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rived information of what had happened, de»atched Julianus with a body of troops to quell he insurrection. But these, instead of obeying he orders of their general, were prevailed upon to in the mutineers. Whereupon Macrinus adanced in person to meet his rival, was signally efeated in a battle fought on the borders of Syria nd Phoenicia, and having escaped in disguise was oon afterwards discovered, brought back, and put o death. [MACRINUs.] The conqueror hastened o Antioch, from whence he forwarded a letter to he senate, in which he at once assumed, without waiting for the form of their consent, all the desiglations of Caesar, Imperator, son of Antoninus, grandson of Severus, Pius, Felix, Augustus, and Proconsul, together with the tribunitian authority. At the same time he inveighed against the reachery of Macrinus towards his master, his low birth, and his presumption in daring to adopt the itle of emperor, concluding with a promise to consult the best interests of all classes of the community, and declaring that he intended to set up Augustus, whose age when he first grasped the reins of power he compared with his own, as a model for imitation. No resistance to these claims was testified on the part of the senate or people, for we find from a curious inscription, discovered some years ago at Rome, that the Fratres Arvales assembled in the Capitol on the 14th of July, that is scarcely more than five weeks after the decisive victory over Macrinus, in order to offer up their annual vows for the health and safety of their young prince, who is distinguished by all the appellations enumerated above. Elagabalus entered upon his second consulship in A. D. 219, at Nicomedeia, and from thence proceeded to Rome, where he celebrated his accession by magnificent games, by prodigal largesses, and by laying the foundation of a sumptuous shrine for his tutelary deity. Two years afterwards, when he had rendered himself alike odious and contemptible by all manner of follies and abominations, he was persuaded by the politic Maesa to adopt his first cousin, Alexander Severus, to proclaim him Caesar, and nominate him consul-elect. Soon after, having repented of these steps, he endeavoured to procure the death of his kinsman, but was frustrated, partly by the watchfulness of his grandmother and partly by the zeal of the soldiers, with whom Alexander was a great favourite. A repetition of a similar attempt the year following (A. D. 222) proved his own destruction; for a mutiny having arisen among the praetorians in consequence, he was slain along with Soemias in the camp while endeavouring to appease their fury. The two bodies were dragged through the streets and cast into the Tiber, and hence the epithet or nickname of Tiberinus, one of the many applied in scorn to the tyrant after his death. The reign of this prince, who perished at the age of eighteen, after having occupied the throne for three years, nine months, and four days, dating from the battle of Antioch, was characterised throughout by an accumulation of the most fantastic folly, and the most frantic superstition, together with impurity so bestial that the particulars almost transcend the limits of credibility. Had he confined himself to the absurd practical jokes of which so many have been recorded; had he been satisfied with supping on the tongues of peacocks and nightingales, with feeding lions on pheasants and

parrots, with assembling companies of guests who were all fat, or all lean, or all tall, or all short, ol all bald, or all gouty, and regaling them with mock repasts; had he been content to occupy his leisure hours in solemnizing the nuptials of his favourite deity with the Trojan Pallas or the African Urania, and in making matches between the gods and goddesses all over Italy, men might have laughed goodnaturedly, anticipating an increase of wisdom with increasing years. But unhappily even these trivial amusements were not unfrequently accompanied with cruelty and bloodshed. His earnest devotion to that god whose minister he had been, and to whose favour he probably ascribed his elevation, might have been regarded as excusable or even justifiable had it not been attended with persecution and tyranny. The Roman populace would with easy toleration have admitted and worshipped a new divinity, but they