Thus, for instance, Eudemus and his contemporaries and fellow-disciples, Theophrastus and Phanias, wrote works with the same titles and on the same subjects as those of Aristotle. demus of this kind were—1. On the Categories, 2. IIep ‘Epumvetas. 3. 'Avaavriká. 4. Puaucá, a work of which Simplicius in his commentary has preserved some fragments, in which Eudemus often contradicts his master. In this treatise, or in some other, he seems to have also treated on the nature of the human body. (Appul. Apolog. p. 463.) But all these works are lost, and likewise another of still more importance, in which he treated of the history of geometry and astronomy () repl rôv ‘Aatpoxoyovuévav ‘Iotopia, Diog. Laërt. i. 23; or 'Aotpoxoyuki) ‘Iotopia, Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iii. p. 432.) Eudemus, however, is of most importance to us as an editor of and commentator upon the Aristotelian writings. How closely he followed Aristotle in his work on Physics, is shewn by the circumstance of later commentators referring to Eudemus in matters of verbal criticism. (Stahr, Aristotelia, ii. p. 82.) Indeed Eudemus followed the Aristotelian system so closely, that modern scholars, as Brandis for instance, do not hesitate to ascribe to Eudemus some writings which are generally attributed to Aristotle. (Brandis, in Rhein. Museum, i. 4. pp. 283, 284.) Aristotle died in his 63rd year, without having published even half of his writings; and the business of arranging and publishing his literary relics devolved upon his nearest friends and disciples. Simplicius has preserved a passage of the work of Andronicus of Rhodes on Aristotle and his writings, which contains a fragment of a letter of Eudemus, which he wrote to Theophrastus, asking for an accurate copy of a manuscript of the fifth book of the Aristotelian Physics. (Simplic. ad Arist. Phys. fol. 216, a., lin. 7.) In the same manner the Aristotelian Metaphysics in their present form seem to have been composed by Eudemus or his successors; for we learn from Asclepius of Tralles [AscLEPIUs], who has preserved many valuable notices from the works of the more ancient commentators, that Aristotle committed his manuscript of the Metaphysics to Eudemus, by which the publication of the work was delayed ; that on the death of Aristotle some parts of the manuscript were missing, and that these had to be completed from the other writings of Aristotle by the survivors of Aristotle (ow uétayevéo Tepot). (Asclepius, Prooem. in Aristot. Metaph, libr. A. p. 519, in Brandis, Schol. p. 589.) That we are indebted to Eudemus and his followers for the preservation of this inestimable work may also be inferred from the fact, that Joannes Philoponus states that Pasicrates (or Pasicles) of Rhodus, brother of Eudemus and likewise a disciple of Aristotle, was, according to the opinion of some ancient critics, the author of the second book of the Metaphysics (the book d). (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. iii. p. 256 : Syrian. ad Aristol. Metaph. B. p. 17; Alexand. Aphrodis. pp. 55, 82, ad Sophist. Elench. ii. p. 69, ed. Venet. 1529.) For the Ethics of Aristotle we are also probably indebted more or less to Eudemus. We have, under the name of Ethics, three works ascribed to Aristotle of very unequal value and quality. [ARIsToTELEs, pp. 330, 331.] One of these bears even the name of Eudemus ('Hôukd Eöössueta),

The works of Eu-.

