbs,” but a “worka the model of the Proverbs of Solomon,” suppose that the Xt(xmpa are referred to. o cius, however, is inclined to regard it as a mentary. 13. IIepi Aoyaguáv, and 14. 'Atropo wata Tepl Tóv ue^d\ov yepóvTov, both mentions by Cotelerius (Eccles. Graec. Mon. vol. iii. pp.54. 552) as extant in MS. 15. Trithemius ascriba to Evagrius “a work on the life of the Holy F. thers;” but he either refers to one of his worksm “the monastic life,” or has been misled by passage in Gennadius and Jerome. It is doubtful. howeve whether these and several others of his writing extant in MS. and variously entitled, are disting works, or simply compilations or extracts from some of the above. The genuineness of severald the above works must be regarded as doubts. There are many citations from Evagrius in differe: writers, in the Scholia to the works of others, and in the Calenae on different books of Scriptum. Jerome attests that his works were generally red in the East in their original Greek, and in the Wes in a Latin version made “by his disciple Rufinus' Jerome appears to have been the first to rai the cry of heresy against Evagrius. The editors the Bibliotheca Patrum (except Gallandius) p to the portions of his works which they publish prefatory caveat. IIe is charged with perpetuati the errors of Origen, and anticipating those of lagius. Tillemont vindicates him from charges. Some of his opinions, as coincident those of Origen, were condemned, according Nicephorus Callisti, at the fifth general (s Constantinopolitan) council, A. D. 553. (S Hist. Eccles. iv. 23; Sozomen. Hist. Eccles. vi. Palladius, Hist. Lausiac. c. 86, in the Bibl. Fo trum, vol. xiii., ed Paris, 1654; Hieronymus, ad Cesiphontem adv. Pelagianos, Opera, vol. iv. A 476, ed. Martianay, Paris, 1693; Greg. Naziani. Opera, pp. 870-71, ed. Paris, 1630 : Gennadi de Viris Illustr. c. l l ; Suidas, s. v. Eddyptos and Maképios; Nicephorus Callisti, Histor. Eccles. i. 37, 42, 43; Trithemius, de Scriptor. Eccles. c. 85. Cotelerius, Eccles. Graec. Monum. vol. iii. 68, &c., and notes; Tillemont, Mémoires, vol. p. 368, &c.; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vii. p. 4 vol. viii. pp. 661,679,.695, vol. ix. p. 284, &c., x. p. 10; Gallandius, Billioth. /*atrum, vol. vii. Oudin. Comment. de Scriptor. Eccles. vol. i. p. 888 &c.; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol.i.p.275, ed. Oxon. 1740-43) 5. An Evagrius, expressly distinguished by Gen. madius from Evagrius of Pontus, wrote a work celebrated in its day, called Altercatio inter Theo. philum Christianum et Simeonen Judaeum. It is published by Gallandius. (Gennadius, de Viri Illustribus, c. 50 ; Gallandius, Biblioth. Patrum vol. ix. Proleg. p. xvii. and p. 250, &c.) 6. An Evagrius, supposed by some to b Evagrius of Pontus, but not so if we may judg from the subject, wrote a treatise described as Vo riarum Considerationum sive de Sermonis Discrimin Capita quinquaginta quatuor, extant in the MS. in the library of the Escurial. (Fabric. Bibl. vol. vi. pp. 338, 367.) [J. C. M.] EVALCES (EöðAkms), is referred to by Athe naeus (xiii. p. 573) as the author of a work at phesus (’Eqertakó). There are a few other perons of the same name, concerning whom nothing interest is known. (Xen. Hell. iv. l. § 40; |nthol. Graec. vi. 262.) [L. S.] EVANDER (Eöavôpos.). 