beheld with disgust their emperor appearing in public, arrayed in the attire of a Syrian priest, dancing wild measures and chanting barbaric hymns; they listened with horror to the tales of magic rites, and of human victims secretly slaughtered; they could scarcely submit without indignation to the ordinance that an outlandish idol should take precedence of their fathers’ gods and of Jupiter himself, and still less could they consent to obey the decree subsequently promulgated, that it should not be lawful to offer homage at Rome to any other celestial power. But by far the blackest of his offences were his sins against the decencies of both public and private life, the details of which are too horrible and too disgusting to admit of description. (Dion Cass. lxxvii. 30–41, lxxix. ; Herodian, v. 4–23; Lamprid. Elagab.; Capitolin. Macrin. ; Eutrop. viii. 13; Aurel. Vict. de Caes. xxiii., Epit. xxiii.) A coin of Elagabalus is given under PAULA, the wife of Elagabalus. [W. R.] E'LAPHUS (EAapos), the fifteenth in descent from Aesculapius, the son of Chrysus and the father of Hippolochus II., who lived probably in the island of Cos in the sixth and fifth centuries B. c. (Suid. s. v. 'Itrirokpátims ; Thessali Oratio, ap. Hippocr. Opera, vol. iii. p. 840.) [W. A. G.] E/LARA ('EXdpa), a daughter of Orchomenus or Minyas, who became by Zeus the mother of the giant Tityus; and Zeus, from fear of Hera, concealed her under the earth. (Apollod. i. 4. § 1 ; Apollon. Rhod. i. 702; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1583; Müller, Orchom. p. 185, 2d. edit.) [L. S.] ELASUS (EAagos). There are two Trojans of this name, one of whom was slain by Patroclus and the other by Neoptolemus. (Hom. Il. xvi. 696; Paus. x. 26. S 1.) [L. S.] E’LATUS (“EAatos). 1. A son of Arcas by Leaneira, Metaneira, or by the nymph Chrysope. leia. He was a brother of Azan and Apheidas, and king of Arcadia. By his wife Laodice he had four sons, Stymphalus, Aepytus, Cyllen, and Pereus. (Apollod. iii. 9. § 1, 10. § 3; Paus. viii. 4. § 2.) He is also called the father of Ischys (Pind. Pyth. iii. 31) and of Dotis. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Aatiov.) He is said to have resided on mount Cyllene, and to have gone from thence to Phocis, where he protected the Phocians and the Delphic sanctuary against the Phlegyans, and founded the town of Elateia. (Paus. l.c., x. 34. Ś 3.) A statue of his stood in the market-place of Elateia, and another at Tegea. (Paus. x. 34. § 3, viii. 48. § 6.) 2. A prince of the Lapithae at Larissa in Thes

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saly, was married to Hippeia, by whom he became the father of Caeneus and Polyphemus, both of whom took part in the expedition of the Argonauts. (Hygin. Fab. 11; Ov. Met. xii. 497.) He is sometimes confounded with the Arcadian Elatus. (Müller, Orchom. pp. 186, 191, 2d. edit.) There are four more mythical personages of this name. (Hom. Il. vi. 33, Od. xxii. 268; Apollod. ii. 5. $4; Apollon. Rhod. i. 101.) [L. S.] ELECTRA ('HAékrpa), i. e. the bright or brilliant one. 1. A daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, and the wife of Thaumas, by whom she became the mother of Iris and the Harpies, Aëllo and Ocypete. (Hom. Hymn. in Cer. 419 ; Hes. Theog. 266; Apollod. i. 2. §§ 2, 6; Paus. iv. 33. § 6; Serv. ad Aen. iii. 212.) 2. A daughter of Atlas and Pleione, was one of the seven Pleiades, and became by Zeus the mother of Jasion and Dardanus. (Apollod. iii. 10. § 1, 12. §§ 1, 3.) According to a tradition preserved in Servius (ad Aen. i. 32, ii. 325, iii. 104, vii. 207) she was the wife of the Italian king Corythus, by whom she had a son Jasion; whereas by Zeus she was the mother of Dardanus. (Comp. Serv. ad Aen. i. 384, iii. 167; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 29.) Diodorus (v. 48) calls Harmonia her daughter by Zeus. She is connected also with the legend about the Palladium. When Electra, it is said, had come as a suppliant to the Palladium, which Athena had established, Zeus or Athena herself threw it into the territory of Ilium, because it had been sullied by the hands of a woman who was no longer a pure maiden, and king Ilus then built a temple to Zeus. (Apollod. iii. 12. § 3.) According to others it was Electra herself that brought the Palladium to Ilium, and gave it to her son Dardanus. (Schol. ad Eurip. Phoen. 