An army,

revenues which should be kept for its defence. The court is splendid, but the treasury is empty; and, at the beginning of every war, advantages are gained against them, before their armies can be assembled and equipped.

The English money was to the Austrians as a shower to a field, where all the vegetative powers are kept unactive by a long continuance of drought. The armies, which had hitherto been hid in mountains and forests, started out of their retreats; and wherever the queen's standard was erected, nations scarcely known by their names swarmed immediately about it. especially a defensive army, multiplies itself. The contagion of enterprize spreads from one heart to another. Zeal for a native or detestation of a foreign fovereign, hope of sudden greatness or riches, friendship or emulation between particular men, or, what are perhaps more general and powerful, desire of novelty and impatience of inactivity, fill a camp with adventurers, add rank to rank, and squadron to squadron.

The queen had still enemies on every part, but she now on every part had armies ready to oppose them. Austria was immediately recovered; the plains of Bo, hemia were filled with her troops, though the fortresses were garrisoned by the French. The Bavarians were recalled to the defence of their own country, now, wasted by the incursions of troops that were called Barbarians, greedy enough of plunder, and daring perhaps beyond the rules of war, but otherwise not inore cruel than those whom they attacked. Prince Lobkowitz with one army observed the motions of Broglio, the French general in Bohemia; and prince Charles with


another put a stop to the advances of the king of Pruffia.

· It was now the turn of the Prussians to retire. They abandoned Olmutz, and left behind them part of their cannon and their magazines. And the king, finding that Broglio could not long oppose prince Lobkowitz, hastened into Bohemia to his assistance; and having received a reinforcement of twenty-three thousand men, and taken the castle of Glatz, which, being built upon a rock, scarcely accessible, would have defied all his power, had the garrison been furnished with provisions, he purposed to join his allies, and prosecute his conquests.

Prince Charles, seeing Moravia thus evacuated by the Prussians, determined to garrison the towns which he had just recovered, and pursue the enemy, who, by the assistance of the French, would have been too powerful for prince Lobkowitz.

Success had now given confidence to the Austrians, and had proportionably abated the spirit of their enemies. The Saxons, who had co-operated with the king of Prussia in the conquest of Moravia, of which they expected the perpetual possession, seeing all hopes of sudden acquisition defeated, and the province left again to its former masters, grew weary of following a prince, whom they considered as no longer acting the part of their confederate; and when they approached the confines of Bohemia took a different road, and left the Pruffians to their own fortune.

The king continued his march, and Charles his purfuit.' At Czasaw the two armies came in sight of one another, and the Austrians resolved on a decisive day. On the 6th of May, about seven in the morning, the


Austrians began the attack: their impetuosity was matched by the firmness of the Prussians. The animofity of the two armies was much inflamed: the Auftrians were fighting for their country, and the Prussians were in a place where defeat must inevitably end in death or captivity. The fury of the battle continued four hours: the Prussian horse were at length broken, and the Austrians forced their way to the camp, where the wild troops, who had fought with so much vigour and constancy, at the sight of plunder forgot their obedience, nor had any man the least thought but how to load himself with the richest spoils.

While the right wing of the Austrians was thus employed, the main body was left naked: the Pruffians recovered from their confusion, and regained the day. Charles was at last forced to retire, and carried with him the standard of his enemies, the proofs of a victory, which, though so nearly gained, he had not been able to keep

The victory however was dearly bought ; the Prusfian army was much weakened, and the cavalry almost totally destroyed. Peace is easily made when it is necessary to both parties; and the king of Prussia had now reason to believe that the Austrians were not his only enemies. When he found Charles advancing, he sent to Broglio for assistance, and was answered that “ he 66 must have orders from Versailles.” Such a defertion of his most powerful ally disconcerted him, but the battle was unavoidable.

When the Prussians were returned to the camp, the king, hearing that an Austrian officer was brought in mortally wounded, had the condescension to visit him. The officer, struck with this act of humanity, said, after

a short

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a short conversation, “ I fhould die, fir, contentedly
66 after this honour, if I might first shew my gratitude
to your inajesty by informing you with what allies

you are now united, allies that have no intention but
6 to deceive you.” The king appearing to suspect
this intelligence; “Sir,” faid the Austrian,
“ will permit me to send a messenger to Vienna, I be-
“ lieve the queen will not refuse to transmit an inter '

cepted letter now in her hands, which will put my
report beyond all doubt.”

The meffenger was fent, and the letter transmitted,
which contained the order sent to Broglio, who was,
first, forbidden to mix his troops on any occafion with
the Pruffians. Secondly, he was ordered to act always
at a distance from the king. Thirdly, to keep always a
body of twenty thoufand men to observe the Pruffian
army. Fourthly, to observe very closely the motions of
the king, for important reasons. Fifthly, to hazard no-
thing; but to pretend want of reinforcements, or the
absence of Bellille.

The king now with great reason considered himself as disengaged from the confederacy, being deserted by the Saxons, and betrayed by the French: he therefore accepted the mediation of king George, and in three weeks after the battle of Czaslaw made peace with the queen of Hungary, who granted to him the whole pro vince of Silesia, a country of such extent and opulence that he is said to receive from it one third part of his revenues. By one of the articles of this treaty it is ftipulated, “ that neither should assist the enemies of “ the other.”

The queen of Hungary thus disentangled on one kde, and set free from the apoft formidable of her ene

mies, soon persuaded the Saxons to peace; took poffeffion of Bavaria ; drove the emperor, after all his imaginary conquests, to the shelter of a neutral town, where he was treated as a fugitive; and besieged the French in Prague, in the ciy which they had taken from her.

Having thus obtained Silesia, the king of Prussia returned to his own capital, where he reformed his laws, forbid the torture of criminals, concluded a defensive alliance with England, and applied himself to the augmentation of his army:

This treaty of peace with the queen of Hungary was one of the first proofs, given by the king of Prussia, of the secrecy of his counsels. Bellille, the French general, was with him in the camp, as a friend and coadjutor in appearance, but in truth a spy, and a writer of intelligence. Men who have great confidence in their own penetration are often by that confidence deceived; they imagine that they can pierce through all the involutions of intrigue without the diligence necessary to weaker minds, and therefore fit idle and secure; they believe that none can hope to deceive them, and therefore that none will try. Bellifle, with all his reputation of fagacity, though he was in the Prullian cainp, gave every day fresh assurances of the king's adherence to the allies; while Broglio, who commanded the ariny at a distance, discovered sufficient reason to suspect his desertion. Broglio was Nlighted, and Bellifle believed, till on the 17th of June the treaty was ligned, and the king declared his refolution to keep a neutrality.

This is one of the great performances of polity which mankind seem agreed to celebrate and adınire ; yet to all this nothing was neceflary but the determination of a very few men to be filent. Vol. IV.



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