and was in all probability a recension of Aristotle's lectures edited by Eudemus. What share, however, Eudemus had in the composition of the chief work (the 'Hôucă Nukoudyeia) remains uncertain after the latest investigation of the subject. (Pansch, de Moralibus magnis subditicio Aristotelis libro, 1841.) | A. S.] EUDE'MUS (Eöðmuos), the name of several Greek physicians, whom it is difficult to distinguish with certainty. [EUDAMUs.] 1. A druggist, who apparently lived in the fourth or third century B. c. He is said by Theophrastus (Hist. Plant. ix. 17. 2), to have been eminent in his trade, and to have professed to be able to take hellebore without being purged. 2. A celebrated anatomist, who lived probably about the third century B. c., as Galen calls him a contemporary of Herophilus and Erasistratus. (Comment. in Hippocr: “Aphor.” vi. 1, vol. xviii. pt. 1. p.7.) IIe appears to have given particular attention to the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system. (Galen, de Locis. Affect. iii. 14, vol. viii. p. 212.) He considered the metacarpus and metatarsus each to consist of five bones (Galen, de Usu Part. iii. 8, vol. iii. p. 203), on which point Galen differed from him, but modern anatomists agree with him. He, however, fell into the error of supposing the acromion to be a distinct and separate bone. (Rufus Ephes. de Appell. Part. Corp. Hum. p. 29.) 3. A physician at Rome, who was the paramour of Livia (or Livilla), the wife of Drusus Caesar, the son of the emperor Tiberius, and who joined her and Sejanus in their plot for poisoning her husband, A. D. 23. (Plin. H. N. xxix. 8; Tac. Ann. iv. 3.) He was afterwards put to the torture. (Tac. ibid. c. 11.) He is supposed to be the same person who is said by Caelius Aurelianus (de Morb. Acut. ii. 38, p. 171) to have been one of the followers of Themison, and whose medical observations on hydrophobia and some other diseases are quoted by him. IIe appears to be the same physician who is mentioned by Galen (de Meth. Med. i. 7. vol. x. p. 53) among several others as belonging to the sect of the Methodici. 4. A contemporary and personal acquaintance of Galen, in the latter part of the second century after Christ. (Galen, de Meth. Med. vi. 6, vol. x. p. 454.) 5. The name is also found in Galen, de Compos. Medic. Sec. Locos, ix. 5, vol. xiii. p. 291, de Antid. ii. 14, vol. xiv. p. 185; Athen. ix. pp. 369, 371; Cramer's Anecd. Graeca Paris. vol. iii., and in other places. [W. A. G.] EU'DICUS (Eöölkos), a Thessalian of Larissa, probably one of the family of the Aleuadae. Like most of his house, he was a devoted adherent of Philip of Macedon, and in B. c. 344 aided him in effecting the division of Thessaly into four tetrarchies, at the head of one of which he was himself placed. Demosthenes stigmatizes him as a traitor to his country. The division above named had the effect of reducing Thessaly entirely under the controul of Philip. (Dem. de Coron. p. 241; Harpocrat. s. v. Eöölkos; Buttmann, Mythologus, vol. ii. p. 288, &c.; Böckh, Eaplic. ad Pind. Pyth. x. p. 333.) [C. P. M.] EUDI’CIUS, magister scriniorum, one of the first commission of Nine, appointed by Theodosius in A. D. 429 to compile a code upon a plan which was afterwards abandoned for another. [DiodoRUS, vol. i. p. 1018.] [J. T. G.]

EUDO'CIA (E330kia), the name of several Bycantine princesses. 1. AUGUSTA, wife of the emperor Theodosius

but at Constantinople (comp. Socrates, Hist. Eccles vii. 44; Niceph. Call. Hist. xiv. 23; Marcellin. Chron Aetio II et Sigiswuldo Coss), in the year 436 or 437,

