are capable of exerting. If it be meant, by such an instrument, to measure the quantity of strength that one man can exert, by pulling, more than another, we presume it will not answer the purpose for which it was invented. The idea seems to have been thrown out by M. Coulomb, in a memoir presented to the institute, which had for its object the ascertaining “the quantity of daily action, which men are able to furnish by individual labour,

according to the different mode in

which they employ their strength.” This problem M. Péron has by no means solved. A great many circumstances, besides those of climate, food, and stature, must be taken into consideration. There is, raoreover, a knack acquired by long habit in calling forth muscular power to its utmost exertion, which of. ten enables a weak man to supply a greater quantity of labour than a stronger man is capable of A Chinese porter, for instance, who feeds on rice, the least nutritive, probably, of all grain, will carry a greater load than an English sailor, who lives on good beef, biscuit, and rum; but the same sailor will haul a rope, or drag a weight, with double the force of a Chinese porter. We cannot follow him through forty pages of dissertation on this subject, but must content ourselves with giving his conclusions from five series of experiments, though we attach little importance to them. Having found the inhabitants of Van Dieman’s Land capable of a manual force

equal to 50,6 Those of New Holland 5 1,8 Those of Timor 58,7 Frenchmen 69,2 Englishmen 71,4

he deduces the following general
“That the development of phy-
sical strength is not always in a di-
rect ratio to the want of civilisation,
nor a necessary consequence of the
savage state.” [p. 458.] “What then

shall we think,” continues he, “ of
those eloquent declamations against
the perfection of social order, dedu-
ced from the extraordinary physical
powers of “the man of nature :"
And he concludes by congratulating
himself on being the first to oppose,
by direct experiment, an opinion too
commonly admitted, that the fibysical
degeneracy of man froceeds from the
fierfection of civilisation.
The second subject is a memoir
on a new genus of Molusca, which
is named Pyrosoma, and which is
the only animal in the book that is
scientifically described.

“PyRoso M.A. Corpus gelatinosum rigidiusculum, liberum, tuberculis asperatum, subconicum, eactremitate ampliore apertum, vacuum aperturae margine intus tuberculis cincto.

“Pyrosoma .7tlanticum. AEquatorio-atlanticum, gregaré–pelage-vagum, vividis. simé phosphorescens, coloribus eximiis tunc effulgens; 10, 12, 14, 16 [3 1-2 to 6 inches] centimetros acquans.”

The discovery of this new genus is introduced in a manner sufficiently interesting to induce us to close the present article with it.

“On the evening of the 14th of December, we experienced a violent tropical squall. The horizon was loaded with hea: vy clouds, and the darkness was intense. The wind blew furiously, and the run of the ship was most rapid. We discovered, at a little distance ahead, a broad belt of phosphorick light spread upon the waves. This appearance had something in it romantick and imposing, and a general attention was fixed on it. We presently reached it, and found that the brilliancy was caused by an innumerable quantity of animals which, lifted by the waves, floated at dif. ferent depths, appearing under a variety of shapes. The pieces that were more deeply immersed, presented the idea of masses of burning matter, or of enormous redhot balls, whilst those on the surface perfectly. resenbled large cylinders of iron, heated to whiteness.” p. 488.

These were collective bodies of the

Pyrosoma above described.
The atlas is of quarto size. It con-

tains not a single chart, nor any sketch or plan of a coast, island, bay, or harbour, though frequent references are made to such in the margin of the printed volume. It has, however, five or six plates, consisting of views of land, which can be of no use either to science or navigation, and which look like so many strips of coloured riband. The portraits and landscapes, relating to Van

Dieman's Land, New Holland, and Timor, and the coloured engravings of animals, especially those which belong to the class of Moluscas and Zoophytes, are creditable to the talents of the artist; some of them, indeed, are executed in a manner peculiarly neat, and beautifully coloured.


Rural Sports. By the Rev. William B. Daniel. 3 vols. 8vo. pp. 1627.5l. 5s. Boards.

SOME of our literary friends on the north of the Tweed will doubtless indulge a sarcastick smile at seeing a work on rural sports from the pen of an English clergyman. In Scotland, we believe, hunting is scarcely ever practised by the cler

gy, and even shooting is by no means

a common amusement among gentlemen of that profession. In England, the case is very different. Here, hunting fiarsons, shooting fiarsons, and even boxing fiarsons, are by no means rare; and where the practice of those liberal and truly Christian recreations is so general, we must not be surprised that some one of their reverend professors should occasionally take pen in hand, and communicate instructions on such important topicks, both to his clerical and his lay brothers of the field. We have now before us, a system of hunting, fishing, and shooting, from one reverend gentleman; and, perhaps, at some future period, we may be favoured, from the same quarter, with a complete treatise on the fugilistick art. We cannot say that we are fond of those sports, in which a harmless animal is put to unnecessary pain, for the sake of affording recreation to the country gentleman; and we do think, that a Christian divine might have employed his time and labour VeL. v. 2

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persons shall not be treated with in future by me, upon any terms or consideration whatever. I am convinced, that land owners, as well as farmers and labourers, of every description, if they knew their own interest, would perceive, that they owe much of their prosperity to those popular hunts, by the great influx of money that is annually brought into the country. I shall, therefore, use my utmost endeavours to induce all persons of my acquaintance, to adopt similar measures; and, 1 am already happy to find, that three gentlemen, of very extensive landed property, in Leicestershire, and on the borders of Northamptonshire, have positively sent, within these few days, similar directions to their stewards, which their tenants will be apprised of, before they retake their farms at next Lady Day.” vol. i. p. 233.