1. A son of Hermes y an Arcadian nymph, a daughter of Ladon, who called Themis or Nicostrata, and in Roman traitions Carmenta or Tiburtis. (Paus. viii. 43. § 2; 'lut. Quaest. Rom. 53; Dionys. A. R. i. 31 ; erv. ad Aen. viii. 336.) Evander is also called a on of Echemus and Timandra. (Serv. ad Aen. iii. 130.) About sixty years previous to the Trojan war, Evander is said to have led a Pelasian colony from Pallantium in Arcadia into Italy. "he cause of this emigration was, according to »ionysius, a civil feud among the people, in which he party of Evander was defeated, and therefore eft their country of their own accord. Servius, m the other hand, relates that Evander had killed is father at the instigation of his mother, and hat he was obliged to quit Arcadia on that acount. (Serv. ad Aen. viii. 5 l; comp. Ov. Fast. i. 30.) He landed in Italy on the banks of the 'iber, at the foot of the Palatine Hill, and was ospitably received by king Turnus. According o Servius (ad Aen. viii. 562), however, Evander ook possession of the country by force of arms, nd slew Herilus, king of Praeneste, who had ttempted to expel him. Ise built a town Pallanium, which was subsequently incorporated with Rome, and from which the names of Palatium and *alatinus were believed to have arisen. (Varro, !e Ling. Lat. v. 53.) Evander is said to have aught his neighbours milder laws and the arts of eace and social life, and especially the art of writing, with which he himself had been made cquainted by Heracles (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 56), ind music; he also introduced among them the worship of the Lycaean Pan, of Demeter, Poseidon, Heracles, and Nice. (Liv. i. 5; Dionys. i. 31, &c.; Dv. Fast. i. 471, v. 91; Paus. l. c.) Virgil (Aen. iii. 51) represents Evander as still alive at the ime when Aeneias arrived in Italy, and as forming in alliance with him against the Latins. (Comp. Serv. ad Aen. viii. 157.) Evander had a son Palas, and two daughters, Rome and Dyna. (Virg. Aen. viii. 574; Serv. al Aen. i. 277 ; Dionys. i. 32.) He was worshipped at Pallantium in Arcadia, is a hero, and that town was subsequently honjured by the emperor Antoninus with several privileges. Evander's statue at Pallantium stood by :he side of that of his son Pallas. At Rome he had an altar at the foot of the Aventine. (Paus. wiii. 44. § 5 ; Dionys, l.c.) : 2. A son of Priam. (Apollod. iii. 12. S 5; Dict. Cret. iii. 14.) 3. A son of the Lycian king Sarpedon, who took part in the Trojan war. (Diod. v.79.) [L.S.] EVANDER (Eöav5pos), a Phocian, was the pupil and successor of Lacydes as the head of the Academic School at Athens, about B. c. 215. Evander himself was succeeded by his pupil Hegesinus. Concerning the opinions and writings of this philosopher nothing is known. (Diog. Laërt. iv. 60; Cic. Acad. ii. 6.) Several Pythagoreans of the name of Evander, who were natives of Croton, Metapontum, and Leontini, are mentioned by Iamblichus (Vit. Pyth. 36), and a Cretan Evander occurs in Plutarch. (Lusand. 23.) [L. S.] EVANDER. AVIA'NIUS, or, as we read in Iome MSS., AWIA'NUS EVANDER, lived at


Rome in B. c. 50, in a part of the house of Memmius, and was on friendly terms with Cicero, from whose letters we learn that he was a sculptor. He seems to have been a freedman of M. Aemilius Avianius. (Ad Fam. vii. 23, xiii. 2.) [L. S.] EVANDER, AULA(NIUS, a sculptor and silwer chaser, born at Athens, whence he was taken by M. Antonius to Alexandria. At the overthrow of Antony he fell into the power of Octavian, and was carried among the captives to Rome, where he executed many admirable works. Pliny mentions a statue of Diana at Rome by Timotheus, the head of which was restored by Evander. (Plin. xxxvi. 5. s. 4. § 10; Thiersch, Epochen, pp. 303, 304.) Some writers suppose that Horace refers to his works (Sat. i. 3. 90), but the passage seems to be rather a satirical allusion to vases prized for their antiquity—as old as king Evander. [P. S.] EVA'NEMUS (Eöðveuos), the giver of favourable wind, was a surname of Zeus, under which the god had a sanctuary at Sparta. (Paus. iii. 13. § 5; comp. Theocrit. xxviii. 