II. She was the daughter of the sophist Leon-1 most likely the latter. In 438, Eudocia set out

tius, or Leon, or, as he is called in the Paschal Chronicle, Heracleitus of Athens, where she was born. The year of her birth is doubtful. Nicephorus Callisti, who has given the fullest account of her, states (xiv. 50) that she died in the fourth year of the emperor Leo, which corresponds to A. D. 460-61, aged sixty-seven; and that she was in her twentieth year when she married Theodosius. According to this statement, she must have been born A. D. 393-4, and married A. D. 413-14. But the age of Theodosius (born A. D. 401) leads us to prefer, for the marriage, the date given by the Paschal or Alexandrian Chronicle and by Marcellinus (Chron.), viz. the consulship of Eustathius and Agricola, A. D. 421. We must then give up the calculation of Nicephorus as to the time of her death, or as to her age at that time or at her marriage. Possibly she came to Constantinople in her twentieth year, in 413-14, but was not married till 421. She was called originally Athenais, and having excellent natural abilities, was educated by her father and by the grammarians Hyperechius and Orion in every branch of science and learning then cultivated. She was familiar with Greek and Latin literature, rhetoric, astronomy, geometry, and the science of arithmetic. She was also eminent for her beauty; and in consideration of these advantages, natural and acquired, her father at his death left her no share in his property, all of which he bequeathed to her two brothers Valerius and Aetius, called Genesius by Zonaras, or Gesius in the Paschal Chronicle, saying that her good fortune and the fruits of her education would be a sufficient inheritance. From dissatisfaction either at this arrangement, or at some wrong she had suffered, Athenais went to Constantinople to appeal against her brothers; and Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius, who managed alike him and his empire, fixed on her as a suitable wife for him. Athenais was a heathen ; but her heathenism yielded to the arguments or persuasions of Pulcheria and of Atticus, patriarch of Constantinople, by whom she was baptized, receiving at her baptism the name of Eudocia, and being adopted in that ordinance by Pulcheria as a daughter—an expression apparently indicating that she had that princess for a sponsor. The date of her marriage (A. D. 421), given by Marcellinus and the Paschal Chronicle, is probably correct, though Theophanes places it one if not two years earlier. Most historians mention only one child of this union, Eudoxia, who, according to Marcellinus, was born in the thirteenth consulship of Honorius, and the tenth of Theodosius, i. e. A. D. 422, and betrothed, in the consulship of Victor and Castinus, A. D. 424, to her cousin Valentinian, afterwards emperor of the West as Valentinian III. Tillemont thinks there are notices which seem to shew that there was a son, Arcadius, but he must have died young. Marcellinus mentions another daughter of the emperor Theodosius, and therefore (if legitimate) of Eudocia also, Flacilla; but Tillemont suspects that Marcellinus speaks of a sister of Theodosius so named. Flacilla died in the consulship of Antiochus and Bassus, A. D. 431. The marriage of Valentinian with Eudoxia was

celebrated, not, as at first appointed, at Thessalonica,

for Jerusalem, in discharge of a vow which she had made to visit “the holy places” on occasion of her daughter's marriage; and returned the year following to Constantinople, bringing with her the reputed relics of Stephen the proto-martyr. It was probably in this iourney that she visited Antioch, addressed the people of that city, and was honoured by them with a statue of brass, as related by Eva. grius. At her persuasion Theodosius enlarged the boundaries and the walls of Antioch, and conferred other marks of favour on that city. She had received the title of Augusta A. D. 423. Hitherto it is probable that Eudocia had inter. fered but little with the influence exercised by Pulcheria in public affairs. Nicephorus says, she lived twenty-nine years in the palace, “submitting to (Vitó) Pulcheria as mother and Augusta.” As Nicephorus places Eudocia's marriage in 413-14, he makes 442-43 the period of the termination of Pulcheria's administration. He states, that Eudocia's administration lasted for seven years, which brings us to 449-50 as the date of her last journey to Jerusalem, a date which, from other circumstances, appears to be correct. During the seven years of her administration, in A. D. 444, according to the Paschal Chronicle, but later according to Theophanes, occurred the incident which was the first step to her downfall. An apple of remarkable size and beauty had been brought to Constantinople, which the emperor purchased and presented to his wife. She sent it to Paulinus, the magister officior:m, who was then confined by a fit of the gout; and Paulinus, deeming it a suitable offering, sent it to the emperor. Theodosius recognized it as the one which he had given to Eudocia; and, without mentioning the reason to her, enquired what she had done with it. She, apprehensive of his displeasure at having parted with his gift, replied that she had eaten it, and confirmed her assertion by an oath. This falsehood increased the emperor's suspicions that Eudocia regarded Paulinus with undue affection; and he banished him to Cappadocia, where he was either then or afterwards put to death. Marcellinus places his death in the fifth consulship of Valentinian A. D. 440; but we prefer the statement of Nicephorus, that his banishment was after 442-3, and are disposed to place his death in A. D. 449-50. Eudocia, however, soothed for a time the jealousy of her husband, but it was not eradicated, as subsequent events shewed. Gibbon rejects the whole story of the apple “ as fit only for the Arabian Nights;” but his scepticism appears unreasonable. The quarrels of the ecclesiastics were the immediate occasion of her downfall. Chrysaphius, the eunuch and head chamberlain, a supporter of the monk Eutyches, wished to procure the deposition of Flavian, patriarch of Constantinople, who had just been elected, A. D. 447. Chrysaphius, finding that Flavian was supported by Pulcheria, who, though no longer directing the government, retained considerable influence, applied to Eudocia, whom he reminded of the grievances she had sustained “on Pulcheria's account." Eudocia, after a long continued effort, at last succeeded in alienating her husband from his sister. Pulcheria was forbidden the court, and retired from Constantinople; and in