We will venture to say, that this association, against the liberty and property of one of the most useful and industrious classes of the community, has scarcely been equalled, for illiberality, in any age or country. Giving the noble landlords full credit for the object professed in this letter, “the good of the community,” we may, at least, hint a suspicion, that they have mistaken the means of attaining that object; and that the greater consumption of hay and corn, and the increased influx of money, which his lordship, and the reverend editor regard as the natural consequences of these popular hunts, are more than balanced by the havock committed by the protected foxes, among their protectors’ lambs and poultry, and by the mischief done by the members of the hunt, to the fields, fences, and crops of the tenants. To come now to the author’s object, in the present performance. It is stated to be, to impart a certain degree of previous knowledge, which is requisite, to enable sportsmen to prosecute the pastimes of the field with facility and success. We willingly allow, that he has attained this end; and, had it not been for the unfortunate word reverend, displaycd in the engraved title page, which


naturally attracted our peculiar attention, and led us to expect something above the common style of writing, we should have been disposed to view the work in a favourable light; but, keeping the profession of the author in the back ground, and considering the volumes as the performance of a sportsman, possessing rather more intellectual endowment than most of his brethren, we think that they form an interesting publication. Mr. D. however, has shown himself to be an industrious, rather than a judicious, compiler. He has brought together a great mass of valuable and entertaining matter, respecting the natural history of beasts, birds, and fishes; the mode of breeding, training, and feeding dogs; with a complete body of instruction for pursuing the various sports of which he treats; and a digest of the game, forest, and other sporting laws and statutes. But these subjects are by no means well arranged, and are interspersed with much useless or irrelevant digression. In estimating his merits, we may consider him in three different oints of view; as a naturalist, a sportsman, and a lawyer. First, as a writer on the natural history of the animals, which are either the agents or the objects of rural sports, Mr. Daniel appears in the most amiable and most favourable light; and we have derived much pleasure, and some information, from this part of his work. He has, indeed, copied largely, and not always very judiciously, from Pennant, Buffon, White, and other eminent naturalists. But he has done more than this; for, though he modestly styles his work a compilation, and always speaks of himself as the “ compiler,” he has introduced several interesting facts and anecdotes from his own observation, or that of his sporting friends. We shall select a few of these, both because they will be new to many of our readers, and because they afford good specimens of Mr. Daniel's manner, as an original writer.

Much of the first volume, and part of the third, are occupied with the natural history of the dog; and, in particular, with an account of the fox hound, the terrier, the harrier, the beagle, the gray hound, the pointer, the setter, and the spaniel. Speaking of the great capability of dogs to support life, under very long abstinence from food, he presents us with the following affecting Inarrative:

“In 1789, when preparations were making at St. Paul’s, for the reception of his majesty, a favourite bitch followed its master up the dark stairs of the dome. Here, all at once, it was missing, and calling and whistling was to no purpose. Nine weeks after this, all but two days, some glaziers were at work in the cathedral, and heard, amongst the timbers which support the dome, a faint noise. Thinking it might be some unfortunate human being, they tied a rope round a boy, and let him down near the place whence the sound came. At the bottom, he found a dog, lying on its side, the skeleton of another dog, and an old shoe, half eaten. The humanity of the boy led him to rescue the animal from its miserable situation, and it was accordingly drawn up, much emaciated, and scarce able to stand. The workmen placed it in the porch of the church, to die, or live, as it might happen. This was about ten o’clock in the morning. Some time after, the dog was seen, endeavouring to cross the street, at the top of Ludgate hill; but its weakness was so great, that, unsupported by a wall, he could not accomplish it. The miserable appearance of the dog again excited the compassion of a boy, who carried it over. By the aid of the houses, he was enabled to get to Fleet market, and over two or three narrow crossings in its way to Holborn bridge; and about eight o'clock in the evening, it reached its master's house in Red Lion street, Holborn, and laid itself down on the steps, having been ten hours on its journey from St. Paul’s to that place. The dog was so much altered, the eyes being sunk in the head, as to be

scarce discernible, that the master would.

not encourage his old faithful companion, who, when lost, was supposed to weigh 20 Ibs. and now only weighed 3 lbs. 14oz. The first indication it gave of knowing its master, was - by wagging the tail,

when he mentioned the name of Phillis. For a long time it was unable to eat or drink, and it was kept alive by the sustenance it received from its mistress, who used to feed it with a tea spoon. At lengt. it recovered.” vol. i. p. 28.