5.) [L. S.] EVA'NGELUS (EöäyyeAos), the bearer of good news. Under this name the shepherd Pixodarus had a sanctuary at Ephesus, where he enjoyed heroic honours, because he had found a quarry of beautiful marble, of which the Ephesians built a temple. (Vitruv. x. 7.) [L. S.] EVANO'RIDAS (Eöavoptègs) an Elean, was one of the prisoners taken by Lycus of Pharae, the lieutenant-general of the Achaeans, in B. c. 217, when he defeated EURIPIDEs the Aetolian, who had been sent, at the request of the Eleans, to supersede the former commander Pyrrhias. (Polyb. v. 94.) Pausanias (vi. 8) mentions Evanoridad as having won the boys’ prize for wrestling at the Olympic and Nemean games, and as having drawn up a list of the Olympic victors, when he afterwards held the office of ‘EAAdvoščicns. (See Dict. of Ant. pp. 663, 664.) [E. E.] EVANTHES (EJavóñs). I. Of Cyzicus, is quoted by Hieronymus (adr. Jorin. ii. 14) as an authority for the opinion, that at the time of Pygmalion people were not yet in the habit of eating meat. Whether he is the same as the Evanthes of Cyzicus who, according to Pausanias (vi. 4. § 10) gained a prize at the Olympian games, is unknown. 2. Of Miletus, is mentioned as an author by Diogenes Laërtius (i. 29), and seems to have been an historian, but is otherwise unknown. 3. Of Samos, a Greek historian, who is mentioned only by Plutarch. (Sol. 11.) There are several passages in which authors of the name of Evanthes are referred to ; but, their native countries not being stated, it is uncertain whether those passages refer to any of the three Evanthes here specified, or to other persons of the same name. Thus Pliny (H. N. viii. 22) quotes one Evanthes whom he calls inter auctor's Graeciae non sprelus, and from whose work he gives a statement respecting some religious rite observed in Arcadia. One might therefore be inclined to think him the same as the Evanthes who is quoted by the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (i. 1063, 1065) as the author of uvölká. Athenaeus (vii. p. 296) speaks of an epic poet Evanthes, of whose productions he mentions a hymn to Glaucus. [L. S.] EVANTHES (Eöäv0ms), a painter of unknown date, two of whose pictures, in the temple of Zeus Casius at Pelusium, are described very minutely

and with great affectation, by Achilles Tatius (iii. 6–8). The subjects of them were, the release of Andromeda by Perseus, and the release of Prometheus by Heracles. (Comp. Lucian, de Domo, 22; Philostr. Imag. i. 29.) Both subjects are represented on existing works of art in a manner similar to that of the pictures of Evanthes. (Müller, Arch. d. Kunst, $ 396, n. 2, § 414, n. 3; Pitt. Erc. iv. 7, 61; Mus. Borb. v. 32, vi 50, ix. 39; Gell, Pomp. pl. 42.) [P. S.] EVANTHIUS, a rhetorician and grammarian, highly eulogized in the chronicle of St. Jerome, died about A. D. 359, is numbered among the ancient commentators on Terence, and is believed by Lindenbrogius to be the author of the Brevis dissertatio de Tragoedia et Comoedia, commonly prefixed to the larger editions of the dramatist. He has sometimes been confounded with Eugraphius, who belongs to a much later period. (Schofen, De Terentio et Donato ejus interprete, 8vo., Bonn. 1821, p. 37; Rufinus, De Metris Terent. p. 2705, ed. l’utsch. [W. R.] EVARCHUS (Eöapxos), tyrant of the Acarnanian town of Astacus in the first year of the Peloponnesian war, B. c. 431, was ejected by the Athenians in the summer and reinstated in the winter by the Corinthians. (Thuc. i. 30, 33.) Nothing is mentioned further either of him or of Astacus, but it is probable that the Athenian interest was soon restored. (Comp. i. 102.) [A.H.C.] EVATHLUS (EözöAos). 1. An Athenian sycophant and sorry orator, mentioned by Aristophanes. (Acharn. 710, Vesp. 590, and Schol.) He was likewise attacked by Plato and Cratinus. 