1136.) When she saw the city of her son perishing in flames, she tore out her hair for grief, and was thus placed among the stars as a comet. (Serv. ad Aen. x. 272.) According to others, Electra and her six sisters were placed among the stars as the seven Pleiades, and lost their brilliancy on seeing the destruction of Ilium. (Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 138; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1155.) The fabulous island of Electris was believed to have received its name from her. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 916.) 3. A sister of Cadmus, from whom the Electrian gate at Thebes was said to have received its name. (Paus. ix. 8. § 3; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 916.) 4. A daughter of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra, is also called Laodice. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 742.) She was the sister of Iphigeneia, Chrysothemis, and Orestes. The conduct of her mother and Aegisthus threw her into grief and great suffering, and in consequence of it she became the accomplice of Orestes in the murder of his mother. Her story, according to Hyginus (Fab. 122), runs thus: On receiving the false report that Orestes and Pylades had been sacrificed to Artemis in Tauris, Aletes, the son of Aegisthus, assumed the government of Mycenae; but Electra, for the purpose of learning the particulars of her brother's death, went to Delphi. On the day she reached the place, Orestes and Iphigeneia likewise arrived there, but the same messenger who had before informed her of the death of Orestes, now added, that he had been sacrificed by Iphigeneia. Electra, enraged at this, snatched a firebrand from the altar, with the intention of putting her sister's eyes out with it. But Orestes suddenly came to the spot, and made

himself known to Electra. All being thus cleared up, they travelled together to Mycenae, where Orestes killed the usurper Aletes, and Electra married Pylades. The Attic tragedians, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, have used the story of Electra very freely: the most perfect, however, is that in the “Electra” of Sophocles. When Aegisthus and Clytaemnestra, after the murder of Agamemnon, intended to kill young Orestes also, Electra saved him by sending him under the protection of a slave to king Strophius at Phanote in Phocis, who had the boy educated together with his own son Pylades. Electra, in the meantime, was ever thinking on taking revenge upon the murderers of her father, and when Orestes had grown up to manhood, she sent secret messages to him to remind him of his duty to avenge his father. At length, Orestes came with Pylades to Argos. A lock of hair which he had placed on the grave of his father, was a sign to Electra that her brother was near. Orestes soon after made himself known to her, and informed her that he was commanded by Apollo to avenge the death of his father. Both lamented their misfortunes, and Electra urged him to carry his design into effect. Orestes then agreed with her that he and Pylades should go into the house of Clytaemnestra, as strangers from Phocis, and tell her that Orestes was dead. This was done accordingly, and Aegisthus and Clytaemnestra fell by the hand of Orestes, who gave Electra in marriage to his friend Pylades. (Comp. Aeschyl. Eumenides, and Euripides, Orestes.) She became by him the mother of Medon and Strophius. Her tomb was shewn in later times at Mycenae. (Paus. ii. 16. § 5.) 5. A servant of Helen, was painted by Polygnotus in the Lesche at Delphi, in the act of kneeling before her mistress and fastening her sandals. (Paus. x. 25. § 2.) A sixth Electra occurs among the daughters of Danaus. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 5.) [L. S.] ELECTRYON ('HAerrptsav), a son of Perseus and Andromeda, was king of Mycenae or Mideia in Argolis. (Paus. ii. 25. S 8.) He was married to Anaxo, the daughter of Alcaeus, by whom he had several children. (Apollod. ii. 4. § 5, &c.) The tradition about him is given under AMPH1TRYON. Another Electryon is mentioned by Diodorus (iv. 67). [L. S.] ELECTRYO'NE (HAektpudovn), a daughter of Helios and Rhodos. (Diod. v. 56; Schol. ad Pind. Ol. vii. 24.) The name is also used as a patronymic from Electryon, and given to his daughter, Alcmene. (Hes. Scut. Herc. 16.) [L. S.]