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Flavian was deposed, and so roughly treated by the assembled prelates, that he died of their violence a few days after. But Theodosius was soon !ed to take up the cause of the murdered patriarch. He banished Chrysaphius, and stripped him of all his possessions; and shewed his anger with Eudocia by reviving the quarrel about the apple; so that she begged and obtained permission to retire to Jerusalem. Pulcheria was recalled, and resumed the now vacant management of affairs, which she retained during the short remainder of the reign of Theodosius and that of her husband Marcian, who succeeded him. Eudocia might possibly have been reconciled to her husband, but for an event recorded by Marcellinus, which rendered the breach irreparable. Saturninus, who held the office of comes domesticorum, being sent for the purpose by Theodosius, on what account is not stated, but probably through jealousy, slew two ecclesiastics, Severus, a priest, and Johannes or John, a deacon, who were in the service of Eudocia at Jerusalem. She, enraged, put Saturninus to death, and was in return stripped of the state and retinue of empress, which she had been hitherto allowed to retain. Marcellinus places these sad events in the eighteenth consulship of Theodosius, A. D. 444; but this date is altogether inconsistent with the facts mentioned by Nicephorus. Theophanes placed them in A. M. 5942, Alex. era (A. D. 450), which is probably correct; if so, it must have been before the death of Theodosius, which took place in that year. Eudocia spent the rest of her life in the Holy Land, devoting herself to works of piety and charity. She repaired the walls of Jerusalem, conversed much with ecclesiastics, built monasteteries and hospitals, and a church in honour of the proto-martyr Stephen on the spot where he was said to have been stoned; enriched existing churches with valuable offerings, and bestowed great sums in charity on the priests and the poor. But she was, for some years, obnoxious to the imputation of heresy. The opinion of Eutyches on the union of the two natures in Christ, which she held, and which had triumphed in the “council of robbers.” at Ephesus (A. D.449), was condemned in another council held at Chalcedon (A. D. 451), soon after the death of Theodosius. The decrees of this latter council Eudocia for some years rejected. When, however, she heard of the captivity of her daughter Eudoxia [EUDoxIA], whom, with her two daughters, Genseric, king of the Vandals, had carried into Africa (A. D. 455), she sought to be econciled to Pulcheria, that she might interest her and her husband, the emperor Marcian, in behalf of the captives. By the intervention of Olybrius, to whom one of the captive princesses was betrothed, and of Walerius, the reconciliation was effected; and Pulcheria anxiously sought to restore Eudocia to the communion of the church. She engaged her brothers and daughters (according to Nicephorus) to write to her for this purpose: from which it may be gathered that the brothers of Eudocia had become Christians, and were still living. According to the Paschal Chronicle, they had been advanced to high offices, Aëtius or Gesius in the provinces, and Valerius at court. Possibly the Valerius who had been one of the mediators between the princesses, was one of them. Who “the daughters,”