2. A wealthy young Athenian, who placed himself under the tuition of Protagoras, for the purpose of learning the art of oratory, promising him a arge sum for his instructions. (According to Quintilian, iii. 1. $ 10, he paid him 10,000 drachmae.) An amusing story is told by A. Gellius (v. 10; comp. Diog. Laërt. ix. 56) of the way in which he evaded paying half the money he had promised. [C. P. M.] EVAX, said to have been a king of Arabia, who is mentioned in some editions of Pliny (II. N. xxv. 4) as having written a work “De Simplicium Effectibus,” addressed to Nero, that is, the emperor Tiberius, A. D. 14–37. This paragraph, however, is wanting in the best MSS., and has accordingly been omitted in most modern editions of Pliny. (See Salmas. Prolegom. ad Homon. Hyles Iatr. p. 15; Harduin’s Notes to Pliny, l.c.) He is said by Marbodus (or Marbodaeus), in the prologue to his poem on Precious Stones, to have written a work on this subject addressed to Tiberius, from which his own is partly taken. A Latin prose work, professing to belong to Evax, entitled “De Nominibus et Virtutibus Lapidum qui in Artem Medicinae recipiuntur,” is to be found in a MS. in the Bodleian library at Oxford (Hatton, 100), and probably in other European libraries. The work of Marbodus has been published and quoted under the name of Evax. (See Choulant, Handbuch der Bücherkunde für die Aeltere Medicin, 2nd ed. art. Marbodus.) [W. A. G.] EU'BLUS (EöStos). 1. A Stoic philosopher of Ascalon, who is mentioned only by Stephanus of Byzantium. (s. v. 'AgkáAww.) 2. An author of obscene erotic stories (impurae conditor historiae, Ov. Trist. ii. 416.) [L. S.] EU’BIUS, sculptor. [XENocRITUs.]

EUBOEA (EöSola), a daughter of Asopus, fin whom the island of Euboea was believed to derived its name. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. There are three other mythical personages of same name. (Paus. ii. 17. § 2; Apollod. ii. 7. § Athen. vii. p. 296.) [L. S.] EUBOEUS (EöSotos) of Paros, a very brated writer of parodies, who lived about time of Philip of Macedonia. In his poems, w seem to have been written in the style of H he ridiculed chiefly the Athenians. Euboeus Boeotus are said to have excelled all other par dists. In the time of Athenaeus a collection of h Parodies in four books was still extant, but alli them are lost with the exception of a few shu fragments. (Athen. xv. pp. 698, 699; comp. W. land, Dissert. de Parodiar. Homeric. Scriptoria p. 41. &c.) [L. S.] EUBOTAS (EUS&Tas), a Cyrenaean, whi gained a victory in the foot-race in Ol. xcIII. (B.t 408), and in the chariot-race in Ol. cIv. {: 364). There is considerable doubt as to the name Diodorus calls him Evşatos, Xenophon EöSārat; nor is it quite clear whether Pausanias, where hi mentions him, speaks of two victories gained a different Olympiads, or of a double victory gaine on the second occasion. (Paus. vi. 8. § 3, 4. § 2; Diod. xiii.68; Xen. Hellen. i. 2. § 1.) [C.P. M.] EUBU'LE (E36098 m), a well-informed Pyth, gorean lady, to whom one of the letters of Thean is addressed. (See J. H. Wolf's Mulierum Grue carum, quae orat. prosa usae sunt, Fragmenta, o

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an Argive tradition, a son of Trochilus by an Eleo sinian woman, and brother of Triptolemus; whereas according to the Orphici, Eubuleus and Triptolemu were sons of Dysaules. (Paus. i. 14. § 2. 2. One of the Tritopatores at Athens. (coNat. Deor. iii. 21.) Eubuleus occurs also as a surname of several divinities, and describes them as gods of good coun. sel, such as Hades and Dionysus. (Schol. ad No cand. Aler. 14; Orph. Hymn. 71. 3; Macrob. St. i. 18; Plut. Sympos. vii. 9.) [L. S.] EUBU'LEUS, a sculptor, whose name is in scribed on a headless Hermes. The inscription EYBOTAETE IIPAEITEAOTC (sic in Winckel. mann) makes him a son of Praxiteles; and, accord ing to Meyer, there is no doubt that the grea sculptor of that name is meant. The statue stil exists, but in private hands. (Winckelmann, Ge chichte d. Kunst, ix. 3, § 20 ; Wisconti, Mas Pio-Clem. vi. tab. 22, p. 142.) EUBU'LIDES, (EJSovXtöms). nian, who, having lost a cause, in which he wal prosecutor, through the evidence given by a mas named Euxitheus, revenged himself on the latte by getting a verdict passed in a very irregula manner by the members of his deme, that he wa not an Athenian citizen. Euxitheus appealed t the dicasts of the Heliaea (see Dict. of Ant. s.t. Appellatio, Greek), and succeeded in establishin his citizenship. A speech composed in his defenc has come down to us among those of Demosthenes but is, by some critics, perhaps without sufficien reason, attributed to Lysias. (Dem. c. Eubulid. c. 5. 