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Eurydice, the daughter of Endymion, was king of the Epeians and father of Augeas. (Paus. v. 1. S 6, &c.) 2. A son of Amphimachus and king of Elis. In his reign the sons of Aristomachus invaded Peloponnesus. (Paus. v. 3, § 4.) 3. A son of Tantalus, from whom the country of Elis was believed to have received its name. (Steph. Byz. s. v.” HAIs.) [L. S.] E'LEOS ("EXeos), the personification of pity or mercy, had an altar in the agora at Athens. “The Athenians,” says Pausanias (i. 17. § 1), “are the only ones among the Hellenes that worship this divine being, and among all the gods this is the most useful to human life in all its vicissitudes."

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Those who implored the assistance of the Athenians, such as Adrastus and the Heracleidae, approached as suppliants the altar of Eleos. (Apollod. ii. 8. § 1, iii. 7. § 1 ; Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col. 258. [L. S.] ELEPHANTIS, the writer of certain amatory works (molles Elephantidos libelli), the character of which is sufficiently evident from the notices contained in Martial and Suetonius. We know not with certainty the sex of the author, nor in what language the pieces were composed, nor whether they were expressed in prose or verse; but the grammatical form of the name seems to indicate that the person in question was a female, and that she was either a Greek by birth or of Greek extraction. By the historians of literature she is generally ranked among the poetesses. (Martial, Ep. xii. 43. 5; Suet. Tib. 43; Priapei. iii.; Suidas, s. v. Aarvávadora.) Galen quotes a treatise repl koopamtików by this or some other Elephantis. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 158; comp. Spanheim, de Praestantia et Usu Numism. Diss. ix. p. 71.) [W. R.] ELEPHENOR (EAeqiva.p.), a son of Chalcodon, and prince of the Abantes in Euboea, whom he led against Troy in thirty or forty ships. He there fell by the hand of Agenor. (Hom. Il. ii. 540, iv. 463; Hygin. Fab. 97; Dict. Cret. i. 17.) Hyginus calls his mother Imenarete, and Tzetzes (ad Lycoph. 1029) Melanippe. He is also mentioned among the suitors of Helen (Apollod. iii. 10. § 8), and was said to have taken with him to Troy the sons of Theseus, who had been entrusted to his care. (Plut. Thes. 35; Paus. i. 17. § 6.) According to Tzetzes, Elephenor, without being aware of it, killed his grandfather, Abas, in consequence of which he was obliged to quit Euboea. When therefore the expedition against Troy was undertaken, Elephenor did not return to Euboea, but assembled the Abantes on a rock on the Euripus, opposite the island. After the fall of Troy, which, according to some accounts, he survived, he went to the island of Othronos near Sicily, and, driven away thence by a dragon, he went to Amantia in Illyria. (Lycophr. 1029, &c.) [L. S.] ELEUSI'NA or ELEUSI’NIA ('Exevalvía), a surname of Demeter and Persephone, derived from Eleusis in Attica, the principal seat of their worship. (Virg. Georg. i. 163; Phornut. N. D. 27; Steph. Byz. s. v. EXevoss.) [L. S.] ELEUSIS ('EXevass), a son of Hermes and Daeira, the daughter of Oceanus. The town of Eleusis in Attica was believed to have derived its name from him. (Paus. i. 38. § 7; Apollod. i. 5. § 2; Hygin. Fab. 147.) He was married to Cothonea or Cyntinia. (Hygin. l. c.; Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 19.) [L. S.] ELEUSIS ('Exevass), is quoted by Diogenes Laërtius (i.29) as the author of a work on Achilles (repl’Axia Néaos). [L. S.] ELEUTHER ('Exev0isp), a son of Apollo and Aethusa, the daughter of Poseidon, was regarded as the founder of Eleutherae in Boeotia. (Steph. Byz. s. v. 'Exev6epal.) He was the grandfather of Jasius and Poemander, the founder of Tanagra. (Paus. ix. 20. § 2.) He is said to have been the first that erected a statue of Dionysus, and spread the worship of the god. (Hygin. Fab. 225.) There are two other mythical personages of the same name. (Plut. Quaest. Gr. 39; Steph. Byz. s. v. 'EXev6epal.) [L. S.]

