eight years.

She afterwards recommended him as tutor to her son Nero. Had that prince attended to the wisdom of his preceptor, through the course of his reign, as much as he did for the first five years of it, he would have been the lelight instead of the detestation of mankind.

3. Nero condemned Seneca to die, under pretence that he had conspired with Piso, to deprive him of the government The manner of his death is particularly related by Tacitus. “ Now follows,” says he, “the death of Seneca, to Nero's great satisfaction ; not because it appeared that he was of Piso's conspiracy, but because Nero was resolved to do that by the sword, which he could not effect by poison ; for it is reported, that Nero had briled Cleonicus, Seneca's freedman, to give his master poison, which did not succeed; for his diet was very simple. He lived chiefly upon vegetables, and seldom drank any thing but water.

4. “Natalis was sent upon a visit to him with a complaint, that he would not permit Piso to visit him. To whom Seneca answered, that meetings and conferences between them could do neither of them any good, but that he had a great interest in Piso's welfare. Upon this, Granius Silvanus, a captain of the guard, was sent to examine Seneca upon the discourse which had passed between him and Natalis, and to return liis answer. He found Seneca at supper with his wife, Paulina, and two of his friends, and immediately gave nim an account of his commission. Seneca told him that it was t 'ue, that Natalis had been with him in Piso's name, with a com laint that Piso could not be admitted to see him, and that he excused himself by reason of his want of health.

5. “ This answer of Seneca was delivered to Cæsar in the presence of Poppea and Tigellinus, the intimate confidants of this barbarous prince; and Nero asked him, whether he could gather any thing from Seneca, as if he intended to kill himself. The tribune's answer was, that he did not find him at all affected with the message, nor so much as change countenance upon it. Go back to him, then, says Nero, and tell him that he is condemned to die; but that the manner of his death is left to his own choice. Seneca received the

To whom was Seneca a tutor ?_Who condemned hem to death? Why was he condemned ?

message without surprise or disorder ; and chose to die by having his veins opened in a warm bath.

6. “On the day of his death, seeing his friends very much affected, he said to them—Where is all your philosophy now? Where is all your premeditated resolutions against weakness of behavior ? Is there any man so ignorant of Nero's cruelty, as to expect, after the murder of his mother, and his brother, that he should spare the life of his tutor ?"

7. After some general expressions to this purpose, he took his wife in his arms, and having somewhat fortified her against the present calamity, he besought and conjured her to moderate her sorrows and betake herself to the contempla tion and comforts of a virtuous life, which would be ample compensation to her for the loss of her husband. Paulina, on the other hand, said, she was determined to bear him company; and ordered the executioner to do his duty.

8. Accordingly, the veins of both their arms were opened at the same time. But after Paulina had bled for a considerable time, Nero gave orders to prevent her death, for fear nis cruelty should grow more insupportable and odious. Whereupon the soldiers gave all freedom and encouragement to her servants to bind up the wounds, and to stop the blood; but whether at the time they were doing it, she was sensible of it, is a question. She survived her husband for some years, with all respect to his memory; but so miserably pale and wan, that every body might read the loss of her blood and spirits in her very countenance.

9. Seneca was an excellent moralist, and a sound philosopher ; but he does not make so considerable a figure as a poet, and a writer of tragedies. His sentiments, indeed, are sublime, and his images lively and poetical ; but both the fable and the execution of his plays are irregular. He wants that. noble simplicity, and pathetic manner, which recommended Euripides, and he seems to have written more for the use of the closet, than of the stagę. In what manner was Seneca exocuted ?



1. They praise and they admire they know not what
And know not whom, but as one leads the other ;
And what delight to be by such extollid,
To live upon their tongues and be their talk,
Of whom to be dispraised is no small praise ?
His lot who dares be singularly good,
Th' intelligent among them and the wise
Are few, and glory scarce of few is raised.
This is true glory and renown, when God
Looking on the earth, with approbation marks
The just man, and divulges him through heaven
To all his angels, who with true applause
Recount his praises.

2. They err who count it glorious, to subdue
By conquest far and wide, to overrun
Large countries, and in fields great battles win,
Great cities by assault; what do these worthies
But rob and spoil

, burn, slaughter and enslave
Peaceable nations, neighboring or remote,
Made captive, yet deserving freedom more
Than those their conquerors, who leave behind
Nothing but ruin wheresoe'er they rove,
And all their flourishing works of peace destroy.
Then swell with pride, and must be tịtled gods,
Great Benefactors of mankind, Deliverers,
Worshipp'd with temple, priest and sacrifice !
One is the son of Jove, of Mars the other ;
Till conqueror Death discovers them scarce men,
Rolling in brutish vices, and deformed,
Violent or shameful death their due reward.


