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he was sometimes compelled to send detachments of his troops to take necessaries at the point of the bayonet from the citizens. This scarcity was principaliy owing to the depreciation of the paper currency, which discouraged the farmers from selling their provisions to the army. The situation of Washington was peculiarly embarrassing, the army looked to him for necessaries, and the people for the protection of their property. His prudence surmounted these difficulties; and Congress sent a committee of their own body to his camp, to concert measures for the payment and supply of the troops. As the at. tempt of the British army at New York against Washington had made no impression of consequence, the Americans began to recover from the alarm which the loss of Charleston had excited. Warm exhortations were made to the people by Congress, in which they were called upon by every motive that could animate them to act with spirit and promptitude against Great Britain,
The leading men had recourse to another expedient to rouse the people. They opened a subscription for the relief of the private soldiers in the American army, and for the augmentation of their pay. This fund was patronised in a very liberal manner, by Mrs. Washington. That amiable woman, who sometimes visited her husband at camp, had been an eye-witness to the deficiency both of food and cloathing in the army ; she sympaa thised with those brave men, and by her exertions and example, large donations were subscribed by all the women in the United States. The citizens of Philadelphia subscribed three hundred thousand dollars in a few days' for the relief of the troops. By these exertions, the patriotic ardour of the army was revived, and still further invigorated by the arrival of succours from France at Rhode Island on the 11th of July, 1780. They consisted of seven ships of the line, and four frigates, besides armed vessels and transports, commanded by the Chevalier de Ternay, with an army of five regiments of the best troops of France, and a battalion of artillery under Count De Rochambeau. .
The arrival of the French troops occasioned a remarkable circumstance in Washington's camp, Hitherto the Americans had worn blue cockades ; but their general now ordered them to wear blue and white, intermixed, to denote the alliance of the French and American nations.
Admiral Arbuthnot now proceeded with the British fleet from New York to Rhode
Island, and so completely blocked up the French fleet and army as to prevent their co-operation with the Americans. In the meantime, Sir Henry Clinton returned with his victorious army from Charleston, and General Arnold, who had been entrusted with the command of a very considerable division of the American army at West Point, agreed to deliver up.that important post to the British general. As Washington had set out for Hartford to hold a conference with Count De Rochambeau, the negociation between Sir Henry Clinton and Arnold was carried on with the greatest facility during bis absence. The agent employed by the British general was Major Andre, a young officer of uncommon merit. To favour the necessary communications, the Vulture sloop of war had been previously stationed in the North River, and a boat was sent at night from the shore to fetch Major Andre, which brought him to the beach, without the posts of either army, where he met Arnold, The Major continued with him during the day following, and at night, the boatmen refusing to conduct him back to the Vulture, (which had shifted her position, as she lay exposed to the fire of a cannon sent to annoy her he was obliged to concert his escape by land.-
He quitted his uniform, which he had hitherto worn under his surtout, for a common coat. He was furnished with a horse, and, under the name of John Anderson, received a passport from Arnold “ to go to the lines of White Plains, or lower if he thought proper, he being on public business."
He pursued his journey alone towards New-York, passed all the guards and posts on the road without suspicion, and was much elated. The next day he travelled without any alarm, and began to consider himself out of danger ; but unhappily for him, though providentially for America, three of the NewYork militia were with others on a scouting party between the out posts of the two armies. One of them sprung from his covert, and seized Andre's horse by the bridle. The Major, instead of instantly producing his pass, asked the man where he belonged to, who answered, “ To below.” Andre, suspecting no deceit, said “So do I.” Then. declaring himself a British officer, he pressed that he might not be detained, being on urgent business. Upon the other two coming up and joining their comrade, he discovered his mistake. The confusion that followed was apparent, and they proceeded to search him till they found his papers. He
offered the captors a considerable purse of gold, and a very valuable watch, to let him pass; but they nobly disdained the temptation, besides the fascinating offers of permanent provision, and even of future promotion, on condition of their conveying and accompanying him to New York. Arnold escaped on board the Vulture, but Major Andre was brought before a board of general officers, by whom he was considered as a spy, and sentenced to death. The officers who signed the condemnation of Andre, and even Washington himself, testified the sincerest grief at the necessity they declared themselves under of complying with the rigorous laws established in such cases.
Though superior to the terrors of death, the magnanimous but unfortunate Andre, wished to die like a soldier. Accordingly he wrote to Washington, who was deeply affected on the occasion, but did not comply with his request. Major Andre walked with firmness and the most dignified composure. to the place of execution, amid his guard.The way over which he passed was thronged by spectators, many of whom could not refrain from tears on beholding a graceful man, in the bloom of his years, pass to an untimely grave. When he arrived at the fatal spot,