ELEUTHEREUS ('Exev6epess), a surname of Dionysus, which he derived either from Eleuther, or the Boeotian town of Eleutherae ; but it may also be regarded as equivalent to the Latin Liber. and thus describes Dionysus as the deliverer of man from care and sorrow. (Paus. i. 20. § 2, 38. § 8; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 101.) The form Eleutherius is certainly used in the sense of the deliverer, and occurs also as the surname of Zeus. (Plut. Sympos. vii. in fin. ; Pind. Ol. xii. 1; Strab. ix. p. 412. Tacit. Ann. xv. 64.) [L. S.] ELIAS ("HAtas). This name, which is of Hebrew origin, belongs to several Greek writers, chiefly ecclesiastics, of the Byzantine empire. There were several prelates of the name in the Oriental patriarchates and bishoprics, and several writers, chiefly ecclesiastics, in the Oriental tongues, for whom see Assemanni, Bibliotheca Orientalis, and Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ix. p. 257, xi. p. 614. We give only those belonging to Greek biography. In Latin the name is frequently written Helias. l. 2. 3. ELLAs. There were three patriarchs of Jerusalem of this name. Elias I. was patriarch from A. D. 494 or 495 till his deposition by a council held at Sidon, whose decree was enforced, A.D.513, by the emperor Anastasius I. He died in exile A. D. 518. Elias II. held the patriarchate from A. D. 760, or earlier, to 797, with the exception of an interval, when he was expelled by an intrusive patriarch Theodorus. He was represented at the second general council of Nicaea, A. D. 787, by Joannes, a presbyter, and Thomas, principal of the convent of St. Arsenius near Babylon in Egypt: these ecclesiastics were also representatives of the patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch. Elias III. was patriarch at least as early as 881, when he sent a letter to Charles le Gros and the prelates, princes, and nobles of Gaul. A Latin version of the letter of Elias to Charlemagne (for it is scarcely probable that the original was in that language) was published in the Spicilegium of D'Achéry. Elias died about A. D. 907. (Papebroche, Tractatus preliminaris de Episcopis et Patriarchis Sanctae Hierosolymitanae Ecclesiae in the Acta Sanctorum : Maii, vol. iii. with the Appendia in vol. vii. p. 696, &c.; Labbe, Concilia, vol. vii.; D'Achéry, Spicileg. vol. iii. p. 363, ed. Paris, 1723.) 4. ELIAs of CHARAX. A Manuscript in the library of St. Mark at Venice contains a citation, printed by Willoison, from a Greek treatise on versification by “Helias, a monk of Charax.” Willoison states that the passage cited by him is, in several MSS. of the King's Library at Paris, im. properly ascribed to Plutarch. Harless incorrectly represents Willoison as speaking of two works of Helias on versification, and without, or rather against authority, connects the name of Elias of Crete with them. Part of this work is printed by Hermann in an Appendix to his edition of Dracon of Stratoniceia. [DRAcon.] (Willoison, Anecd. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 85,86; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. p. 338.) 5. ELIAs of CRETE. There are several works extant ascribed to Elias Cretensis, whom Rader, Cave, Fabricius, and others, suppose to have been Elias, bishop (or rather metropolitan) of Crete, who took part in the second general council of Nicaea, A. D. 787. (Labbe, Concilia, vol. vii.) Leunclavius considers that the author was a different person from the prelate, and places the former in the sixth century or thereabout. (Prooemium in Sti Gregorii Nazianzeni Opera.) Oudin, who %as examined the subject most carefully, agrees with Leunclavius in distinguishing the writer from the prelate, and deduces from the internal evidence of his works that the writer lived about A. D. 1120 or 1130. He wrote (1) Commentaries on several of the Orations of Gregory Nazianzen. There are several MSS. extant of these commentaries in the original Greek, but we believe they have never been printed. A Latin version of them, partly new, partly selected from former translations, was published by Billius with his Latin version of Gregory's works, and has been