1. It is supposed that Carthage had its origin about one hundred years before Romulus began the building of Rome, and eight hundred and fifty years before the Christian era. The founders of it were a company of Phænicians. Dido,

By whom, and when, was Carthage founded ?

to escape the cruelty of her brother Pygmalion, king of Tyre, who had murdered her husband Sichæus, sailed with a com pany of faithful adherents, to the coast of Africa, and there having landed, founded a city, that afterwards vied with the most powerful and magnificent on earth. The city of Carthage stood at the bottom of a gulf, on a peninsula, near the place where now stands the city of Tunis; and the territory of Carthage was about the same that now constitutes the kingdom of Tunis. Carthada, or Carthage, in the Phænician and Hebrew language, means a new city;

2. Many of the neighboring people, invited by the pros pect of lucre, repaired to Carthage, to sell to these foreigners the necessaries of life, and shortly after incorporated themselves with them. These inhabitants, who had been thus gathered from different places, soon became numerous. Α. though the early history of this people is necessarily, like that of most ancient states, involved in much obscurity, yet there is reason to believe the city was continually enlarging her borders, and adding to her wealth. At the time of her greatest splendor, the city itself occupied the space of twentythree miles in circumference, was surrounded by three walls, and contained seven hundred thousand inhabitants.

3. The Carthaginians were indebted to the Tyrians, not only for their origin, but for their manners, language, customs, laws, religion, and their great application to commerce, as will appear in every part of their history. They spoke the same language with the Tyrians, and these the same with the Canaanites and Israelites, that is, the Hebrew tongue, or at least a language that was entirely derived from it. And the Carthaginians were never forgetful of the country from whence they came, and to which they owed their origin. They sent regularly every year to Tyre a ship freighted with presents as an acknowledgment paid to their ancient coun try; and they never failed to send thither the first fruits of their revenues-nor the tithes of the spoils taken from their enemies, as offerings to Hercules, one of the principal gods of that city.

4.- Monarchy is supposed to have been the original govern

What circumstances gave rise to the building of Carthage ?-What was the condition of Carthage at the time of her greatest splowdor?

What was the language of the Carthaginians ?

ment of Carthage; neither is it known at what period it assumed the form of a republic. It is, however, generally allowed, that the republic consisted of the people, a very numerous senate, and two suffetes, or presiding magistrates. These suffetes corresponded in rank and power with the consuls at Rome and kings at Macedon ; but were not, like the latter, chosen for life. They were elected from among the richest citizens, that they might be the better able to support their dignity with splendor. The election of a senator depended upon the voice of the people, and the senators themselves; but the manner of their being chosen is unknown. When the votes of the senate were unanimous, they possessed the power of giving laws, from which there was no appeal. But when the cuffrages were divided, or when the suffetes stood alone, the decision was referred to the people, who then gave the final decree.

5. The commerce of Carthage was the principal cause of her greatness and wealth-her fleets covered every coast; and by having the sovereignty of the sea, for more than six centuries, she monopolized, in no small degree, the commercial interests of the whole world. But what commerce was to the wealth of Carthage, Hannibal was to her military glory. Under him, she acquired a name more durable than brass. At the age of nine years, he is said to have taken an oath of eternal enmity to the Romans; and the indefatigable perseverance with which he ever aimed at their destruction proved his sincerity. He subdued al} the nations of Spain that resisted the Carthaginian power; and after eight months' siege, took the city of Saguntum. This city was in alliance with the Romans; and its inhabitants were so attached to the Roman interests, that, rather than fall into the hands of their enemies, they set fire to their houses and other effects, and perished in the flames.

6. The capture of Saguntum is more celebrated for its being the commencement of the second Punic war, than for the magnitude of the city, or the force necessary to its reduce tion. It is nevertheless sufficiently memorable, when taken in connexion with the battle of Cannæ, that immediately followed it, to give Hannibal a place among the most distinguished warriors. The victory of Cannæ is not only one

To what may the greatness and wealth of Carthage be attributed ? Under what general did the Carthaginians obtain a military name :

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