2. An Athenian, son of Sositheus and Phylo mache, but adopted by his maternal grandfather Eubulides. On his behalf a suit was commences against a relative of the name of Macartatus, fo he recovery of some property. He being still a oy, his father, Sositheus, appeared for him. Denosthenes wrote in his defence the speech trpos 1 arcépratov. The name Eubulides was borne by several others of this family, the genealogy of which it is ather difficult to make out; but it appears that Fubulides, the grandfather and adoptive father of he boy of the same name, was himself the grandson of another Eubulides, son of Buselus. (Dem. c. A sacart. cc. 1-8.) 3. 4. Two individuals of the name of Eubulidas rare mentioned as among the victims of the rapacity of Verres. One surnamed Grosphus, a native of Centuripae, the other a native of Herbita. (Cic. c. 3’err. iii. 23, v. 42, 49.) [C. P. M.] EUBU'LIDES (EöSovXtöms), of Miletus, a philosopher who belonged to the Megaric school. It is not stated whether he was the immediate or a later successor of Eucleides (Diog. Laërt. ii. 108); mor is it said whether he was an elder or younger contemporary of Aristotle, against whom he wrote with great bitterness. (Diog. Laërt. ii. 109; Athen. vii. p. 354; Aristot. ap. Eusel. Praep. Ev. xv. 2. P. 792.) The statement that Demosthenes availed himself of his dialectic instruction (Plut. Wit. Y orat. p. 845; Apul. Orat. de Mag. p. 18, ed. Bip.; Phot. Bibl. Cod. 265, p. 493, ed. Bekk.) is alluded to also in a fragment of an anonymous comic poet. Kap. Diog. Laërt. ii. 108.) There is no mention of his having written any works, but he is said to have invented the forms of several of the most celebrated false and captious syllogisms (Diog. Laërt. t. c.), some of which, however, such as the 6taXav6dviov and the kepartvms, were ascribed by others to the later Diodorus Cronus (Diog. Laërt. i. 11 l), and several of them are alluded to by Aristotle and even by Plato. Thus the éykekaxvuuévos. 5taxav04vav or 'HAéktpa, which are different names for one and the same form of syllogism, as well as the levööuevos and kepatívms, occur in Aristotle (El. Soph. 24, 25, 22), and partially also in Plato (Euthyd. p. 276, comp. Theaetet. pp. 165, 175.) We cannot indeed ascertain what motives Eubulides and other Megarics had in forming such syllogisms, nor in what form they were dressed up, on account of the scantiness of our information upon this portion of the history of Greek philosophy; but we may suppose, with the highest degree of probability, that they were directed especially against the sensualistic and hypothetical proceedings of the Stoics, and partly also against the definitions of Aristotle and the Platonists, and that they were intended to establish the Megaric doctrine of the simplicity of existence, which could be arrived at only by direct thought. (H. Ritter, Ueber die Megar. Schule, in Niebuhr and Brandis’ Rhein. Mus. ii. p. 295, &c.; Brandis, Gesch. der Griech. Röm. Philos. i. p. 122, &c.) Apollonius Cronus, the teacher of Diodorus Cronus, and the historian Euphantus, are mentioned as pupils of Eubulides. [CII. A. B.] EUBU'LIDES (EöSovXtôms), a statuary, who made a great votive offering, consisting of a group of thirteen statues, namely, Athena, Paeonia, Zeus, Mnemosyne, the Muses, and Apollo, which he dedicated at Athens, in the temple of Dionysus, in the Cerameicus. (Paus. i. 2. § 4.) Pliny mentions his statue of one counting on his fingers (xxxiv. 8, a. 19. § 29, according to Harduin’s emendation). Eubulides had a son, Euchrift.