repeatedly reprinted. (2.) A Commentary on the KAtuag, Climar, “Scala Paradisi,” or Ladder of Paradise of Joannes or John surnamed Scholasticus or Climacus. This commentary, which has never been published, but is extant in MS., is described by Rader in his edition of the Climax, as very bulky. Some extracts are embodied in the Scholia of a later commentator given by Rader. (3.) An Answer respecting virgins espoused before the age of puberty. This is extant in MS. in the King's Library at Paris, in the catalogue of which the author is described as the metropolitan of Crete. (4.) Answers to Dionysius the Monk on his seven different questions, given by Binefidius (Juris Orient. Libri, iii. p. 185) and Leunclavius (Jus Gr. Rom. i. p. 335). It is not known that any other works of his are extant. Nicolaus Commenus in his Praenotiones Mystagogicae cites other works, but they are probably lost. One was On the Morals of the Heathens, and the others were Answers to the Monks of Corinth, To the Monks of Asca, and To the Solitary Monks. Harless incorrectly ascribes to Elias of Crete the work of Elias or Helias of Charax [see No. 4) on versification. (Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 641; Rader, Isagoge ad Scalam St. Joannis Climaci, prefixed to his edition of that work; Oudin, Commentarii de Scriptor. et Scriptis Ecclesiasticis, vol. ii. col. 1066, &c.; Fabric. Bibl. Graec, vol. viii. p. 430, ix. p. 525, xi. p. 615; Catalogus Librorum Manuscriptorum Bibliothecae /*egiae, Paris, 1740.) 6. ELIAs, called, from the ecclesiastical office which he held, Ecdicus (“Ekötkos), or “the Defender,” was the author of a Greek work on the Ascetic life, extant in MS. in the Imperial Library at Vienna, and in the King's Library at Paris. The work is said to be entitled II'my') valovora. A Latin version of a part is given in the Bibliotheca Patrum, vol. xxii. p. 756, &c. ed. Lyons, 1677. In the catalogue of the King's Library at Paris is a Greek MS. containing, among other things, a Florilegium, or selection, said to be by “Helias, Presbyter et Defensor.” (Montfaucon, Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum, p. 548 ; Catal. Codd. MStorum Biblioth. Regiae, vol. ii. Nos. CCCLXII. 6, DCCCLVIII. 21, Paris, 1740; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. ii. Dissert. i. p. 7; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. xi. p. 615.) 7. ELIAs, called “the MoNK.” Leo Allatius in his De Symeonum Scriptis Diatriba (p. 101) mentions a discourse Tpoeóptiow, on the Nativity, by Elias the Monk. (Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. ii. Diss. i. p. 7, ed. Oxford, 1740–43.) 8. ELIAs, called “the PHILosoph ER,” There are in the Medicean Library at Florence Prolegoauena to the Eigayoryi) of Porphyry taken from the writings of “Elias the Philosopher,” and there are

some extracts from the same Elias in a MS. in one Library of St. Mark at Venice. But nothing appears to be known of the writer beyond his name. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. xi. p. 616.) 9. ELIAS SYNCELLUs. Leo Allatius has mentioned some hymns or poems addressed to the Virgin Mary, remarkable for their beauty, piety, and elegance: he promised to publish them, but did not fulfil his intention. Among the writers of them he names Elias Syncellus. (Allatius, Notes to his edition of Eustathius of Antioch, p. 284.) Montfaucon mentions a black-letter MS. apparently in Latin, belonging at that time to the monastery of Caunes in Languedoc, entitled Requies in Clementinas, by Elias or Helias. But who this Elias was, is not stated, nor whether the work was a version from the Greek, which the name of the writer would lead us to suppose. A MS. entitled Theorica et Practica, by “Helias Salomon,” is also mentioned by Montfaucon, but we know nothing of the writer. (Montfaucon, Bibliotheca. Bibliothecarum, pp. 515, 1241.) [J. C. M.] ELICAON or HELICAON ('EAukáav), of: Rhegium, a Pythagorean philosopher. He is: mentioned along with other Pythagoreans, who gave good and wholesome laws to Rhegium, and endeavoured to make practical use of the philosophical principles of their master in the administration of their