since dead. If the letters were from the captive princesses, we must understand daughters in the more extended sense of female descendants. These letters and the conversations which Eudocia held with Symeon the Stylite, and Euthymius, an eminent monk of Jerusalem, determined her to renounce Eutychianism; and her conversion led many others to follow her example; but it is honourable to her that she continued her gratuities to those who retained as well as to those who renounced these opinions. She died at Jerusalem in the fourth year of the reign of Leo I. A. D. 460-61, and was buried in the church of St.Stephen, which she herself had built. Theophanes places her death in A. M. 5947 Alex. era (A. D. 455), but this is too early. Her age has been already noticed. She solemnly declared at her death that she was free from any guilty connexion with Paulinus. Eudocia was an author. She wrote—l. A poem on the victory obtained by the troops of her husband Theodosius over the Persians, A. D. 421 or 422. This was in heroic verse, and is mentioned by Socrates. (Hist. Eccles. vii. 21.) 2. A paraphrase of the Octateuch, also in heroic verse. Photius describes it as consisting of eight books, according to the division of that part of Scripture which it embraced ; and says it was well and perspicuously written, and conformable to the laws of the poetic art; but that the writer had not allowed herself the poetic licences of digression and of mingling fiction with truth, having kept very close to the sense of the sacred books 3. A paraphrase of the Prophecies of Daniel and Zechariah, in the same measure. 4. A poem, in the same measure and in three books, on the history and martyrdom of Cyprian and Justina, who suffered in the persecution under Diocletian. Photius gives a pretty full account of this poem. 5. Zonaras and Joannes Tzetzes ascribe to Eudocia Homero-Centones; and a poem under that title, composed of verses and parts of verses from Homer, and having for its subject the history of the fall and of the redemption of man by Jesus Christ, has been repeatedly published, both in the original and in a Latin version. In one edition, it is said to be by Eudocia Augusta, or Patricius Pelagius. The genuineness of this work is, however, very disputable, and even the fact of Eudocia having ever written anything of the kind, is not quite clear. (Socrates, Hist. Eccles. vii. 21; Evagrius, Hist. Eccles. i. 20, 21, 22; Nicephorus Callisti, Hist. Eccles. xiv. 23, 47, 49, 50; Zonaras, Annales, vol. iii. p. 34–37, ed. Basil. 1557; Marcellinus, Chronicon ; Chronicon Alexandrinum sire Paschale; Joannes Malalas, Chronographia, lib. xiv.; Theophanes, Chronographia, ab A. M. 5911 ad 5947, Alex. era; Joannes Tzetzes, Historiar. Pariar Chilias. XHist. 306; Cedrenus, Compendium, p. 590 -91, ed. Bonn; Michael Glycas, Annales, pars iv. pp. 484-5, ed. Bonn; Photius, Biblioth. codd. 183, 184; Tillemont, Hist. des Emp. vol. vi. ; Gibbon, Decl. and Fall. ch. xxxii.; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 403, ed. Oxford, 1740-43; Oudin, De Scriptor. Eccles. vol. i. p. 1258; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. p. 552, &c., vol. x. p. 730, &c.) 2. Daughter of Valentinian III. and of Eudoxia, daughter of Theodosius II., and consequently grand-daughter of the subject of the preceding article. She was carried captive to Carthage by