We have seldom seen a more remarkable instance of unnatural affection between animals which are the declared enemies of each other, than is contained in the subsequent paragraph:

“A singular instance of ferocity and affection, in a terrier bitch, which occurred some years since, may be here mentioned. After a very severe burst of upwards of an hour, a fox was, by my own hounds, run to earth, at Heney Dovehouse, near Sudbury, in Suffolk. The terriers were lost; but, as the fox went to ground in view of the headmost hounds, and it was the concluding day of the season, it was resolved to dig him, and two men from Sudbury brought a couple of terriers for that purpose. After considerable labour, the hunted fox was got, and given to the hounds. Whilst they were breaking the fox, one of the terriers slipt back into the earth, and again laid. After more digging, a bitch fox was taken out, and the terrier killed two cubs in the earth, three others were saved from her fury, and which were begged by the owner of the bitch, who said he should make her suckle them. This was laughed at, as impossible. However, the man was positive, and had the cubs. The bitch fox was carried away, and turned into an earth in another county. The terrier had behaved so well at earth, that I, some days afterwards, bought her, with the cubs she had fostered. The bitch continued regularly to suckle, and reared them, until able to shift for themselves. What adds to this singularity, is, that the terrier’s whelp was near five weeks old, and the cubs could just see, when this eacchange of progeny was made.” vol. i. p. 122.

It is, we believe, a novelty in the natural history of the fox, that the female should deposit its young within the hollow of a tree, at a considerable distance from the ground. Hence the ensuing circumstance, observed by Mr. Daniel, merits attention.

“In April, 1784, the compiler's hounds found at Bromfield-Hallwood; by some accident the whipper-in was thrown out, and, after following the track two or three miles, gave up the pursuit. In returning home, he came through the fields near the cover where the fox was found. A terrier that was with him whined, and was very busy at the foot of an oak pollard tree. This induced the man to dismount, and examine if there was any hole at the bottom, supposing it might be the harbour of a polecat, or some small vermin. Upon examination he could discern no hole; but the dog was still anxious to get up the tree, which was covered with twigs from the stem to the crown, and upon which was plainly to be seen the dirt left by something that had gone up and down the boughs. He lifted the terrier as high as he could, and the dog’s eagerness increased. He then climbed the tree, putting up the dog before him. The instant the dog reached the top, the man heard him seize something, and, to his great surprise, found him fast chapped with a bitch fox, which he secured, and four cubs. The height of the tree was 23 feet, and from the top there was a hole about 3 feet down, in which the fox had littered; so that the height from the ground to where the cubs laid was 20 feet. There was no mode of the fox getting to or from her young, but by the outside boughs, and the tree had no bend to render that path an easy one. It was considered, by numbers of people who inspected the tree, to be a most extraordinary incident, and the cubs were begged, and three of them reared up tame to commemorate it. One of them the late Mr. Leigh had, and which is well remembered at Wood’s Hotel, in Covent Garden, where he used frequently to run tame about the coffee room.”—Vol. I. p. 231.

Mr. Daniel has given a rather full account of the diseases incident to dogs, with a large catalogue of their usual remedies. In particular, he describes, at considerable length, chiefly from Mr. Blane’s pamphlet, that affection which is called the distemfier; and he treats at large on canine madness. On this last disease he has collected a voluminous mass of heterogeneous matter, both from sporting and from medical writers; and he has given the opinions of Drs. Bardsley, Darwin, Mede, Tissot, Rowley, Thornton, Arnold, and

several other physicians, on the

symptoms, causes, and cure of hy

drophobia in the human body. In this farrago we particularly notice the observations of Mr. Meynell, communicated to Dr. Arnold, and published by him in his “Case of Hydrophobia,” which seem to convey the most accurate ideas of the symptoms of this terrible disease, as it occurs in dogs. Perhaps the most valuable part of the author’s miscellaneous observations on hydrophobia is that which relates to the practice and effects of worming dogs, though he evidently does not understand the nature of the operation:

“The prevention of the direful effects of canine madness,” says Mr. Daniel, “seems to have been attempted in the early ages. To accomplish this, Pliny recommends the worming of dogs; and, from his time to the present, it has most deservedly had its advocates. Very strong proofs have been adduced of its utility; nor is it natural to imagine so easy and effective an operation would have been omitted, had not more virtue been attributed to it than it really possesses, and wherein it failed. The absolute prevention of madness was said to be the consequence; whereas the fact was, and is, that taking out the worm has nothing to do with annihilating the disorder, although it will most certainly hinder the dog seized with it, from doing any hurt to man or beast. A late author asserts he had three dogs that were wormed, bit by mad dogs, at three several periods; yet, notwithstanding they all died mad, they did not bite nor do any mischief; that, being determined to make a full experiment, he shut one of the mad dogs up in a kennel, and put to him a dog he did not value. The mad dog often run at the other, to bite him; but his tongue was so swelled that he could not make his teeth meet. The dog was kept in the kennel until the mad one died, and was purposely preserved for two years afterwards, to note the effect; but he never ailed any thing, although no remedies were applied to check any infection that might have been received from the contact of the mad dog.

“The compiler has had various opportunities of proving the usefulness of worming, and inserts three of the most striking instances, under the hope of inducing its general practice.

“A terrier bitch went mad, that was kept in the kennel with forty couple of hounds. Nota single hound was bitten, ner

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