country. (Iamblich. Wit. Pythag, 27, 30, 36.) [L. S.] ELI'CIUS, a surname of Jupiter at Rome, where king Numa dedicated to Jupiter Elicius an altar on the Aventine. (Liv. i. 20.) The same king was said to have instituted certain secret rites to be performed in honour of the god, which were recorded in his Commentarii. (Liv. i. 31.) The origin of he name as well as the notion of Jupiter Elicius is referred to the Etruscans, who by certain prayers and sacrifices called forth (elicielant or evocabant) lightning or invited Jupiter to send lightning. (Plin. H. N. ii. 54: Ov. Fast. iii. 327, &c.; Varro, de Ling. Lat. vi. 94.) The object of calling down lightning was according to Livy's explanation to elicit prodigies ea mentibus divinis; and when the god appeared or sent his lightning in anger, it was an unfortunate sign to the person who had invited it. Seneca (Quaest. Nat. ii. 49) attests that the Ancients distinguished a kind of lightning or fulmina, called fulmina hospitalia, which it was possible for man to draw down, and Pliny mentions Nunha, Tullus Hostilius, and Porsena, among the persons who in early times had called down lightning, though Tullus. and his family perished in the attempt. Some: modern writers think that the belief in the possibility of calling down lightnings arose out of certain observations or experiment's in electricity, . with which the ancients were a&quainted, and some have even ventured upon the supposition that the ancients, and the Etruscano in particular, . knew the use of conductors of lightning, which, though they cannot draw lightning from heaven, yet conduct it towards a certain point. Servius. (ad Virg. Eclog. vi. 42) goes even so far as to say that the art of drawing down lightning was known

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ELLOPS (‘Exxol), a son of Ion or Tithonus, from whom Ellopia in Euboea derived its name. (Strab. x. p. 445; Steph. Byz. s. v. 'EAAoria ; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 280.) [L. S.] ELPE'NOR('EXTijvap), one of the companions of Odysseus, who were metamorphosed by Circe into swine, and afterwards back into men. Intoxicated with wine, Elpenor one day fell asleep on the roof of Circe's residence, and in his attempt to rise he fell down and broke his neck. (Hom. Od. x. 550, &c.) When Odysseus was in the lower world, he met the shade of Elpenor, who implored him to burn his body and to erect a monument to him. (Od. xi. 57.) After his return to the island of Circe, Odysseus complied with this request of his friend. (Od. xii. 10, &c.; comp. Juven. xv. 22; Ov. Ibis, 487.) Elpenor was painted by Polygnotus in the Lesche at Delphi. (Paus. x. 29.) Servius (ad Aen. vi. 107) relates that Elpenor was killed by Odysseus himself for necromantic purposes. L. S.] ELPIDIUS ('Extíðtos), is called a remarkable man and fond of learning. Leontius, in his commentary on the “Phaenomena” of Aratus, says, that he had constructed for Elpidius a sphaera according to the description of Aratus, and Fabricius (Bibl. Gr. iv. p. 94, note) supposes that this Elpidius is the same as the patrician who was sent as ambassador to Chaganus, king of the Avari, in the Crst year of the reign of the emperor Mauritius, and who is mentioned by Cedrenus and other writers of that period. [L. S.] ELPIDIUS, or HELPIDIUS (Exttötos), one of the physicians of Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, A. D. 493–526, whom he attended in his last illness. (Procop. de Bello Goth. lib. i. p. 167, ed. Höschel.) He was a Christian, and in deacon's orders, and probably a native of Milan. There is extant a letter to him from king Theooric (ap. Cassiod. Variar. iv. 24), and four from Ennodius. (Epist. vii. 7, viii. 8, ix. 14, 21 ; ap. Sirmondi Opera, vol. i.) [W. A. G.] ELPINI'CE('EAtlvikm), daughter of Miltiades, and sister of Cimon. According to some accounts she was only his half-sister, and he therefore made her his wife, the Athenian law permitting marriage with a sister, if she was not duoustpios. He gave her, however, afterwards in marriage to Callias, who had fallen in love with her, and who made this the condition of paying for Cimon the fine which had been imposed upon Miltiades. [vol. i. p. 567, b.] The character of Elpinice does not stand high, and we hear of a suspected intrigue of her’s with Polygnotus, the painter. When Cimon was accused of having taken bribes from Alexander I., king of Macedonia, Elpinice went to Pericles to entreat his forbearance. He put her off at the time with a jest, but he refrained on the trial from pressing strongly the charge against her brother. Cimon is said also to have negotiated with Pericles, through Elpinice, the terms on which he was to return from exile. (Plut. Cim. 4, 14, Pericl. 