Genseric, king of the Vandals, when he sackeof
Rome (A. D. 455), together with, her mother an
her younger sister Placidia. Genseric married
Eudocia (A. D. 456), not to one of his younger
sons, Gento, as Idatius says, but to his eldest son
Hunneric (who succeeded his father, A. D. 477, as
king of the Vandals); and sent Eudoxia and Pla-
cidia to Constantinople. After living sixteen years
with Hunneric, and bearing him a son, Hulderic,
who also afterwards became king of the Wandals,
Eudocia, on the ground of dislike to the Arianism
of her husband, secretly left him, and went to Je-
rusalem, where she soon after died (A. D. 472),
having bequeathed all she had to the Church of
the Resurrection, and was buried in the sepulchre
of her grandmother, the empress Eudocia. (Eva-
grius, Hist. Eccles. ii. 7; Marcellinus, Chronicon ;
Idatius, Chronicon; Nicephorus Callisti, Hist. Ec-
cles, xv. 11; Procopius, de Bello Vandalico, i. 5;
Theophanes, Chronographia, A. M. 5947 and 5964,
Alex. era; Zonaras, Annales, vol. iii. p. 40, ed.
Basil, 1557; Tillemont, //ist. des Emp. vol. vi.)
3. EudocIAFABLA, wife of the emperor Heraclius.
She was the daughter of a certain African noble, and
was at Constantinople (A. D. 610) when Heraclius,
to whom she was betrothed, having assumed the
purple in Africa, sailed to Constantinople to de-
throne the tyrant Phocas. Phocas shut her up in
a monastery with the mother of Heraclius; but his
fall led to their release. She was married on the
day of Heraclius's coronation, and crowned with
him, and, according to Zonaras, received from him
the name of Fabia; but Cedrenus makes Fabia her
original name, which is more likely. She had by
Heraclius, according to Zonaras, three children, a
daughter Epiphania, and two sons, the elder named
Heraclius and the younger Constantine. She died
soon after the birth of the youngest child. Cedre-
nus assigns to them only a daughter and one son,
who was, according to him, called both Heraclius
and Constantine. He places the death of Eudocia
in the second year of Heraclius, A. D. 612. (Zona-
ras, Annales, vol. iii. pp. 66, 67, ed. Basil, 1557;
Cedrenus, Compendium, pp. 713–14, ed. Bonn,
4. EudocIA, daughter of Incer or Inger, and
concubine of the emperor Michael III., by whom
she was given in marriage (about A. D. 866)
to Basil the Macedonian, afterwards emperor.
She bore Basil a son, afterwards the emperor
Leo the Philosopher, so soon after their marriage,
that it was said that Michael was the child's
father, and that she was pregnant at the time of
her marriage. Cedrenus speaks of the marriage
of Basil with Eudocia, whose noble birth and
beauty he celebrates; but, far from making her the
concubine of Michael, speaks of her as excelling
in modesty. (Zonaras, Annales, vol. iii. p. 132,
ed. Basil, 1577; Cedrenus, Compendium, vol. ii.
p. 198, ed. Bonn, 1838-9.)
5. EudocIA, third wife of the emperor Constan-
tine V. (Copronymus). She was crowned and re-
ceived the title of Augusta from her husband in
the twenty-eighth year of his reign, A. D. 768.
(Cedreni Compendium, vol. ii. p. 16, ed. Bonn.)
6. EUdocIA, third wife of Leo the Philosopher,
son of Basil the Macedonian and of Eudocia. (No.
3.) She died in childbirth soon after, and the
child died also. She was the daughter, or of the
race of Opsicius. Of the date of her marriage and
death we have no account. It was probably near

othe, beginning of the tenth century; at any rat
2 fore A. D. 904. (Zonaras, Annales, vol. iii. p. 143
ed. Basil, 1567; Cedrenus, Compendium, p. 492
ed. Basil, 1566.)
7. Eldest daughter of the Byzantine emperu
Constantine IX., became a nun in consequence a
some disease by which she was disfigured. Sh
appears to have survived her father, who died A.D.
1028. (Zonaras, Annales, vol. iii. p. 182, ed
Basil, A. D. 1557.)
8. EUdocIA AUGUSTA of MACREMBolis, wif
of the emperors Constantine XI. (Ducas) and
Romanus IV. (Diogenes). She was married to
Constantine while he was yet in a private station,
and bore him two sons, Michael and Andronicus,
before his accession in A. D. 1059, and one son,
Constantine, born afterwards; they had also two
daughters, Theodora and Zoe. On the accession
of £onstantine she received the title of Augusta;
and on his death, A. D. 1067, he bequeathed
the empire to her and to their three sons, Michael
VII. (Parapinaces), Andronicus I., and Constantine
XII. (Porphyrogenitus). He bound Eudocia by an
oath not to marry again. Eudocia had in fact the
management of the government, the children being
all young. Perceiving that the protection of the
eastern frontier, which was threatened with inva-
sion, required a stronger hand, she married Roma.
nus IV. (Diogenes). Romanus, who was eminent
for his fine figure, strength, and warlike qualities,
had, on the death of Constantine XI., prepared to
seize the throne, but was prevented by Eudocia,
who threw him into prison, and exiled him; but,
either for reasons of state, or from affection, soon
recalled him, and raised him to the command of
the army. Her oath not to marry had been given
in writing, and committed to the custody of the
patriarch of Constantinople; but by a trick she
recovered it, and, within eight months after her
husband's death (A. D. 1068), married Romanus,
and raised him to be colleague in the empire
with herself and her sons. She had hoped to
govern him, but was disappointed, and his asser
tion of his own will led to quarrels between them.
During the captivity of Romanus, Joannes or John
Ducas, brother of the late Constantine, who had
been invested with the dignity of Caesar, declared
Michael Parapinaces sole emperor, and banished
Eudocia to a convent which she had herself built
on the shore of the Propontis. On the death of
Diogenes, who on his release had fallen into the
hands of Andronicus, the eldest son of Joannes
Ducas, and died from the cruel usage he received,
A. D. 1071 [Romanus IV. (DioGENEs)], Eudocia
buried her unhappy husband with great splendour.
She appears to have long survived this event.
(Zonaras, Annales, vol. iii. pp. 218–226, ed.
Basil, 1557; Michael Glycas, Annales, pars iv.
p. 606, &c., ed. Bonn.)
Eudocia compiled a dictionary of history and
mythology, which she called "Iwww3, i. e. Collection
or bed of Violets. It was printed for the first time
by Willoison, in his Anecdota Graeca, 2 vols. 4to,
Venice, 1781. It is prefaced by an address to her
husband Romanus Diogenes, in which she describes
the work as “a collection of genealogies of gods,
heroes, and heroines, of their metamorphoses, and
of the fables and stories respecting them found in
the ancients; containing also notices of various
philosophers.” The sources from which the work
was compiled are in a great degree the same as

