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He gave it as his opinion, that upon the departure of our souls from our boilies, there are two passages for conducting them to the places of their eternal destination ; one leading to never ending punishment, which receives those souls, that, during their residence on earth, have contaminated them selves with many great crimes ; the other, leading to a state of felicity and bliss, which receives the souls of those who have lived virtuously in the world.
8. When Socrates had finished his discourse, he bathed himself. His children being then brought to him, he spoke to them a little, and then desired them to be taken away. The hour appointed for drinking the hemlock being come, they brought him the cup, which he received without any emotion, and then addressed a prayer to heaven. It is highly reasonable, said he, to offer my prayers to the Supreme Being on this occasion, and to beseech him to render my departure from earth, and my last journey, happy. Then he drank of the poison with amazing tranquillity. Observing his friends, in this fatal moment, weeping, and discolved in tears, he re proved them with great mildness, asking them, whether their virtue had deserted them ; " for,” added he, “I have always heard, that it is our duty calmly to resign our breath, giving thanks to God.” After walking about a little while, perceiv ing the poison beginning to work, he lay down on his couch, and, in a few moments after, breathed his last. Cicero declares that he could never read the account of the death of Socrates without shedding tears.
9. Who firmly stood in a corrupted state,
10. Soon after his death, the Athenians were convinced of his innocence, and considered all the misfortunes which afterwards befel the republic, as a punishment for the injustice of his sentence. When the academy, and the other places of the city where he taught, presented themselves to the view of his countrymen, they could not refrain from reflecting on the reward bestowed by them, on one who had
done them such important services. They cancelled the deeree which had condemned him ; put Melitus to death; banished liis other accusers ; and erected to his memory a statue of brass, which was executed by the famous Lysippus.
THE SOCIAL STATE.
Man in society is like a flower
BATTLE OF MARATHON.
1. The Persian army, commanded by Datis, consisted of 100,000 foot, and 10,000 horse. That of the Athenians amounted in all but to 10,000 men. This had ten generals, of whom Miltiades was the chief, and these ten were to have the command of the whole army, each for a day, one after another. There was a great dispute among these offcers, whether they should hazard a battle, or expect the enemy within their walls. The latter opinion had a great majority, and appeared very reasonable ; for what appearance of success could there be in facing, with a handful of soldiers, so numerous and formidable an army as that of the Persians ? Miltiades, however, declared for the contrary opinion ; and showed, that the only means to exalt the courage of their own troops, and to strike a terror into those of
Who commanded the Persians ?-How numerous were the Persians m the battle of Marathon ?-How many were in the Athenian army?
Who commanded the Athenians ?
the enemy, was to advance boldly towards them with an air of confidence and intrepidity. Aristides strenuously defended this opinion, and brought so many of the commanders into it, that it finally prevailed.
2. Aristides reflecting, that a command which changes every day, must necessarily be feeble, unequal, not of a piece, often contrary to itself and incapable either of pro jecting or executing any uniform design, was of opinion that their danger was both too great and too pressing for them to expose their affairs to such inconveniences. In order to prevent them, he judged it necessary to vest the whole power in one single person ; and, to induce his colleagues to act conformably, he himself set the first example of resignation. When the day came on which it was his turn to take upon him the command, he resigned it to Miltiades, as the more able and experienced general. The other commanders did the same, all sentiments of jealousy giving way to the love of the public good ; and by this day's behavior we may learn, that it is almost as glorious to acknowledge merit in other persons, as to have it in one's self: 3. Miltiades, however, thought fit to wait till his own day
Then, like an able captain, he endeavored, by the advantage of the ground, to gain what he wanted in strength and number. He drew up his army at the foot of a moun. tain, that the enemy should not be able' either to surround him, or charge him in the rear. On the two sides of his army he caused large trees to be thrown, which were cut down on purpose, in order to cover his flanks, and render the Persian cavalry useless. Datis, their commander, was very sensible that the place was not advantageous for him ; but, relying upon the number of his troops, which was infinitely superior to that of the Athenians, and, on the other hand, not being willing to stay till the reinforcement of the Spartans, he determined to engage.