10; Nepos, Cim. 1.) [E. E.] ELVA, the name of a patrician family of the Aebutia gens. 1. T. AEBUTius T. F. Elva, consul with P. Veturius Geminus Cicurinus in B. c. 499, in which year Fidenae was besieged and Crustumeria taken. In the following year, according to the date of most annalists, Elva was magister equitum to the iictator A. Postumius Albinus in the great battle

fought at the Lake Regillus, where he commanded' the left wing. The lays of that battle sung of his combat with Octavius Mamilius, by whom his arm was pierced through. (Liv. ii. 19 ; Dionys. v. 58, vi. 2, 4, 5, 11.) 2. L. AEBUTIUS T. F. T. N. Elva, son of the . preceding, consul with P. Servilius Priscus Structus in B. c. 463, was carried off in his consulship by the great plague which raged at Rome in that year. (Liv. iii. 6; Dionys. ix. 67 ; Diod. xi. 79 ; Oros. ii. 12.) 3. Posh UM US AEBUTIUS Elva CorniceN, consul with M. Fabius Vibulanus in B. c. 442, in which year a colony was founded at Ardea, and magister equitum to the dictator Q. Servilius Priscus Structus in B. c. 435. (Liv. iv. 11, 21 ; Diod. xii. 34.) 4. M. AEBUTIUS ELVA, one of the triumviri for founding the colony at Ardea in B. c. 442. (Liv. iv. 11.) 5. M. AEBUTIUS ELVA, praetor in B. c. 168, when he obtained Sicily as his province. (Liv. xliv. 17.) E'LY MUS (“EAvuos), a Trojan, a natural son of Anchises and a brother of Eryx. (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 959.) Previous to the emigration of Aeneias, Elymus and Aegestus had fled from Troy to Sicily, and had settled on the banks of the river Crimisus, in the country of the Sicani. When afterwards Aeneias also arrived there, he built for them the towns of Aegesta and Elyme, and the Trojans who settled in that part of Sicily called themselves Elymi, after Elymus. (Dionys. Hal. A. R. i. 52, &c.) Strabo (xiii. p. 608) calls him Elymnus, and says that he went to Sicily with Aeneias, and that they together took possession of Eryx and Lilybaeum. Elymus was further believed to have sounded Asca and Entella in Sicily. (Virg. Aen. v. 73, with Servius's note.) [L. S.] EMANUEL. [MANUEL.] EMATHION ('Huaôtav), a son of Tithonus and Eos, and a brother of Memnon. (Hes. Theog. 985.) He was king of Arabia, and was slain by Heracles. (Apollod. ii. 5. § 11; Q. Smyrn. iii. 300.) There are two other mythical personages of this name. (Ov. Met. v. 105; Virg. Aen. ix. 571.) [L. S.] E/MATHUS ("Huasos), a son of Macedon and brother of Pierus, from whom Emathia, that is Macedonia, was believed to have derived its name. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 980.) The daughters of Pierus (the Pierides) are sometimes called after their uncle Emathides. (Ov. Met. v. 669.) [L. S.] EMILUS ("Euxos) of Aegina, made the gold and ivory statues of the Hours sitting on thrones in the temple of Hera at Olympia. (Paus. v. 17. § 1.) There is no other mention of this artist, and there can be no doubt that Walckenaer is right in reading Suixis. Some MSS. give 'Euxts and "Autxts. [SMILIs.] [P. S.] EMME'NIDAE ("Euwevíðar), a princely family at Agrigentum, which traced its origin to the mythical hero Polyneices. Among its members we know Emmenides (from whom the family derived its name) the father of Aenesidamus, whose sons Theron and Xenocrates are celebrated by Pindar as victors at the great games of Greece. Theron won a prize at Olympia, in Ol. 76 (B. c. 476), in the chariot-race with four full-grown. horses, and Xenocrates gained prizes in the horserace at the Pythian, Isthmian, and Panathenaic

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