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GEORGE EDWARD LYNCH Cotton, M. A
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; one of the Masters in
Rugby School.

SAMUEL DAVIDSON, LL.D.

WILLIAM FishBURN DONkux, M.A.
Savilian Professor of Astronomy in the University of Oxford.

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i NITIA 1 S. NAMEs.
W. M. G. WILLIAM MAXWELL GUNN,
One of the Masters in the High School, Edinburgh,
W. I. WILLIAM IIINE, Ph. D.
Of the University of Bonn.
B. J. BENJAMIN Jowett, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Baliol College, Oxford.
H. G. L. HENRY GEORGE LIDDELL, M.A.
Head Master of Westminster School.
G. L. GEORGE LONG, M.A.
Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
J. M. M. John MoRELL MACKENZIE, M. A.
C. P. M. CHARLEs PETER MASON, B. A.
Fellow of University College, London.
J. C. M. Joseph CALRow MEANs.
H. H. M. HENRY HART MILAIAN, M. A.
Dean of St. Paul's.
A. de M AUGUSTUS DE MoRGAN.
Professor of Mathematics in University College, London.
W. P. WILLIAM PLATE, LL.D.

C. E. P. CONSTANTINE ESTLIN PRICHARD, B. A.
Fellow of Baliol College, Oxford,

W. R. WILLIAM RAMSAY. M. A.
Professor of Humanity in the University of Glasgow.

L. S. LEONHARD SCHMITz, Ph. D., F. R. S. F.
Rector of the High School of Edinburgh.

P. S. PHILIP SMITH, B. A.

Of the University of London.
A. P. S. ARTHUR PENRY IN STANLEY, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of University College, Oxford.

A. S. ADOLPH STAHR,
Professor in the Gymnasium of Oldenburg
L. U. LUDWIG URLICHs.

Professor in the University of Bonn.
R. W. ROBERT WHISTON, M.A.
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

The Articles which have mo initials attached to them are written by the Editor.

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LIST OF COINS ENGRAVED IN THE SECOND VOLUME,

In the following list AV indicates that the coin is of gold, AR of silver, Æ of copper, 1AE first bronze The weight of all gold and silver coins s given, with the exception of the aurei and denarii, which are for the most part of nearly the same weight respectively. When a coin has been reduced or enlarged in the drawing, the diameter of the original coin is given in the last column, the numbers in which refer to the subjoined scale: those which have no numbers affixed to them are of the same size in the drawing as the originals.

Roman, 2AE second bronze Roman, 3AE third bronze Roman.

| - | -|--|--|--|--| s=|s|a * | 5 || 3 || S | 3 * Š - ă Coi É # - É Coin – # 3. th. * I & - § E oln. s s: # |3 # || 3 | } | # 3 # s # 5|2| Egnatuleius . . . . . AR 281| 2 | Gordianus II. . . . . . AR 42 l Eppius . . . . . . . . AR 282 l ; Gordianus III. . . . . . AR 55| 2 | Evagrius . . . . . . . . AR | |04 298| 2 || Gracchus . . . . . . . . AR 75' 2 | Eucratides . . . . . . . AR 258 || 9 || 299|2| Granius. . . . . . . . . AR 96; 2 Eupator . . . . . . . AE | | 19 303 l || Gratianus . . . . . . . . . AR 124| 2 | Euthydemus . . . . . AR 184 323| 2 | Hadrianus . . . . . . . AV 130 l Fabatus, Roscius . . . . AR 342| 1 || Hannibalianus . . . . . 3AE 13 li 2 Fabius . . . . . . . . AE 371. 1 | Helena . . . . . . . . . 3AE ** | ** 32 AR , ~ | Helena . . . . . . . . . 3AE 136] 1 | Fannius . . . . . . . . AR 407| 1 | Herennia Gens . . . . . . AR 140 l Fausta . . . . . . . . . . AV 408 l | Herennius Etruscns AR | .., |2|Fausta, Flavia Max- 428, 1 | Herod the Greek . . . . . Ä. miana . . . . . . . . 3AE 450| 2 | Hicetas . . . . . . . . . AV 65; 141 1 | Faustina Senior . . . . . AR 457 l | Hieron . . . . . . . . . AW 65 ,, . , Faustina Junior . . . AR ** 32 22 AR 10 |428 .., |, | Faustina, wife of Ela- 459| 1 || Hieronymus . . . . . . AR | 9 |313; gabalus . . . . . . . AEI 498| 1 || Hirtius . . . . . . . . . AV 157 l | Flaccus, Rutilius . . . . AR 516|2| Honorius . . . . . . . . AV 159' 2 | Flaccus, Valerius AR 530| 1 || Hosidius Geta . . . . . AR ** , » 53 ** AR ,, . . . Hostilianus . . . . . . . AR ** | ** 35 ** AR 563| 2 | Idrieus . . . . . . . . . AR 232 16.1 2 | Flacilla . . . . . . . . 3AE 614|2| Iotape. . . . . . . . . . AE l69| 1 | Flavia Gens . . . . . . AR 635| 2 || Juba I. . . . . . . . . . AR 57; 176; 2 | Florianus . . . . . . . . 3AE 637| 2 || Juba II. . . . . . . . . AR || 44 178; 1 Florus, Aquillius . . . . AR 638|| 1 || Judex, Vettius . . . . . AR * * ** ** AR 642|| 1 || Julia, daughter of Au** | ** ** 22 AR gustus . . . . . . . . AR * | * •s ** AR 642|2|Julia, daughter of Titus | AR 1792 Fonteius . . . . . . . . AR 643| 2 || Julianus, Didius . . . . . AR • • *> • AR 650 l Julianus (emperor) . . . . AR ** ** 25 *- AR 675|| 1 || Justinianus . . . . . . . AW 188 2 | Fulvia Gens . . . . . . AR 698| 2 | Labienus . . . . . . . . AR 189 l Fundania Gens . . . . . AR 704| 1 | Porcius Laeca . . . . . AR ** ** ** AR 705| 1 || Laelianus . . . . . . . . AR 206 2 | Galba . . . . . . . . . . AR 731|| 2 | Lentulus . . . . . . . . AR 207, 2 Galba (emperor) . . . . AR 763 l | Lepidus, M. Aemilius . AR 219 l l Galla Placidia . . . . . AW 764|2 , Q. Aemilius . . A& 221 1 Gallienus . . . . . . . . AV 766 l | Paullus, M. Aemilius AR 226 l Gallus, Caminius . . . . AR 768| 2 | Lepidus, M., the trium:35 l l Gellius . . . . . . . . . AR vir . . . . . . . . . . AR :38 l l Gelon . . . . . . . . . . AR 769| 1 || Paullus Aemilius Le!62. 2 Germanicus . . . . . . . 2AE pidus . . . . . . . . AR '66 l l Gessius . . . . . . . . . AE 779| 1 | Libo, Marcius . . . . . AE !67 l l Caracalla . . . . . . . . AR 780 l Libo, Scribonius . . . . . AR ... • I Geta . . . . . . . . . . AW 780|2|Libo, Statilius . . . . . AE !80 2 | Gordianus I. . . . . . . AR 784 l ; Licinius Senior . . . . . ; AV