In the year 1837 the great group of Eubulides in the Cerameicus was discovered. Near it was a fragment of an inscription... XEIPOx KPoIIIAHx ETIOIHXEN. Another inscription was found near the Erechtheum, ...]XEIP KAI EYBOYAIAHx. KPOIIIAAI ETIOIHSAN. (Böckh, Corp. Inscr. i. p. 504, No. 666, comp. Add. p. 916.) From a comparison of these inscriptions with each other and with Pausanias (viii. 14. S 4), it may be inferred that the first inscription should be thus completed : — EYBOYAIAHs ETXEIPOX KPOIIIAHS ETIOIHSEN, and that there was a family of artists of the Cropeian demos, of which three generations are known, namely, Eubulides, Eucheir, Eubulides. The architectural character of the monument and the forms of the letters, alike shew that these inscriptions must be referred to the time of the Roman dominion in Greece. (Ross, in the Kunstblatt, 1837, No. 93,&c.) Thiersch comes to a like conclusion on other grounds. (Epochen, p. 127.) [P. S.] EUBU'LUS (EöéovXos), a son of Carmanor and father of Carme. (Paus. ii. 30. § 3.) This name likewise occurs as a surname of several divi nities who were regarded as the authors of good counsel, or as well-disposed; though when applied to Hades, it is, like Eubuleus, a mere euphemism. (Orph. Hymn. 17. 12, 29. 6, 55. 3.) [L. S.] EUBULUS, AURELIUS of Emesa, chief auditor of the exchequer (Tovs Ka8óAov A679 vs *Titetpaupévos) under Elagabalus, rendered himself so odious by his rapacity and extortion, that upon the death of his patron the tyrant, he was torn to pieces by the soldiers and people, who had long clamorously demanded his destruction. (Dion Cass. lxxix. 21.) [W. R.] EUBU'LUS, one of the commission of Nine appointed by Theodosius in A. D. 429 to compile a code upon a plan which was afterwards abandoned. He had before that date filled the office of magister scriniorum. In A. D. 435, he was named on the commission of Sixteen, which compiled the existing Theodosian code upon an altered plan. He then figures as comes and quaestor, with the titles illustris and magnificus. The emperor, however, in mentioning those who distinguished themselves in the composition of his code, does not signalize Eubulus. [Diodonts, vol. i. p. 1018.] [J.T. G. EUBU'LUS (EöSovKos), an Athenian, the son of Euphranor, of the Cettian demus, was a very distinguished comic poet of the middle comedy, flourished, according to Suidas (s. v.), in the 101st Olympiad, B. c. 37%. If this date be correct (and it is confirmed by the statement that Philip, the son of Aristophanes, was one of his rivals), Eubulus must have exhibited comedies for a long series of years; for he ridiculed Callimedon, the contemporary of Demosthenes. (Athen. viii. p. 340, d.) It is clear, therefore, that Suidas is wrong in placing Eubulus on the confines of the Old and the Middle Comedy. He is expressly assigned by the author of the Etymologicon Magnum (p. 451. 30) and by Ammonius (s. v. čvāov) to the Middle Comedy, the duration of which begins very little before him, and extends to a period very little, if at all, after him. His plays were chiefly on mythological subjects. Several of them contained parodies of passages from the tragic poets, and especially from Euripides. There are a few instances of his attacking eminent individuals by name, as Philocrates, Cydias, Callimedon, Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse.

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