The Athenians did not wait for the enemy's charging them. As soon as the signal was given for battle, they ran against the enemy with all the fury imaginable.
4. The battle was very force and obstinate Miltiades had made the wings of his army exceeding strong; but had left the main body more weak, and not so deep ; the reason of which seems manifest enough. Having but 10,000 men to oppose to such a numerous and vast army, it was impossi
ble for him either to make a large front, or to give an equal depth to his battalions. He was obliged, therefore, to take his choice ; and he imagined, that he could gain the victory no otherwise than by the efforts he should make with his two wings, in order to break and disperse those of the Persians; not doubting but, when his wings were once victorious, they would be able to attack the enemy's main flank, and complete the victory without much difficulty. This was the same plan as Hannibal followed afterwards at the battle of Cannæ, which succeeded so well with him, and which indeed can scarce ever fail of succeeding.
5. The Persians then attacked the main body of the Grecian army, and made their greatest efforts particularly upon their front. This was led by Aristides and Themistocles, who supported it a long time with an intrepid courage and bravery; but were at length obliged to give ground. At that very instant came up their two victorious wings, which had defeated those of the enemy, and put them to flight. Non thing could be more seasonable for the main body of the Gre cian army, which began to be broken, being quite borne down by the numbers of the Persians. The scale was quickly turned, and the barbarians were entirely routed. They all betook themselves to their heels, and fled, not towards their camp, but to their ships, that they might make their escape. The Athenians pursued them thither, took seven of their ships, and set many of them on fire. The Athenians had not above 200 men killed in this engagement; whereas of the Persians above 6,000 were slain, without reckoning those who fell into the sea as they endeavored to escape, or those that were consumed with the ships set on fire.
6. Hippias was killed in the battle. That ungrateful and perfidious citizen, in order to recover the unjust dominion usurped by his father, Pisistratus, over the Athenians, had the baseness to become a servile courtier to a barbarian prince, and to implore his aid against his native country. Urged on by hatred and revenge, he suggested all the means he could invent to load his country with chains; and even put himself at the head of its enemies, with design to reduce that city to ashes, to which he owed his birth, and against which he had
How many of the Athenians were slain in this battle 2-How many of the Persians ?
no other ground of complaint than that she would not acknowledge him for her tyrant. An ignominious death, to gether with everlasting infamy entailed upon his name, was the just reward of so black a treachery.
7. It is almost without example, that such a handful of men as the Athenians were, should not only_make head against so numerous an army as that of the Persians, but should entirely rout and defeat them. One is astonished to see so formidable a power attack so small a city, and miscarry; and we are almost tempted to disbelieve the truth of an event that appears so improbable, and which, nevertheless, is very certain and unquestionable. This battle alone shows what wonderful things may be performed by an able general, who knows how to take his advantages; by the intrepidity of soldiers, who are not afraid of death; by a zeal for one's country; the love of liberty ; an hatred and detestation of slavery and tyranny; which were sentiments natural to the Athenians, but undoubtedly very much augmented and inflamed in them by the very presence of Hippias, whom they dreaded to have again for their master, after all that had passed between them.
1. SENECA was born in Corduba, in Spain, about the beginning of the Christian era. Though he was bred to the law, his genius led him rather to philosophy, and he applied his wit to morality and virtue. Notwithstanding his philo -sophic studies, he was first made quæstor, then prætor, and some say that he was chosen consul; but whether he bore those honors before or after his banishment, is uncertain.
2. In the first year of the emperor Claudius, he was banished into Corsica, when Julia, the daughter of Germanicus, was accused by Messalina of adultery ; Seneca being charged as one of the adulterers. But Messalina dying, and Agrippina being married to Claudius, she prevailed upon the
peror to recal Seneca, after he had lived in exile about
Where was Seneca born ?-When ?-By whom was he banished into Corsica ?-For what was he banished ?