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G R E E R AND ROMAN B 106 R A P H Y

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EA'RINUS, FLA'WIUS, a favourite eunuch of the emperor Domitian, in praise of whose beauty there are several epigrams of Martial, and a poem of Statius. (Dion Cass. lxvii. 2; Mart. Epigr. ix. 12, 13, 14, 17, 18; Stat. Silv. iii. 4.) EBION ('Estov), the real or supposed founder of the sect of Christians called Ebionites, by which name, at least after the time of Irenaeus, were designated all those who, though professing Christ's religion, thought it necessary to continue the observance of the Mosaic law. The Ebionite doctrine therefore was a mere engrafting of Judaism upon Christianity. Generally speaking, the followers of this sect considered our Lord as a man chosen by God to the office of Messiah, and furnished with the divine power necessary for its fulfilment at the time of his baptism, which rite was performed by John, as the representative of Elijah. They insisted on the necessity of circumcision, regarded the earthly Jerusalem as still God's chosen city, and denounced St. Paul as a latitudinarian and a heretic. (See, for the latter statement, Orig. Jerem. Homil. xviii. 12.) It is, however, very difficult to distinguish accurately the various shades of these opinions, or to state at what time any particular form of them was prevalent. Irenaeus certainly confounded varieties of opinion almost sufficient to constitute their holders two distinct sects, whereas Origen (c. Cels. v. 61) divides the Ebionites into two classes, those who denied our Lord's miraculous conception, and those who allowed it; the latter admission of course implying, that the peculiar operation of the Holy Spirit on the man Jesus developed itself from the very commencement of his life, instead of first beginning to act at the particular time of his consecration to the Messianic mission. The first traces of Ebionism are doubtless to be found in the New Testament, where we recognize this doctrine as that of the Judaizing teachers in Galatia (Gal. iii. 1, &c.), the deniers of St. Paul's apostleship at Corinth (2 Cor. xi. 5, &c.), the heretics opposed in the Epistle to the Colossians, and perhaps of those mentioned by St.John. (10oh. ii. 18, on which see Lücke, Commentar über die Briefe des Evang. Johannes.) The “Clementines,” a collection of homilies embodying these views, is p. bably a work of the 2nd century; and we find WOL. II,

EBION.

that the sect was flourishing in the time of Jerome (A. D. cir. 400), though with its opinions much modified and Christianized, inasmuch as it did not desire to force the ceremonial law upon the Gentiles, and fully admitted the authority of St. Paul. It is needless to trace its progress farther, for in fact Ebionism is only the type of a system which, in different forms, and adapted to various circumstances, has reappeared from time to time in almost all ages of the Church. With regard to Ebion himself, his existence is very doubtful. The first person who asserts it is Tertullian, who is followed by Augustine, Jerome, Epiphanius, and Theodoret. The latter, however (Haer. Fab. ii. 218), after saying, tastns tis pāAayyos péev 'E6twv, adds, tov Traxdu oita's oi ‘Español spoorayopetsova'u, which may be compared with the derivation given for the name of the sect by Origen (contr. Cels. ii. 1), who considers it formed from the Hebrew word Ebion, poor, and knows of no such person as the supposed founder Ebion. Modern writers, especially Matter (Histoire du Gnosticisme, vol. ii. p. 320) and Neander (in an appendix to his Geuctische Entwickelung der wornehmsten Gnostische Systeme, Berlin, 1818, and also in his Kirchengeschichte, i. p. 612, &c.) deny Ebion's existence ; though Lightfoot says, that he is mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud as one of the founders of sects. The authorities on both sides of the question are given by Burton. (Bampton Lectures, note 80.) If we reject the existence of Ebion, we must adopt Origen's derivation, though not with the explanation which he suggests, that it refers to the poverty of the Ebionite creed ; for such a name could not have been chosen by themselves, since it would have been in that sense a reproach; nor given by the Christians of Gentile origin, who would not have chosen a title of Hebrew derivation. It is better to suppose that the name Ebiorites was originally applied to an ascetic sect, and gradually extended to all the Judaizing Christians. For some of the ascetic Ebionites thought it wrong to possess anything beyond that which was absolutely necessary for their daily subsistence, holding that the present world, not in its abuse, but in its very nature, is the exclusive domain of Satan. This is Neander's explanation. [G. E. L. C.] e

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