those used in the Lexicon of Suidas. The sources are examined and described by Meineke in his Observationes in Eudociac Violetum, in the fifth and sixth volumes of the Bibliothek der allen Litteratur und Kunst, Göttingen, 1789. 9. Daughter of Andronicus Comnenus, second son of the Byzantine emperor Calo-Joannes. She was married, but to whom is unknown; and after her husband's death lived in concubinage with Andronicus, her cousin, afterwards emperor as Andronicus I. Her second husband was Michael Gabras, to whom she was married. We can give no exact dates of the few incidents known of her life. She lived in the middle of the twelfth century. (Michael Glycas, Manuel Comnenus, Lib. iii. pp. 135, 136, Lib. iv. p. 173, ed. Bonn.) [J. C. M.] EUDO'RA (Eöööpm), a daughter of Nereus and Doris. (Hes. Theog. 244; Apollod. i. 2. § 7.) There are two more mythical personages of this name. (Hes. Theog. 360; Hygin. Fab. 192.) [L. S.] EUDO'RUS (Eisbapos), a son of Hermes and Polymele, was brought up by his grandfather Phylas. He was one of the five leaders of the Myrmidones under Achilles, who sent him out to accompany Patroclus, and to prevent the latter from venturing too far; but Eudorus was slain by Pyraechmus. (Hom. Il. xvi. 179, &c.; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1697.) [L. S.] EUDO'RUS (Eööwpos) is mentioned by Alexander Aphrodisiensis (ad Arist. Metaph. p. 26, ed. Paris. 1536, fol.) as a commentator on Aristotle's Metaphysics, in which he is said to have altered several passages. Simplicius likewise speaks of a Peripatetic philosopher of this name, and relates that he had written on the Aristotelian Categories. We do not know, however, if this be the same person. Eudorus, whom Alexander Aphrodisiensis mentions, was a native of Alexandria, and had, like Ariston of Alexandria, written a work on the Nile. (Strab. xvii. p. 790; comp. Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. p. 845, vol. iii. pp. 172, 492). [A. S.] EUDO'RUS, a scene-painter and statuary in bronze, of second-rate merit. (Plin. xxxv. 11. s. 40. S 34.) [P. S.] EUDO'XIA (EU30&sa), the name of several princesses chiefly of the Eastern or Byzantine em


p 1. The daughter of the Frank Bauto, married to the emperor Arcadius, A. D. 395, by whom she had four daughters, Flacilla or Flaccilla or Falcilla, Pulcheria, Arcadia, and Marina, and one son, Theodosius II. or the younger. She was a woman of high spirit, and exercised great influence over her husband: to her persuasion his giving up of the eunuch Eutropius into the power of his enemies may be ascribed. She was involved in a fierce contest with Chrysostom, who fearlessly inweighed against the avarice and luxury of the court, and scrupled not to attack the empress herself. The particulars of the struggle are given elsewhere. [CHRysostomus, JoANNEs.] She died of a miscarriage in the sixth consulship of Honorius, A. D. 404, or, according to Theophanes, A. D. 406. The date of her death is carefully discussed by Tillemont. (Histoire des Empereurs, vol. v. p. 785.) Cedrenus narrates some curious particulars of her death, but their credibility is very doubtful. (Philostorgius, Hist. Eccles. apud Photiun ; Marcellinus, Chronicon ; Socrates, Hist.


Eccles. vi. 18; Cassiodor. Hist. Tripart. x. 20; Theophanes, Chronographia ad A. M. 5892, 97, 98, Alex. era ; Cedrenus, Compend. vol. i. p. 585, ed. Bonn.) 2. Daughter of Theodosius II. and of Eudocia, born A. D. 422, and betrothed soon after to Valentinian, son of the emperor Honorius, who afterwards was emperor of the West as Valentinian III and to whom she was married at Constantinople in A. D. 436 or 437. On the assassination of her husband by Maximus (A. D. 455), who usurped the throne, she was compelled to marry the usurper; but, resenting both the death of her husband and the violence offered to herself, she instigated Genseric, king of the Wandals, who had conquered Africa, to attack Rome. Genseric took the city. Maximus was slain in the flight, and Eudoxia and her daughters, Eudocia and Placidia, were carried by the Wandal king to Carthage. After being detained in captivity some years, she was sent with her daughter Placidia and an honourable attendance to Constantinople. [See EUDocLA, No. l, and the authorities subjoined there.] The coins of the empresses Eudocia and Eudoxia are, from the two names being put one for the other, difficult to be assigned to their respective persons. (See Eckhel, Doctrina Num. Veterum, vol. viii. p. 170.) [J. C. M.] EUDO'XIUS, commonly cited with the addition HERos, was a Graeco-Roman jurist, who flourished shortly before Justinian. Panciroli (de Claris Interpp. Juris, p. 63) places him too early in supposing that he was the Pr. Pr. to whom were addressed the constitution of Theodosius and Walentinian of A. D. 427 (Cod. 1. tit. 8. s. 1), and the constitution of Arcadius and Honorius. (Cod. 2. tit. 77. s. 2.) He is mentioned in Const. Tanta, § 9, as the grandfather of Anatolius, professor of law at Berytus, who was one of the compilers of the Digest. The appellation Heros is not a proper name, but a title of excellency, and is placed sometimes before, and sometimes after, the name. Thus, in Basil. vi. p. 227, we have 6 "Hpa's EUö0%tos, and, in Busil. iii. p. 60, Eööáčios é "Hpass. We find the same title applied to Patricius, Amblichus (qu. Iamblichus, Basil. iii. p. 256), and Cyrillus (Basil. iv. p. 702). Heimbach (Anecdota, i. p. 202) is inclined to think that, like the expression 6 wakapitms, it was used by the Graeco-Roman jurists of and after the age of Justinian as a designation of honour in speaking of their predecessors who had died within their memory. Eudoxius was probably acquainted with the original writings of the classical jurists, for from Basil. ii. p. 454 (ed. Heimbach) it appears that he quoted Ulpian's treatise De Officio Proconsulis. From the citations of Eudoxius in the Basilica, he appears to have written upon the constitutions of emperors earlier than Justinian, and thence Reiz (ad Theophilum, pp. 1234–1246) infers that he commented upon the Gregorian, Hermogenian, and Theodosian codes, from which those constitutions were transferred into the Code of Justinian. It is probably to the commentaries of Eudoxius, Leontius, and Patricius on the three earlier codes that Justinian (Const. Tanta, § 9) alludes, when he says of them “optimam sui memoriam in Legibus reliquerunt,” for the imperatorial constitutions were often called Leges, as distinguished from the Jus of the jurists. In Basil. ii. p. 644, Thalelaeus, who survived e

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